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INDEX TO VOLUME ONE. 



Account of the Chicago Riot 220 

Accidents on Cable Railroads 57 

Additional Transportation Facilities In New 

York City 146 

" Advertisement," The Pronunciation of 34 

Air Motors in Clncianatl, Compressed 113 

Allen Elevated Railroad 172 

American Street Railway Association. 2,;28, 33, 90, 110 
Amertcan Street Railway Mutual Insurance Co. 222 

Another Car Drivers' Strike 254 

Articles, Coming 33 

" Back to Back " Seats 249 

Beating the Conductor 75 

Beneficent :Monopolles 122 

Blackpool Electric Tramway. . . ., 114 

Blisters and Cracks in Paint and Varnish 201 

Boh Tall Cars 75 

Borrowing 94 

Boston Street Railways In 1884 72 

Bother and Worry 281 

Brake Rod for Street Cars 195 

Broadway 'Bus 195 

Brooklyn (N. Y.) Surface Line 165 

Brooklyn Bridge, Future Management of the. . 97 

Brush Electric Company 28 

Builders, Car 75 

Busy Broadway 154 

Cable Railway Notes 150 

Cable System of Motive Power 190 

Cable Railway Directors 217 

Cable Railways ' 214 

Cable System, New 254 

Cable Traction Railways in Chicago and San 

Francisco * 25 

Cable System as a Motive Power 6 

Cable Road System, Extent of 55 

Cable Railways, Accidents on 57 

Cable Railways, Fuller on 92 

Cable Railway, St. Louis 121 

Cable Railway Company, The National 115 

Calvin A. Richards « 277 

Capital and Labor 218 

Carriage of Goods on Tram Lines * 279 

Car Heating * 278 

Car Ventilation 150 

Car Transit by Endless Cable » 246 

Car Replacing Splice Bar, Littell's 247 

Car Starters 9 

Car Spring, Vose's Graduated City 9 

Car Decoration 32, 37 

Car Heating, Rehm on 92 

Car Wheels....' 94 

Car Wheels, Keyed and Bolted 95 

Car End Framing « 97 

Car Heating Question 122 

Car Heating - 120 

Car Wheels, Casting Chilled « 114 

CarHeatlngln Chicago 76 

Car Builders 75 

Car Starters to the Front 75 

Car Drivers' Lament, The ; 72 

Cars, Bobtail 75 

Cars, Crowded '. 143 

Cars, Crowding jo 

Cars, Heating 57 

Casting Chilled Car Wheels * 114 

Chaplin Anti-Friction Journal Bearings * 115 

Changeable Horseshoe » 96 

Chaplin Frictionleas Bearing 93 

Change in -Public Opinion 193 



Cheap Fares 74 

Chicago, Car Heating in 76 

Chicago Cars, Heating the 94 

China, Street Railway for 96 

Choice of Stock 10 

Cincinnati, Compressed Air Motors in 113 

Citizen Train on ^Tramways 194 

Claw Bar, Hard wicks' 177 

Collection of Fares 147 

Cold Street Cars 201 

Column, Our " Kickers' " 33 

Collecting Fare 55 

Collection, Fare 75, 77 

Completed Construction of New Roads 138 

Comments of our Kicker 56 

Compressed Air Motors in Cincinnati 113 

Coin, Doubtiul 69 

Comments 77 

Commissioner O'Do inell and the Street Rail- 
way Companies 74 

Compressed Air Motors Wanted 255 

Completed Constructions cf New Road 8 

Compensation, Labor, and the Graduated Sys- 
tem of 7 

Comments of Our Kickers 34 

Coming Articles 33 

Convention, Third Annual 10 

Convention Proceedings 10 

Convention 252 

Conductor vs. Clerks 252 

Consequences of Strikes 248 

Conductors and the Collection of Fares 245 

Convention, the October, A. S. R. W. A so 

Concerning an " Equine " Department 123 

Conductor, Beating the 75 

Convention Report, Tramways Association of 

Great Britain and Ireland 70 

Correction 195 

Cost of Working English Steam Tramways 35 

Cost of Keeping London Omnibus Horses 95 

Cote's Self -Acting Spring Leg Brace * 282 

Covert's Breast Chain * 282 

Cracking of Varnish 9 

Cracks in Varnish, D. F. Tieman & Co 35 

Cracks and Blisters In Paint and Varnish 201 

Crowded Cars 143 

Crowding Cars 10 

Decoration, Car 32, 37 

Demorest's Duplex Fare Register 109, *283 

Demon Varnish 124 

Discussion on Stables and Care of Horses 90 

Discussion on Salt Report 5 

Double Lip Joint Plate 124 

Doubtful Coin 69 

Drainage and Blindness, Surface 96 

Drivers and Stablemen 189 

Drop up aline 177 

Duplex Fare Register, Demorest's • 283 

Editorial Notes 33 

Editorials, Manifold 74 

Electric Railways 76 

Elevated Road, Hoboken's 115 

Elevated and Street Railways, tireless Loco- 
motives for 112 

Elevated Road, Plans for the 96 

Electric Motors for the Elevated R. R 35 

Elevated Railroad, Electric Motors for the 55 

Electricity as a Motor 28 

Electric Company, Brush 28 

Electric Railway In Philadelphia 255 



Elevated Railroad Traffic During the Grant Ob- 
sequies 281 

Elevated and surface Travel 283 

Electric Tram-cars 224 

Elevator for an Elevated Railroad Station 224 

Eelectiic Railway in San Francisco 217 

Elevated Information 214 

Electric Motors in New York 172 

Electricity as a Motive Power 162 

Elevated Railway Smokers 195 

English GirderTram Rail *28l 

Engines, Fireless Tramway 89 

Exhibition of Street Railway Appliances at the 

St. Louis Convention 284 

Extra Conductors 252 

Extent of the Cable Road System 55 

Failure of Philadelphia Cable Road 247 

Falling of iVarnish 74 

Fare Collecting 55, 75, 77, '164, 250, 252 

Fare-box Cars, Frauds on the 54 

Fare Collector, ;small's Automatic 49 

Fares, Cheap 74 

Feeding and Care of Horses 199 

Fireless Locomotives for Elevated and Sireet 

Railways 112 

First American Street Car "120 

First Steam Tramways In London 89 

Fireless Tramway Engines 89 

Frankfort-Offenbach Electric Railroad 222 

Framing, Car End *97 

Frauds on the Fare-box Care 54 

Freese Electric Car Motor '280 

Frequent Stoppages 35 

Frictionless Bearing, Chaplin 93 

Fuller on Cable Railways 92 

Future Management of the Brooklyn Bridge. . . 97 

Gibbon's " Metallic street Railway " '213 

Gold's Heat Storing Apparatus 49 

Gourdier Horse Shoe *283 

Growth of Travel In New York 95 

Hand Power Hydraulic Wheel Press *197 

Handsome Lithograph 143 

Harlem Cable Road 216 

Hardwlcks' Claw Bar 117 

Heat Storing Apparatus, Gold's 49 

Heating Car 57 

Heating the Chicago Cars 94 

Heating Cars 120 

Hind Roost, The 35 

Hoboken's Elevated Road 115 

Horse Shoe Pad, Lockle *167 

Horse Shoe, Gourdier «283 

Horses, Stables and Care of 3 

Horse Shoeing 96 

HorseshoeJ changeable '96 

Horses, Cost of London Omnibus 95 

Horse Mileage 115 

Horse, Record of a remarkable 72 

Hose Jumpers 221 

Hughes, Dr. C. H., Hughes' Car Gate '35 

Hydraulic Turntable *89 

Hydraulic Wheel Press, Hand Power '197 

Improvements on N. Y. City Roads 167 

Improvements in Jersey City 167 

Independent Wheels 74 

Information on Street Railways Construction 

and Management 167 

Inter-State Industrial Exposition of Chicago. . . 254 
Is there a Satisfactory Light M otor for Street 

Railways? 161 



IV 



INDEX TO VOLUME ONE. 



143 
125 

*281 

167 

124 

33 

'115 

51 

95 

56 

177 

279 

223 

218 



In Low Latitudes 

Items and Notes 

Jay-Eye-See Curry Comb 

Jersey City, Improvements 

Joint Plate, Double Lip 

Jottings 

Journal Bearings, Chaplin's Anti-Friction.. 

Jumping off Moving Cars 

Keyed and Bolted Car Wheels 

Kicker, Comments of Our 

Kinds of Knowledge 

Knocking Down Fares 

Kurrachee Steam Tramways 

Labor and Capital 

Labor and the Graduated System of Compensa- 
tion 7 

Ladles, Reserved for 27 

Lament, The Car Drivers' 72 

Lateral Stiffness of Street Railway Track *253 

Legal Aspect of the Chicago Riot 219 

Legislation Concerning Fares 2i8 

Level Cities, Rapid Transit in 93 

Lewis, Wm. B *1 

LighterCars Wanted 169 

Light Shades vs. Dark Colors on Cars 196 

Littell's Track Scraper *247 

Littell's Car Replacing Splice Bar *247 

Lockle Horse Shoe Pad *167 

Longstreet, D. F., Longstreet Rail, The *69 

London, First Steam Tramways in 89 

Luminous Car Again 168 

Luminous Railway Cars 142 

" Manifold " Editorials 74 

Meaker Portable Fare Regis er *245 

Melting Steel in an Ordinary Cupola 169 

Memphis Strike 253 

" Metallic Street Railway," Gibbons' "213 

Mileage, Feed, etc 145 

Model Car *161 

Motor, Electricity as a 28 

Motive Power, Cable System as a 6 

Moving Cars, Jumping off 51 

Mr. Holmes on the Traction Company's Troubles 1 47 

Mule, Texas 73 

Mule, Refined 73 

Musical Street Car 249 

National Cable Railway Company lis 

New Street Railway Supply House 164 

New Car Starter 165 

New Broadway Line in Operation 200 

N. Y. City Roads, on Improvements 167 

New York City Owns its Streets. 197 

New Plan for Electric Conveyance *28l 

New Cable System 254 

New Road, Completed Construction of 8 

New York, Growth ot Travel In 95 

Never Slip Horse Shoe *254 

Next Association Meeting 200 

Notes and Items 125, 170, 197, 225, 255, 28.5 

Notes, Editorials 33 

Notes 148 

' ' Novelties " Exhibition 221 

Nursing Babies in Street C ars 96 

Obituary 1 99 

October Convention, A. s. R. W. A 50 

official List of the Street Railways In the United 

States and Canada 173 

Officials, Street Railway 95 

Ohio State Tramway Association 224 

Old Street Railway M an's Opinion 189 

olive's Tables and Diagrams 169 

One Horse Street Cars 169 

On Title 32 

Ordinary Stove for Heating Street Cars 115 

Origin of the Word Tramway 26: 167 

our Street Railway Directory 200 

Our News Column 141 



Our Editorial Policy 10 

Our " Kicker's " Column 33 

Pans for the Elevated Road 96 

Paper for Street Railway Men 161 

Passengers, Rights of Street Car 37 

Pennington, Ellis, Pennington's Grooming Ma- 
chine '37 

Policy, Our Editorial 10 

Power to Run Cable Roads, and Resistance on 

Tramways 10 

Power to Run the Brooklyn Bridge Cars 124 

Prevention of Tramway Accidents in England.. 165 

Pronunciation of " Advertisement," The 34 

Proposed Street Railway Insurance Company.. 166 

Proceedings, Convention 10 

" Providence " Rail and Track 181 

Publishers' salutatory 10 

Public Benefactors, Street Railway 122 

Our Kickers, Comments of 34 

Railways, Electric 76 

Kail, Longstreet, Longstreet, D. F '69 

Hallway Association, American Street 110 

Kail and Track, Providence 121 

Railway, St. Louis Cable 121 

Rapid Transit in Level Cities 93 

Rattan Sectional Spring Seat and Back *217 

Record or a Remarkable Horse 72 

Recent Patents 195,224 

Recent American Patents 165 

Refined .Mule 73 

Regarding a Sprina car Motor 92 

Rehm on Car Heating 92 

Reliance Slip Link and Safety Hook "282 

Remarkable Horse, Another 93 

Reminiscence of Street Railway Beginnings in 

New York Clly 172 

Report, The Convention, Tramways Associa- 
tion of Great Britain and Ireland 70 

Report of the Convention (Cuntinued) no 

Repairs In the Brooklyn Bridge Cable 189 

Resistance to Traction on Tramways 56 

Reserved for Lanies 27 

Resistance to Traction on Tramways 27 

Right to Discharge and the Right to Quit 221 

Rights of Street Car Passengers 37 

Roost, The Hind 35 

Salting, Track 51 

Salutatory, Publisher's io 

Salt Report, Discussion on the 5 

Salting, Track 30 

Sectional Seat Spring, with Drop Down Frame. *255 

Self-Countersinking Wood Screws 2uo 

Send in Items 25B 

Shoeing Horses 145 

Shoeing Horse 96 

Small's Automatic Fare Collector 49 

Snow Plows for Street Railroads 169 

Some Features : 123 

Special Rates to the Convention 253 

Special Rates to the St. Louis Convention .... 284 

Spinal Meningitis If Horses 193 

Spotti rs in the Olden Days 252 

Spring Car Motor, Regarding a 92 

Stables Ventilation 120 

Stables and Care o[ Horses, Discussion on 90 

Stable Ventilation Pays 95 

Starting too soon 252 

Starting cars on Cable Roads 217 

Stablemen and Drivers 189 

Starters, Car 9 

Stables and Care of Horses 3 

Steam on Street Railways 95 

Steam vs. Horses 247 

Steam Street Railways 224 

Steal, Teaching Conductors to 32 

St. Lou;s Cable Railway 121,232 

Stoppages, Frequent 35 



Stock, Choice of 10 

Stove for Heating Street Cars, Ordinary 115 

St. Paul Street Railway, The 27 

Street Railways Public Benefactors 122 

Street Railway Companies, Commissioner 

O'Donnell and the 74 

Street Railways in 1884, Boston 72 

Street Railway Association, American 110 

Street Railways, Steam on 95 

Street Railway tor China 96 

Street Railway Officials 95 

Street Railway Stock as an Investment 228 

Street Railway, Construction and Manage- 
ment, Information on 187 

S. reet Railway Insurance 196 

Street Railway Insurance 147 

Street Railways Public Benefactors 137 

Street Railroad Tracks 137 

Street Railways, Value of 143 

street Railways and the Dally Press 144 

Street Railway, The St. Paul ■ 27 

Street Railway Journal, The 10 

Street Car seats and Floor Covering 284 

Street Car Horses 145 

Street Car, First American *120 

Street Cars, Nursing Babies in 96 

Street Railroad Men on Strikes 227 

Street Railroad Strikes 213 

Superintendent Lake 219 

Sui face Drainage and Blindness 96 

Tables and Diagrams, olive's 169 

Teaching Conductors to Steal 32 

Texas Mule 73 

The Convention 248 

The Stable 221 

The Mule 215 

The Coming Race 279 

The Derivation of " Tramway " 10 

Third Annual Convention 10 

Title, On 32 

To Each Conductor 249 

To Warn Elevated R. R. Engineers 217 

Tramway Electric, Blackpool 114 

Track Scraper, Littell's "247 

Tramway Construction In Cincinnati 217 

TrackLaying 168 

Traction on Tramways, Resistance to 56 

TrackSilting 51 

Transportation Facilities In New York City, 

Additional 146 

"Tramway," The Derivation of 10 

Tramways, Resistance to Traction on 27 

Tramways, Cost of Working English Steam. .. . 35 

" Tramway," Origin of the Word 26 

Track Salting 30 

Track Cleaning, and Removal of Snow and Ice. 2 

Turntable, Hydraulic 89 

Uptown Cable Road 217 

Value of Street Railways 143 

Varnish, Cracks in, D. F. Tieman & Co 35 

Varnish, Cracking of y 

Varnishing 35 

Varnish, Failing of 74 

Varnish, Demon 124 

Ventilation Pays, Stable 95 

Ventilation of Stables 120 

Vose's Graduated '"ity car Spring 9 

Wanted, A Safety Brake 19S 

Warneck & Toffler, Toftler's Rolling Wood Mat 27 

What Are Taxes For 253 

Wheels, Car 94 

Wheels, Independent "4 

Which Side of a Tie Should Go Up ? 33 

Wonderful Progress 194 

Work of Operating Elevated R. R. Trains 218 

Wright, Augustine W., Railroad Joints *36 

Zeiss, Win., Colors vs. Oils, Dryers and Var- 
nishes 34 




Vol. I. 



NEW YORK : i 
32 Liberty Street. | 



November, 1884. 



CHICAGO : | 

8 Lakeside Building, j 



No. 1 



William li. Lewis. 

Street railway interests have sustained a 
severe loss in the subject of our illustration, 
whose sudden death occurred Oct. 15. 
William B. Lewis was a fitting type of the 
street railway manager and useful and 
respected public man. Born in Brooklyn 
in 1818, he there resided until, in 1874, his 
wife's ill health caused him to remove to 
Plainfield, N. J. His father was Sheppard 
Lewis, an old Brooklyn res- 
ident, but born in Hemp- 
stead, L. I. 

At the age of seven, Wil- 
liam B. was placed in Kings- 
ley's private school, where 
he remained six years, with 
such good effect as the result 
of his studiousness, that the 
principal said that he could 
teach him no more. Against 
the lad's judgment, his fath- 
er apprenticed him to the 
mason's trade, to which, as 
a dutiful son, he applied him- 
self mind and body, learning 
practically every detail of 
the business acquirable by 
the apprentice ; serving, 
meantime, after regular 
work-hours, as accountant 
to his father, an extensive 
and prosperous builder. 

Following his trade for a 
short time, he started on his 
own account as builder and 
contractor; thus continuing 
a few years until drawn into 
public affairs. As Tax De- 
partment Clerk he proved 
himself an expert account- 
ant, and was instrumental in 
systematizing the business 
details of that branch of city 
government ; meantime 
studying the principles of 
city and State government, State and nation- 
al law, history and parliamentary usage. 

His activity and intelligence, and his 
information and interest in politics, attract- 
ing the attenting of his party, he was 
elected Comptroller of Brooklyn; serving 
w r hen that city and Williamsburg were con- 
solidated. His term was a busy one; but bis 
early training with his father, his attention, 
study, and practice of accounts and finance, 
together with a stern decision of character 



fitted him to fulfill all the exactions of the 
position, in which he made an enviable 
record, not yet forgotten. 

He was an earnest advocate, in face of 
much opposition, of the introduction of a 
public water supply in Brooklyn, and was 
one of the original Water Commissioners; 
being at this time Secretary of the Sewer 
Department. 

Municipal interests called him to Albany, 
where he was thrown into contact with the 



,ff, # 43 




State officials, who recognized his worth; 
and during his Comptrollership he was 
elected Treasurer of the State of New York. 
During his tenure of this important office 
he became the intimate friend of Gov. 
Horatio Seymour, who c:nfided many 
things to him; the two advising mutually 
on many matters of State. 

His office of State Treasurer made him 
a member of the Canal and School boards; 
and also gave him much to do with the 



Bank Department, in those years of much 
greater importance than at present, hence 
his life at that time was one of great 
activity, labor and responsibility. 

In acknowledgment of his satisfactory 
discharge of the Treasurer's duties, he was 
re-nominated ; but was defeated through 
lack of party organization. Declining the 
Police Commissionership of New York and 
Brooklyn, he retired from political life. 
Having during some time previously 
studied law by himself, he 
complied with his friends' 
urgings to be admitted to 
the bar, but he had only 
practiced a few months 
when Hon. Henry R. Pier- 
son, President Brooklyn 
City R. R. Co., called on him 
to accept the office of secre- 
tary and cashier of that 
company. In this arduous 
position he continued until 
the hour of his death. His 
son, of the firm of Lewis & 
Fowler, is his successor as 
Secretary and Treasurer, 
and is also prominently 
identified with tramway in- 
terests. 

We print below the action 
of the Directors in reference 
to the loss which his death 
occasioned to his family, the 
company and the com- 
munity. 

A special meeting of the Board 
of Directors of tue Brooklyn City 
Railroad Company, held October 
l8tb, 1884, to take action upon the 
death of William B. Lew^s, Esq.. 
its late Secretary and Cashier, at 
which it was ordered that the fol- 
lowing minute be entered upon 
the records of the company: 

William B. Lewis, whose death 
we mourn, was called to the office 
of Secretary of the Brooklyn City 
Railroad Company April 1st, l8tib. 
His faithful service in places of 
honor and trust in our city and 
State, and his unusual knowledge 
of the laws governing the railroad 
interest, peculiarly fitted him for 
valuable service to this company. 
From his election he devoted 
his entire energies to advance in every way in his 
power the interest of the company. 

While discharging with conscientious care and 
fidelity the special duties of his office, he gave at the 
same time most careful attention to its financial in- 
terest. 

To the general management of the Road, also, he 
gave thought and was frequently consulted in regard 
to it 

His judicious counsel has been of great value to the 
Company. For the eighteen years and a half of most 
faithful service we here bear testimony, while we re- 
gret the death of a faithful officer, we also mourn 
the loss of an old and respected friend. 

For the family of William B. Lewis, we would ex- 
press our sincere sympathy in their great sorrow. 
W. H. Hazzakd, President. 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[November, 188L 




American Street Railway Association. 

Officers, 1884-5. 

Preside nt.— Calvin A. Richards, President Metro- 
politan Railroad Co., Boston, Mass. 

First Vice-President.— Julius S. Walsh, President 
Citizens' Railway Co , St. Louis, Mo. 

Second Vice-President — Henry M. Watson. Presi- 
dent the Buffalo Street Railway Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Third Vice-President —Edward Lusher, Secretary 
and Treasurer the Montreal City Passenger Rail- 
way Co., Montreal Canada. 

Secretary and Treasurer.— William J. Richardson, 
Secretary the Atlantic Avenue Railway Co., Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. 

Executive Committee.— President, Vice-Presidents 
and William H. Hazzard. President Brooklyn City 
Railroad Co., Brooklyn, N.Y. ; James K. Lake Super- 
intendent Chicago West-Division Railway, Chicago, 
111. ; Charles J. Harrah President the People's Pas- 
senger Railway Co , Philadelphia, Pa ; William 
White. President Dry Dock, East B. & B. R. R. Co., 
New York, N. Y.; B. Du Pont, President Central 
Passenger Railroad Co., Louisville, Ky. 



Track Cleaning' and Removal of Snow 
and Ice. 

[We give herewith the text of the report 
to the American Street Railway Associa- 
tion, at the recent convention, on the sub- 
ject of Track Cleaning and the Removal 
of Snow and Ice. The discussion which 
ensued thereon was most interesting, and 
we regret that the lateness of the reception 
of the official report prevents our giving 
more than an abstract of a part thereof. 
The rest will be given in our next issue.] 

Mr. President: Your committee for the consider- 
ation of "Track cleaning and removal of snow and 
ice: Is salt necessary ? If so, is its use detrimental 
to the public health; and especially is it injurious to 
horses/ "—having duty investigated the subject, beg 
leave to submit the following report: 

On the 25th of July, 1831, Mr. William H. Hazzard, 
President of the American Street-Railway Associa- 
tion, addressed a circular-letter to the presidents and 
superintendants of all the street-railways in Amer- 
ica, comprising a full series of questions, in relation 
to the propriety of the use of salt, in the cleaning of 
the tracks from snow and ice, and whether any bet- 
ter method could be suggested. The inquiry was 
very explicit, being intended for an exhaustive con- 
sideration of the subject; and to afford a criterion 
for the future policy of street-railway companies. 
The points to be determined relate to the necessity 
of the use in salt in the removing of snow and ice 
from the tracks, and to its healthf ulness, both to the 
public, and to horses driven over the places where it 
had been employed. 

This matter has been a theme of controversy for 
many years. It is a fact known to every tyro in 
science, that a mixture of snow or ice and salt will 
produce a temperature so low as to cause the mer- 
cury in the thermometer to fall to zero, F. ; and it has 
been plausibly argued, accordingly, that the use of 
salt to melt the snow and ice upon tracks of railroads 
in large towns would result in the withdrawal of 
caloric from the atmosphere to an extent that would 
seriously affect the salubrity of the neighborhood 
and render those of the population of a sensitive con- 
stitution more than usually liable to contract dan- 
gerous maladies, as colds, pneumonia, pleurisy 
scarlatina, diptheria, etc. These complaints are fre- 
quent in winter, when snow is abundant, and give 
importance to the conjecture. The usual increase of 
mortality at such times is a grave matter, and 
deserves the most careful scrutiny. 

It has also been asserted that horses traveling in 
the snow where salt has been used, are even greater 
sufferers. The chilliness created from the slush and 
melting snow disposes them, it is declared, to painful 
disorders of the chest, bowels and nervous system, 
and induces certain complaints, which were before 
hardly known The feet are said to be specially 
affected. It is insisted by many that the intense cold 
produced in the snow in which the animals are 
driven, speedily benumbs and paralyzes them, and 
even freezes the hoof, so as often to destroy it 
entirely. This has been made the occasion for seek- 
ing legislative interposition to put an endto the prac- 
tice of salting the streets. Nor can any man of com- 
mon humane sentiments object to such a measure, if 
the alleged injury has occurred, or is likely to occur 
from this cause. It is of the greatest importance to 
ascertain the facts, in order to do away with what- 
ever cruelty may be practiced in the case, and to 
devise any needed remedy which will avert all 
unnecessary interference with the passenger trans- 
portation of this continent. 



The American Street Railway Association accord- 
ingly directed this inquiry.andappointeda committee 
to conduct the investigation. Almost every indi- 
vidual addressed has replied, making a vast accumu- 
lation of evidence bearing directly on the subject. A 
synopsis of these answers may be valuable, in the 
way of enabling intelligent action. It need not, 
necessarily be long. Tne conclusions, however, 
appear to be decidedly in favor of the free use of 
salt, even to a greater extent than is anywhere prac- 
ticed. 

In the warmer regions of the continent, little snow 
ever falls, and there is no incommoding experi- 
enced, which requires extraordinary measures. 
There may also be objections when the temperature 
is lower than zero, as the salt will not then melt the 
snow and ice, but add to the difficulty. In Quebec 
and Ottawa, in the Dominion of Canada, few 
attempts are made to remove the snow in winter, but 
sleighs are put in use instead. The law requires this. 

Public opinion somewhat differs in different places. 
Generally there has been no thought bestowed upon 
the matter, except by individuals connected with the 
f-treet railway companies. In several of the larger 
cities, there exists a prejudice against the use of salt 
to remove snow. It appears to have its centre in the 
city of New York, and to radiate in those directions 
where the sentiment, paramount there, is most influ- 
ential. Mr. Henry Bergh, president of the Society 
for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, is very 
decidedly opposed to the use of salt in the streets, 
and his views are largely shared by excellent citi- 
zens. The newspapers in several instances have 
adopted and advocated them. The Board of Health 
passed an ordinance against the practice, and it has 
been prohibited under penalty in the new Penal 
Code. The same sentiment prevails in Brooklyn as 
in New York; some are in favor and others opposed. 
A like diversity of opinion also exists in Boston; 
and the savants and men of culture are divided like 
others, some contending that the use of salt in the 
public streets is beneficial, and others asserting the 
contrary. In Lowell, the objection is very strong, 
but appears to be steadily diminishing. The most 
effectivs argument, however, seems to have been 
made in New Bedford. " People who own carriages 
do not like it because when the salt comes in contact 
with varnish, it stains or removes it." 

The testimony from other places is equally varied. 
In Manchester, New Hampshiie, the parties are 
thus set forth: "People that are friendly to horse 
railroads do not object to the use of salt; the others 
do." In Baltimore, the people are represented as 
opposing it, together with everything else in connec- 
tion with horse railroads, except the cheap fare. In 
Cleveland, Ohio, the opposition appears to be gen- 
eral, but more decidedly among the owners of 
sleighs. At Toledo, there is a divided sentiment, but 
a majority, we are told, would not object to its 
"reasonable use." The only argument offered, how- 
ever, is "that it is so considered in other cities" — i.e., 
detrimental to the public health when used to remove 
snow and ice. It is evidently only a reflected public 
sentiment. The same thing ought, undoubtedly, to 
be said in other cases. 

In Philadelphia there exists, perhapt,, the greatest 
prejudice, anywhere known on this subject. The 
Board of Health added its influence; and the feeling 
thus created has extended to other cities of the State. 
The street railway companies are generally prohibit- 
ed by ordinance from the use of salt on their roads. 
Mr. John B. Parsons, President of the Lombard and 
South Streets Passenger Railway Company, explains 
lhe cause of the difficulty, as follows: "We had no 
machinery such as we now have, and, as a conse- 
quence, depended solely upon the use of salt to turn 
the snow into a slush, so that the cars could be 
drawn by the horses. No particular attention was 
paid to keeping open the inlets, so that the slush 
could run off from street-corners and other natural 
depressions in the streets. As a consequence, the 
street- crossings were almost impossible, and much 
complaint came from the citizens. Many diseases 
were attributed to its use, and public clamor be- 
came so loud that the Councils passed ordinances 
limiting its use to certain portions of the city and 
prohibiting its use in other portions under a heavy 
penalty." 

Many physicians, however, gave their judgment at 
the time, that salt w s not detrimental, and the gen- 
eral opinion is beginning to change. The public 
journals of the city are now speaking approvingly of 
the use of salt, and the companies are Dcginning to 
use it again. 

There is a strong prejudice against its use in 
Reading, which is ascribed to the influence of the 
excitement in Philadelphia; still salt is used, but the 
fact is not admitted. In Pittsburg there has been 
talk of applying to the Legislature for a prohibitory 
statute, on the ground that it spoils the fine " finish " 
on carriage wheels. Nevertheless, all vehicles seek 
the railway track in preference, because it is always 
open. The only opposition to the use of salt, upon 
which the public seem to agree, is that it benefits a 
corporation, lhe majority favor its employment. 

In the other parts of the country, where street rail- 
ways abound and snow is abundant in winter, 
public sentiment appears to be generally unani- 
mous in favor of the use of salt, because of 
the facilities which it gives in clearing away 
a most formidable obstruction to travel. No other 
method is known which would he more practical, 
more economical, and more satisfactory. The only 
thing suggested is a sweeping machine, combining a 
boiler, to which the snow may be carried and melted. 
This, it seems, can hardly be feasible, and even 
though it were, the same objections on the score of 
s'ush and detriment to health, would exist, and to a 
much greater extent. 

The testimony appears to be unanimous so far as 
relates to the entire absence of injury to the animals 
employed. No precautions are used to protect their 
health, yet no disease has been observed, which 
might have been occasioned by the exposure. No 
special care seems to have been taken of those that 
traveled in the salt mixture, beyond rubbing them 



off when taken from the cars to the stables. The 
inquiries were very explicit; relating to the effect on 
the nervous system, the general health, the effect on 
the feet, legs and bellies, the shell or lamina of the 
feet, and the frog or soft part of the feet ; and the 
answers were unequivocal that no perceptible injury 
or hurt had been noticed. One correspondent had 
noticed scratches, and another mentioned the possi- 
bility of harm lrom too long exposure. Another, 
however, was of the opinion that the effect of the 
salt on the animals had been decidedly wholesome In 
regard to health of limbs and body. Indeed, Messrs. 
Haller, Beck & Co. of the Union Sa t Works at Alle- 
ghany City, declare that during twenty years, they 
have used from twenty-five to thirty horses, and 
never had any trouble on account o£ the salt. They 
never had a horse afflicted either with thrush or 
scratches. Their animals they consider as fine as 
any in the city. The salt seemed to have been salu- 
toryto them. 

Another advantage was generally noticed. The 
slipping and straining so common in slippery road- 
ways was far less frequent where the snow and ice 
had been so removed. Less than half the numbers 
of slips and falls were estimated to occur. 

No other method known is so cheap or efficient for 
the purpose. One or two companies use ashes where 
the coating of ice is thin, but the result was hardly 
satisfactory. In Philadelphia, the tracks are cleared 
by scraping, but at a large cost. One company in 
Ohio used a heavy iron scraper procured in Detroit, to 
clear the ice from the rails, but it did not give satisfac- 
tion. It is for this purpose that the salt is more gen- 
erally employed. Many companies use it in no other 
case, but depend on snow-ploughs and shoveling, 
but the inference is unavoidable, that if they were 
prohibited entirely, the street-railways in the north- 
ern cities of the Union would be impassable many 
weeks in each winter. 

Careful examination has also shown that there is 
no ground whatever for apprehension in regard to 
the public health from this cause. There has been 
no epidemic or prevalent disorder set in operation or 
aggravated anywhere by the use of salt on thorough- 
fares. The rate of mortality has exhibited no alarm- 
ing increase, nor does this appear to have been any- 
where suspected. All complaint is confined to what 
may occur, some possible or hypothetical result. 
The slush and pools of water that are liable to be 
formed at low points in the streets or at the cross- 
ings, making pedestrianism unpleasant, and the in- 
jury to the paint and varnish on wheeled carriages 
constitute all the well-supported ground of com- 
plaint. It would not be difficult to obviate these, 
and it ought to be done. The fault lies, however, 
with the municipal authorities, who have been re- 
miss in regard to furnishing the proper facilities for 
drainage. 

Observations carefully made with the thermometer 
show that the mixing of salt with snow in the streets 
makes no perceptible change of temperature. It is 
no colder in the thoroughfares where it is done, than 
in others at a distance. This is the only objection 
which has a plausible foundation scientifically, and 
it appears to be utterly fallacious. 

In conclusion, therefore, the Committee find that 
the use of salt for the removal of ice and snow from 
the railway tracks, to be an imperative necessity ■ and 
that there exists no reasonable cause for apprehen- 
sion of injury, or detriment to the public health, or to 
the health and physical comfort of the animals em- 
ployed. What objections really exist are easily re- 
moved, while the advantages are indisputable. 

Indeed, it is evident that the weight of evidence, as 
well as argument, is on the other side. The removal 
of snow from the streets is a problem that has taxed 
the ingenuity of public officials in several of our 
large cities. Hundreds of thousands of dollars have 
been expended in New York for carting it away to 
the rivei s, and yet it was found impossible to accom- 
plish more than to clear the more public thorough 
fares. It would ha* e been a far greater economy if 
the City Government had instead, caused all the 
streets to copeously salted during the snow-storms, 
and taken efficient measures at the same time to 
drain the brine and slush immediately into the sew- 
ers. We trust thatihis subject will betaken into 
consideration at an early day. 

The public health, so far from being injuriously af- 
fected, will be promoted by the free use of salt in 
such a way. The brine flowing into the sewers will, 
in a great degree prevent the decomposition of the 
various refuse materially which are deposited there 
from the houses above; and as a direct result, the 
formation and disengagement of sewer- gas would be 
arrested, and its discharge into the living apartments 
consequently prevented. This alone would be a 
work of sanitation, of which too great an account 
can hardly be rrade. 

At the present time, the exhalation from ferment- 
ing matter in the streets are an active cause of mis. 
chief. The air is poisoned, and many of the popula- 
tion if not made ill outright, suffer, nevertheless, 
from depressed nervous conditions, and lowered vi- 
tality. The squalor and misery endured by the in- 
mates of tenement-houses and other abodes of 
poverty may thus be rationally accounted for. If 
some provision could be made for preventing this 
decomposition of refuse matter in the streets, the 
salutary effect upon the public health would be im- 
mediately perceivable. The utility of salt for this 
purpose is apparent. If it could be applied at stated 
periods during the warm season, these benefits 
would be assured. 

The accumulation of snow and refuse of all kinds, 
which occurs every winter in many streets, has been 
frequently remarked. Every warm day the filthy 
mixture is thawed and more thoroughly compounded, 
while its noisome effluvia contaminate the air. This 
process usually continues till spring has advanced 
several weeks, and we are often fortunate if the 
festering mass is removed before the hot days of 
summer. It is ea sy to see how all this would be pre- 
vented, if the authorities would take the matter into 
their own hands, and instead of limiting, discour- 
aging the use of salt to clear off snow and ice, would 



November, 1884.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



employ it freely both for that purpose and to sweeten 
the atmosphere. The action taken by Board of 
Heal th in the matter shows rather a conforming to 
ignorant prejudice, than a proper and intelligent 
comprehension of the facts, a little scientific knowl- 
edge would go far toward the silencing of tho 
clamor. 

It is plain enough that the antiseptic virtues of salt 
are poiient above those of many popular disinfec- 
tants, in the way of purifying the air. The salubrity 
of New York is largely to be attributed to the saline 
ele nents derived by the atmosphere from the sa't 
water that surrounds it on every side. The analogy 
must hold good in regard to the same agencies arti- 
ficially supplied in the manner indicated. 

The objections which have been repeatedly offered 
in various quarters, to the use of salt by the street- 
railways companies, it will be seen, are not tenable. 
The more abundant use of it for the purposes in 
question would be fully justified. Instead of the 
burden of expense falling entirely upon them, as is 
now the case, the public ought to bear a reasonable 
proportion. We would all be the gainers by the con- 
venience afforded from the speedy removal of the 
great mass of snow, and in addition, by the increased 
salubrity of the atmosphere. It is in every way ad- 
vantageous, and to this conclusion the good sense of 
our people must eventually arise. 

A. B. Whitney, M. D., Ch. 

Joab MtTLVANE. { Committee. 

Wm. Hagenswiler, I 



Stables and Care of Horses. 

[The annexed report ismost.scholarly and 
practical and deserves the most careful 
perusal. The discussion thereon revealed 
wide differences of opinion and practice. 
We shall give it in our next issue. We 
hope that our many readers will not con- 
sider the discussion by any means closed, 
but will continue it in our columns.]' 

To the American Street Railway Associa- 
tion. 

Gentlemen: — The Committee on Stables 
and Care of Horses, submits the following: 

The importance of information upon this 
subject is shown by the fact that neai-ly 
two-fifths of the investment in street-rail- 
ways is in buildings and borses; and of the 
expense of operating, upwards of 35 per 
cent, is consumed in the maintenance of 
stables and horses. 

The care which the horse receives at the 
hands of the managers of street railways 
has much to do with the economy of opera- 
ting; for it is evident that well-arranged 
stables, careful attendants, and skillful 
drivers, with wholesome and sufficient feed 
go a great way towards prolonging the life 
and usefulness of the horse in street-car 
service. 

The subject of stables naturally claims 
attention first, and in this connection it 
must be understood that, at least, eighteen 
and, perhaps, twenty hours out of every 
twenty-four, the horses in this service are 
confined within the stables year in and year 
out. Tbus three-fourths of the life of the 
horse is spent in the stable. Considering 
that plenty of light and pure air are essen- 
tial to the healthy condition of the horse, to 
furnish this should be the first object in 
building a stable. 

In selecting material, such should be 
chosen as will be least likely to absorb and 
retain the impurities, which will always be 
found within such buildings. Great care 
should be taken to have the drainage per- 
fect, and if underground to have the drains 
so inclined, trapped, and tight in the joints, 
as to quickly and completely take away 
whatever is deposited in them. Arrange- 
ments should be provided to flush them 
often with water, and if possible to 
have all traps and catch-basins well 
ventilated, so as to carry outside 
of the stable any foul gases which may 
accumulate there. The theory of surface 
drainage for stables has many supporters, 
and deserves careful consideration 
from those about to build. If surface- 
drains are frequently flushed or washed, 
this manner of draining would seem to call 
for no objection. The matter of drainage 
being settled, the next question is light and 
ventilation. 

Arrangements should be made to admit 
air in sufficient quantity without creating a 
draught. 

Eoof ventilation is desirable, but not suffi- 
cient, as the air of a stable containing many 



horses is heavy and will not rise without a 
current of air from near the floor to assist. 
Light can be admitted from high openings 
in the sides of the building, but these should 
not be depended upon for side-ventilation 
as the height renders them insufficient to 
move the air, and the location, usually over 
the heads of the horses, causes them to be 
dangerous as means of a draught. 

Doors on opposite sides of the stable con- 
nected by a passageway running behind 
the horses; this passageway having ventila- 
tion from the roof is a desirable means of 
ventilating a stable, as in case the wind 
blows too strongly in one direction the 
doors on that side of the building can be 
closed, while air is admitted from the oppo- 
site side. 

_ As a matter of convenience it may be de- 
sirable to have all stalls upon the ground 
floor, but such an arrangement is not prac- 
tical in large cities, on account of the high 
cost of land, and horses may be as well 
established on the second or third floor, 
provided these floors are constructed 
properly as regards the drainage, and pro- 
vided with " runs " leading to the outside 
in two or more directions to be used as 
escapes in case of fire. 

The stalls should be constructed with a 
view to give the horse as much freedom as 
possible consistent with economy in utiliz- 
ing the space. Experience demonstrates 
that the width should not be less than four 
feet in the clear, or the depth less than nine 
feet. The height of the partition between 
the horses should be at least four feet, and 
at the heads, carried three or four feet 
higher in such a form, as to admit light 
and ah without allowing the horses to bite 
and otherwise annoy each other. Single 
stalls are preferable, although double stalls, 
with swing-bars between the horses, are in 
favor with many good stable-experts. The 
floor of the stall should pitch toward the 
gutter about one and a half inches to the 
nine feet. A good construction for stall- 
floors is to lay the surface for about four 
feet inward from the gutter with close- 
grained hard wood, like maple, in strips of 
four or five inches wide and two inches 
thick, leaving a space between, three-quar- 
ters of an inch wide, to allow the urine to 
pass off without being absorbed in the bed- 
ding. 

The best form of manger or feed-box, is 
of cast iron, formed so as to have no square 
corners for feed to accumulate, and of suf- 
ficient depth to prevent the horse from 
"nosing" his feed out. No rack is needed 
for loose hay, this can be fed in small quan- 
tities from the floor. A passageway, say 
four feet wide, between the heads, or in 
front of the stalls for the purpose of feeding 
is desirable, this should be ventilated by 
windows or doors at each end. and a flue 
leading to the roof above. The loft for 
feed should have a tight floor, so that the 
steam and ammonia from the stable under- 
neath will not contaminate the provender 
stored therein. It should be constructed 
with windows to admit light and air from 
the sides, and with roof -ventilation at the 
top. Suitable receptacles should be pro- 
vided for the manure outside the stable, and 
all refuse and manure should be removed 
frequently, and before it has had time to 
heat and steam. 

The custom of building stables with cel- 
lars to receive the manure is not recom- 
mended; and unless there is yard-room 
enough to pile the manure compactly out- 
side the building, it should be removed 
from the premises daily. The space al- 
lowed for rear floorway between the stalls 
should be sufficient to permit the removal 
of horses from one row without interfering 
with those on the other; for this purpose, 
ten feet is a fair allowance. 

The plan of arranging stalls in sections, 
so as to have the horses allotted to the care 
of one man, stand together is a good one; 
also that of having a separate drinking- 
trough for his horses. If a common drink - 
ing-trough is used, it should be centrally 
located and supplied with running water. 



Twelve feet in the clear is recommended 
as a good height for each story, although 
some advise more, and some are content 
with even less. 

Arrangements outside the building to 
dry and air the bedding are very desirable 
when straw or hay is used, and if shavings 
or saw-dust, bins for storage should be pro- 
vided. If any substance except wood is 
used for floors, bricks are recommended, as 
they are easily renewed when worn and 
less liable to cause the horses to slip than 
stone, asphalt or cement. 

In coming to the subject of the " care of 
horses," it is suggested that the first care 
should be exercised in the selection of 
horses to be purchased. The theory that 
any kind of a horse that can be had for 
from $100 to $150 will do for Street-Eail- 
way use, is a bad one. 

The buyer of Street-Railway horses has a 
somewhat difficult problem to meet from 
the fact that the horse most desirable to 
him, usually commands a higher price 
than he, i.e., the corporation, however, he 
represents, is willing to pay. A good 
buyer, will always insist upon the necessary 
qualities in the horse he buys, without too 
much regard to price. In the first place, 
only sound horses should be bought. Al- 
though horses unsound in some respects, 
may be used to some advantage, it 
is never best to buy them in that con- 
dition, as every Railroad manager knows 
that the exacting labor they are subject 
to, will cause unsoundness in some form 
or another soon enough. A good 
disposition and easy gait should be 
considered as absolutely necessary. The 
head and general appearance of the coun- 
tenance will show the disposition, and a 
trot of fifty feet, will show the gait. Color 
should have nothing to do in the selection 
except to cheapen the price, as is the case 
with white, grey, buckskin, and bald-faced 
horses. The feet and muscles of the legs 
should be. carefully looked at, as these are 
the main-stay of a railroad horse. 

A flat-footed horse should never be ac- 
cepted. 

The age should never be less than five or 
over nine years, as a general rule, a horse 
of twelve years of age, however, if sound, 
may be accepted at a considerable reduction 
in price. 

After the horse is selected and placed in 
the stable, the first thing to do is to accus- 
tom him to the feed, and break him to the 
labor. We would never think of putting 
on a conductor or driver without first in- 
structing him in the duty expected of him, 
and place him under the direction of an old 
hand for practice. This rule should be fol- 
lowed with the horse. The first day he 
should be allowed to rest. After that if he 
takes his feed well, he may be put to half- 
work with a careful driver, and should be 
worked no more than this, for the first six 
or eight weeks, at least. All green horses 
should be given in charge of the best 
drivers, who will take pains to break them 
in to the work. 

The care of the horse in the stable, in- 
cludes feeding and grooming. Upon the 
question of feed, perhaps, the first cost or 
what is termed ' 'economy" has considerable 
to do. 

It is generally admitted that cut hay and 
corn meal is the cheapest at first 
cost, of any feed in use; but experience 
has shown that this feed is too hearty and 
fattening, and that horses fed upon it for 
several years without change become more 
subject to eruptive diseases and also to 
colic, inflammation of the stomach and in- 
digestion. It is calculated that at least five 
cents per day can be saved in this feed on 
each horse, over the cost of feeding oats 
and long hay, and that the extra loss on 
horses fed with meal only, will not amount 
to the sum saved at the end of the five or 
six years' service of a railway-horse. To 
the credit of railway managers it is found 
that this conclusion is not accepted gener- 
ally; and that while some are found to 
strictly adhere to svhat is termed the nat- 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[November, 1884. 



ural feed of the horse — oats and long hay — 
very many compromise the question by giv- 
ing one such feed daily, or, at least, lighten 
up the corn meal by mixing bran or wheat 
middlings, in proportion of about half and 
half by measure. The mixing or preparing 
of the feed should be entrusted to as few 
persons as possible; but the practice of each 
hostler dealing out the feed to the horses 
allotted to him, is not objectionable al- 
though many stable experts prefer to con- 
fine the hostler's duty simply to watering 
and grooming the horse and the care of his 
stall, and to provide one man to distribute 
the feed to each 100 or 125 horses. In gen- 
eral terms, it should be the care of the 
stable-master to make the horses under his 
charge as comfortable as possible, while 
keeping them in condition to do the work 
required of them. They should be watered 
frequently and fed regularly, not less than 
three feeds a day, and thoroughly groomed 
not less than twice a day. In warm 
weather, they should be carefully cooled off 
after coming in from work, and in cold 
weather well-blanketed. Disinfectants 
should be freely used; common lime, either 
dry or in the form of whitewash, is recom- 
mended as effective and inexpensive. 

As shoeing is a matter of considerable 
importance of railwayrnanagersitis proper 
that all entrusted with the care of street- 
railway horses should inform themselves 
as to the best form of shoe, and tbe best 
manner of setting it. There is but little 
difference of opinion among the well-in- 
formed upon this subject, as to the desira- 
bility of a light shoe over a heavy one, and 
that for horses traveling over a paved 
street, a shoe made of soft iron is prefer- 
able to one made of steel, on account of its 
being less liable to slip. In all cases the 
shoe should be fitted to the foot and not the 
foot to the shoe. On the question of hot or 
cold fitting, W. H. H. Murray may be 
quoted. He says : " The weight of author- 
ity is nearly the same in either scale. The 
advocates of cold-fitting declare that they 
can fit a shoe with rasp and file as evenly as 
the necessities of the case require, and that 
this can be done at no great cost of time or 
skill. They, moreover, charge that both 
reason and analogy are in opposition to 
burning a horny surface and declare that it 
honeycombs the wall of the foot, and. pre- 
vents its natural and healthy growth. 

"The disciples of hot-fitting on the other 
hand, declare that few men can level the 
foot, or so hammer and file the shoe, that 
the fit shall be what is required, and that 
only by burning can the connection be- 
tween steel and horn be made sufficiently 
close and solid." 

It must be admitted that good arguments 
can be used on both sides of this question, 
but in the end both sides bring up with this 
fact, that whether by hot or cold-fitting the 
shoe must be fitted evenly and solidly to 
the foot. As a matter of interest in this 
connection, an estimate made by a French 
professor concerning the muscular fatigue 
resulting from the use of heavy shoes may 
be quoted. 

"If at the termination of a day's work, 
we calculate the weight represented by the 
mass of heavy shoes that a horse is con- 
demned to carry at each step, we arrive at 
a formidable array of figures, and in this 
way are able to estimate the amount of 
force uselessly expended by the animal in 
raising the shoes that surcharge his feet. 
The calculation I have made possesses an 
eloquence that dispenses with very long 
commentaries. 

"Suppose the weight of a shoe isl, 000 
grams (about 2\ lbs. avoirdupois). It is 
not excessive to admit that a horse trots at 
the rate of one step every second, or sixty 
steps a minute. In a minute then, the 
limb of a horse, whose foot carries one 
kilogram (21 lbs.) makes an effort necessary 
to raise kilogram after kilogram, a weight 
of sixty kilograms (132 lbs.) For the 
four limbs, this weight in a minute 
is represented by 60x4 = 240 kilograms 
(528 lbs.) For the four feet during an hour, 



the weight is 14,000 kilograms (30,800 lbs.) 
and for four hours the mean duration of a 
day's work in these omnibuses, the total 
amount of weight raised has reached the 
respectable figure of 57,000 kilograms (125,- 
400 lbs.) 

"But the movement communicated to 
these 57,000 kilograms represents an ex- 
penditure of power employed by the motor, 
without any useful result, and as the motor 
is a living one, this expense of strength re- 
presents an exhaustion, or if you like it bet- 
ter, a degree of fatigue proportioned to the 
effort necessary for its manifestation. This 
calculation is most simple and readily un- 
derstood. It is to be noted, nevertheless, 
that I have omitted a considerable factor, 
which is, that the weights I have tabulated 
are situated at the extremities of the limbs 
and that the arms of the levers on which 
the muscles act to raise them being infinitely 
shorter than those of the physiological re- 
sistance to which these weights are added, 
the intensity of their action ought, there- 
fore, to be singularly increased. 

"But to measure this intensity of action 
would require a mathematical aptitude, 
which I do not possess. I will not, there- 
fore, dwell upon this point, notwithstand- 
ing its importance, and am content to 
signalize it. Otherwise the figures speak 
for themselves, and tell us that the dimi- 
nution in the weight of horse-shoes is not 
an unnecessary consideration, so far as the 
useful application of the horse's strength 
goes." 

After a careful consideration of the above 
calculation, must not all admit that the 
lightest possible shoe consistent with the 
service, should be used upon street-railway 
horses. 

The question of calking the shoe must be 
settled by the condition of the street over 
which the animal travels. Many believe 
that a calk is not necessary on paved 
streets, except in the winter season, when 
ice and snow are liable to interfere; and 
that if a calk is used at all it should be a low 
one, so as to raise the frog but slightly from 
contact with the street, and that care 
should be taken to have all calks of an even 
height, to allow the horse to set his foot 
squarely and evenly upon the ground. 

Upon the question of nailing the shoe, a 
quotation from Fleming: seems to "hit the 
nail on the head." "The shoe ought to be 
be attached by nails to those parts of the 
wall where the horn is strongest and tough- 
est. In the fore-foot, these parts are in 
front and along the sides to the quarters. 
There the horn becomes narrow and thin, 
and the nails find less support, and are 
nearer to the living textures. This is more 
particularly the case towards the heels, es- 
pecially the inner one. 

"In the hind foot the wall is generally 
strong toward the quarters and heel. These 
facts at once give us an indication as to the 
best position for the nail-holes. In the 
fore-foot, nails may be driven through the 
wall around the toe, as far as the inside 
quarter and a little nearer the heel on the 
outside. In the hind-foot they may be 
driven around the toe and even up to the 
heels with impunity." 

Nails should be turned out as quickly as 
possible, as the higher they go the less 
thickness of hoof is found, and extreme 
care should be used not to prick or press 
the sensitive part of the foot. Too many 
horses are made almost worthless from the 
effect of "blind stabs," which means, driv- 
ing the nail into the quick and then with- 
drawing it, and driving it again so close to 
the wound as to irritate it and cause it to 
suppurate within the foot and work out at 
the top. Such cases are the result of care- 
less nailing, and frequently terminate in 
what is called "foot-rot." The difficulty in 
tracing the exact cause of such trouble, 
arises from the fact that the horse does not 
show lameness for one or two days. 

As the feet of horses working only on 
paved streets and standing continuously 
upon wooden floors are liable to become 
hard and dry for lack of sufficient moisture, 



it is necessary that the stable-master should 
adopt some measure of supplying this need. 
A simple way and one that can be followed 
in any stable is to furnish each hostler with 
a pail and sponge, and require him to wet 
the fore-feet of all his hordes, once or twice 
a day. The water should be applied partic- 
ularly to the part where the hair and horn 
meet, and to the heel and frog. A good 
idea is to dissolve about a half pint of clean 
salt in each pailful of water used. This 
plan should be continued daily, and not 
occasionally. The stable-master should in- 
spect his horses daily, as to their fitness 
for work, and "lay off," and nurse any 
that do not "take their feed," or show lame- 
ness. 

The next care that the horse requires at 
the hands of railway managers is that of 
furnishing suitable drivers. Tbe best stab- 
ling, grooming, feeding and shoeing canDOt 
counteract the effects of bad driving. 
1 hose men whose duty it is to select and 
educate the drivers on street cars, should 
be most faithful and efficient, and no man 
should be retained as a driver who has not 
the necessary patience and judgment. 
Many horses become vicious and balky, by 
ignorant and careless driving, and a quick 
tempered driver is liable to be a costly one. 

The last care that comes to us in the 
treament of the street-car horses is to select 
or sort out and dispose of those that have 
become unfit for the service. 

This demands good judgment, for the 
difference between the price obtained for a 
worn-out horse and a new one to take the 
place, is considerable, yet it is folly, and 
worse than bad judgment, to retain and 
feed horses unable to work, for it does not 
take them long to " eat their heads off," as 
the saying goes. All horses should be dis- 
posed of as soon as it appears that their 
capacity for full railroad service is gone. 

This report is submitted with the hope 
that some hint it may contain, will be use- 
ful to the members of this association. 
This subject is an important one, and to be 
treated fully, would require more space 
than the limits of this paper will allow, and 
demand more talent than this committee 
lays claim to. 

As a conclusion to this report, tbe per- 
sonal experiences of two members of this 
committee, Mr. John E. Brown, Sup't. of 
the Troy & Lansingburg Raih-oad, Troy, 
N. Y., and Mr. T. H v . H. Robilland, Snp't. 
of the Montreal City PasseDger Railway, 
Montreal, Canada, are added. Both these 
gentlemen have had large experience in the 
care and management of horses, and their 
views cannot fail to interest this convention. 
For the Committee, 

J. E. RuGG, Chairman. 

The experience of the Superintendent of 
the Troy and Lansingburg Railroad Com- 
pany relating to Stables and the care of 
Horses: 

The aggregate length of the three lines 
operated is 17^ miles. The principal barn 
on the main line is located near that end of 
the road from which the travel starts in 
the morning for the city. The second barn 
on the main line is located two-tbirds of 
the distance from the main barn to the op- 
posite end of the road. At this barn on 
each trip, going each way, the driver and 
team stop and take the next car following, 
affording from four to six minutes time for 
watering and rest, under cover as in all 
cases when standing. This separates the 
conductor and driver; and gives a conductor 
three different drivers on each round-trip. 

The third barn is located at that end of 
one of the branch lines from which the 
travel starts in the morning for the city. All 
three lines converge and pass the second 
barn referred to for the purpose before 
stated. 

The barns are of brick, two stories, ceiled 
with spruce, have twelve feet ceilings, and 
aisles in rear and between the rows of 
stalls of fourteen feet. The stalls are five 
feet by ten feet. On top of the same, and 
between the heads of the horses facing each 
other, are wire gratings. In front of the 



November, 1884.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



stalls, there are nine light windows, eight 
feet from the floor. Each stall is also num- 
bered. There are no mangers, but iron 
feeding boxes. 
The dry hay is eaten from the floor. 
The hay and grain are stored in the 
second story, but there are no openings into 
the stalls below. The grain is delivered by 
spouts, the hay is cut above and let down 
in tight boxes into the mixing room. Water 
is so freely distributed through the barns, 
that horses cannot go out or come in with- 
out passing it. 

All the horses can be released from their 
stalls and the outer-doors thrown open by 
one movement of a conveniently- placed 
lever. There is no access to the barns ex- 
cept by passing the office of the superinten- 
dent and his assistants. 

At a distance of 100 feet from the main 
barn is the hospital barn, which will ac- 
commodate forty horses. The stalls are 
ten by twelve feet, inclosed with wiie. Ad- 
joining these barns, the company have 100 
acres of well-shaded pasturage, with some 
inclosures. 

The company owns 425 horses, and runs 
forty-six double cars. There are no one- 
horse cars. The length of the trips are 
eight and fourteen miles. Each horse 
makes from fourteen to sixteen miles per 
day, at an average speed of six miles per 
hour. 

All horses are bought by the superintend- 
ent, generally in New York City; and each 
horse is examined by him. He seeks to ob- 
tain horses of good disposition, weighing 
from 1,050 to 1,150 lbs. When received, 
they are allowed to stand in the barn one 
day, then given one pint of raw linseed oil, 
in order to prevent constipation from ship- 
ping or long standing. 

For the first week, the horse is given 
light feed and light work; then mated as 
best suited and assigned to the care of a 
suitable hostler, according to the disposition 
of the horse and of the man, much depend- 
ing upon the adaptation of the man to the 
horse: and in assigning to a driver the 
same principle of adaptation is observed. 
This is done by the superintendent in per- 
son. 

They stand in the stalls twenty hours out 
of twenty-four, bedded with straw at all 
times. This requires 1,040 pounds of straw 
to each horse per year. 

The feed consists of twelve pounds of hay, 
and fourteen pounds of grain, five-eighths 
western corn meal and three-eighths wheat- 
middlings, mixed to weigh forty pounds to 
one bushel. They are fed as follows, viz. : 
Morning, four pounds grain and one pound 
cut hay mixed, and four pounds dry hay. 
Noon: five pounds grain, and one pound cut 
hay mixed with no dry hay. Night: five 
pounds grain and one pound cut hay mixed 
and five pounds dry hay. The above feed- 
ing is uniform the year round with out re- 
gard to the weather. For sick and invalid 
horse?, carrots, potatoes and oats are used. 
The cost of feed per hor^e last year was 
34-rTnrCents per day. 

They are never fed salt except in cases of 
sickness. In hot weather Glauber salts are 
given after a hard day's work to prevent 
constipation. Each hostler has the entire 
care and responsibility of fourteen horses, 
the feed being mixed for them. Each one 
is assigned his place in the barn and fur- 
nished with a kit of tools which he is re- 
sponsible for, consisting of a card, curry- 
comb, brush, wheelbarrow, fork, and two 
pails and a broom. A horse standing in the 
barn for more than two days is given one 
pint of oil and moderately exercised before 
being put- to work. This is to prevent 
paralysis, now a very common disease. 

Every horse is allowed all the water he 
wants whether heated or not. No limita- 
tion or restriction is placed on the watering 
of horses. On the contrary, a special rule 
requires any man leading a horse in or out 
of the barn to lead him first to the water- 
troughs. 

The experience of the superintendent for 
thirty-five years, in fourteen of which he 



was running a stage-line, and twenty-one 
with this company, in not using salt, and 
in freely watering horses regardless of 
weather or the condition of the horse has 
proved most satisfactory, never having had 
a horse foundered or sickened by drinking 
too much water. 

Horses going out on early trips are in- 
spected late the night before. In the morn- 
ing the whole barn is inspected, and extra 
horses are assigned to the places of those 
unfit for work. As they are known only by 
number, the hitchers know by consulting 
the daily-slate, just what horses to send 
out, and when, and with what driver. 
This also provides for replacing any dis- 
abled during the day. Each team works 
the same hours every day, and they are 
assigned to such trips as the work, and their 
ability warrants. Fitty and low-bred 
horses, and those that cannot stand the sun, 
are assigned early and late trips. 

Sick and disabled horses are cared for by 
the Superintendent and his assistants, the 
amount paid yearly for veterinary services 
being insignificant. Very little trouble is 
had from colic, fevers or other sicknesses. 
The principal, and it might be said, the 
whole trouble met with, proceeds from 
strains from slipping, affecting the hind 
legs, back and kidneys, producing in many 
cases j> ara ty s i s from which they rarely 
wholly recovers. Many, however, recover 
sufficiently to work on light trips. Neces- 
sarily they suffer to some extent from 
bruises or accidental injuries, but most of 
such cases are successfully treated. 

Some years since " Farcy"' was found in 
the company's barns, vigorous measures 
were immediately taken by the destruction 
of every animal showing symptoms of the 
disease, and a thorough fumigation of the 
buildings, stamping it out completely with 
a loss of only seven horses out of 250 in the 
barns affected. 

The treatment of paralysis, now a com- 
mon disease, has been most unsatisfac- 
tory. The best success has been by stimu- 
lating, keeping the bowels open, mustard 
and penetrating liniments, and rest. There 
is a short connecting line from the main 
barn to a branch road, on which weak and 
partially disabled horses are used while re- j 
cruiting. Any horses not able to do this 
work are sold or sent to the boiling-house. 

The average period of usefulness of the j 
horse is found to be from six and a half to 
seven years. The business has increased so 
rapidly in the last seven years, requiring 
the purchase of so many new horses, that ! 
the average, without question, is lower for j 
that reason. 

The company does its own shoeing at the 
main barn. At the other barns, the shoeing 
is done by contract, the cost per horse for 
shoeing for last year was $19.64. Burden's 
medium shoes are used. 

Experience of the Superintendent of 
the Montreal City Passenger Railway Com- 
pany: 
J. E. Rugg, Esq., 

Dear Sir :— In complying with your de- 
sire of having my views on the general 
maintenance of street railway stables, I 
have no hesitation to say that this part of 
the street railway business is one of the 
most important. This is very evident when 
we consider that its maintenance consti- 
tutes over one-third of the total operating 
expenses. 

In my opinion, street-car horses should 
not be purchased younger than five and not 
older than seven years. Horses about these 
ages will last here on an average about eight 
years. 

I consider that 80 pounds of feed is little 
enough for car-horses every day. 

The mileage per horse with us, is about 
14 miles per day. 

We use hay and oats, but no cut feed; I 
consider that although there is a saving in 
cut and bruised feed, the extra expenses 
will counterbalance. Of course, we use no 
corn; I believe that there is a saving in 
horseflesh by excluding corn from the feed. 



I find that by confining our feed to hay and 
oats, the average life of our horses is much 
longer than that of those where corn is 
used. 

Now with regard to stabling. I believe 
the less wood in the construction the better 
for the healthy condition of the stables. 
Wood, in a very few years, will get soaked 
with all sorts of impurities, so much so, 
that the proper purifying of it becomes al- 
most an impossibility; and as a matter of 
course, paralyzes, to a great extent, the 
proper ventilation. 

Ventilation cannot be too perfect. I con- 
sider that the usual upper or roof ventila- 
ation is not sufficient, unless aided by side 
ventilation. I have often noticed that side 
ventilation in most stables is entirely insuf- 
ficient, being generally too high. The thick 
atmosphere always charged with stable- 
ammonia is very heavy, and will rise with 
considerable difficulty if not aided by an 
under-current draught. 

I consider under-floor drainage very bad. 
This kind of drainage is more a receptacle 
for disease-breeding matter, than it is a 
cleansing arrangement. The drainage 
should always be from the surface. Floors 
should be subjected to a thorough washing 
at least twice or three times a week. Lime 
and carbolic acid should be used freely. 

With regard to shoeing, of course it must 
vary in accordance with the various sys- 
tems of roadway. 

I believe that on pavements flat shoes are 
the best. On macadamized, toes and calks 
are necessary as a protection to the feet. In 
the latter case heavy shoes are indispens- 
able. 

In my experience of several years, I have 
found that the observance of the above 
ways has succeeded in maintaining our 
stables in fine condition. 

With regard to our buildings, they are of 
old construction and do not contain enough 
of the modern improvements to form a 
model subject for submission to the coming 
general meeting. 

In my travels and visits I have found that 
your stables and those of the Sixth Avenue 
Railroad Company, of New York City, were 
about the most perfect. 

We still groom with the old system of 
grooming. It appears that opinion is gen- 
erally divided on the grooming machine. 

I believe that hay and oats are by far the 
best feed for horses, with a small allow- 
ance of bran twice a week. 

Our speed is about six miles an hour, 
which I believe quite enough. 

The above detail, of course, I glean from 
my own observations on the working of our 
roads; but I believe our horses get as much 
work as any other stable on the continent, 
and their condition is inferior to none that 
I have seen. Yours, very truly, 

T. H. ROBILLARD, 

Supt. M. C. P. R. Co. 



DISCUSSION ON THE SALT REPORT. 

Mr. A. W. Wright, Chicago, said that 
the N. C. R. R. Co., had baths 48 x 54", 14 ' 
deep. 1 bushel salt in each, each horse 
spending 3 to 6 hours per day in them; 
strength 1 in 37. or twice that of ocean 
water. On streets they used 1 bushel salt 
per mile of single track; used snow-plows 
and sweepers; proportion of salt in melted 
snow only 1 in 14 T ]j T . 

Mr. Cleminshaw, Troy, asked the object 
of the salt baths. 

Mr. Wm. White emphatically agreed 
with the report, but it was deficient in one 
thing. In New York the debris caused the 
tracks to be a continuous cesspool in win- 
ter, which gave the horses thrush, sore 
legs and "scratches." Every sidewalk should 
have salt put on it to melt the snow; every 
householder should be compelled to sweep 
the snow to the gutter, and the R. R. Co. to 
sweep into sewers. 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[November, 1884. 



Mr. Wm. Richardson said, that in 
Brooklyn they had fought this question so 
that the city had not passed any ordinance 
against salting. They had got written tes- 
timony of Registrars of Vital Statistics and 
of Health Officers during 15 years that 
salting was beneficial; had brought state- 
ments of Dr. Hutchinson, Dr. Wm. M. 
Smith, Health Officer of New York City, 
and of Dr. Elisha Harris, Sec. State Board 
of Health Commissioners. They showed 
that scarlet fever, etc., had been most prev- 
alent in unsalted streets, and from May to 
November. But after the matter was put 
in that part of the Penal Code relating to 
Cruelty to Animals, they had had to fight it. 

Mr. D. B. Hasbrouck, New York, said 
that in New York the feeling against salting 
was most wrought up. 

Mr. Wright, Chicago, said that their 
salt baths were to remove soreness and to 
cause the hoofs to grow; they found this 
salting feet paid. 

Mr. Robillard, Montreal, thought salt a 
good remedial agency. 

Dr. Elijah Whitney suggested salting 
streets from curb to curb, and sweeping 
into sewers. It was the debris that did the 
damage. Salting all the streets would add 
20 to 30 per cent, to the health of New York 
City. 

(To be Continued.) 



The Cable System as a Motive Power. 

The American Street- Railway Association, 

Gentlemen:— So completely has the 
country been flooded with literature per- 
tainiug to "The Cable System of Motive 
Power," that the writer of this report has 
no hope of offering any new facts; but since 
the system has acquired such magnitude 
and prospects, it may be fitting that the 
archives of the Association should possess 
some brief record of its beginning and pro- 
gress. 

Climbing the steep hills of San Francisco, 
the fertile genius of Mr. A. S. Hallidie con- 
ceived the idea that transportation, which 
could not be accomplished by animal power, 
might be by endless ropes; and to him and 
his associates, all credit is due for the first 
successful construction and operation of 
the system, eleven years ago. 

What seems so easy and natural in the 
retrospect, lay before those men an untried, 
and, in the opinion of many, a foolhardy 
undertaking. The money invested was re- 
garded as squandered, and the whole 
scheme a trifling with the impossible. But 
through innumerable difficulties and trials, 
they persevered, until intelligent experi- 
ment and dauntless courage wrought suc- 
cess. Clay Street Hill became world re- 
nowned for its novel and ingenious railway, 
the advantages of which, soon caused paral- 
lel lines on steep grades to be constructed 
on Sutter Street, California Street, Geary 
Street, Union Street, and recently one on 
the more level line of Market Street and its 
branches. 

After the first four lines had been built, 
covering short distances and carrying few 
people, a road was constructed in Chicago 
in 1881. The latter city claims not one iota 
of credit for the invention of the cable sys- 
tem, but did undertake the somewhat seri- 
ous task of demonstrating 

First: That the system could be utilized 
n a region of harsh winters, deep snow and 
frost, the antipodes of the balmy climate 
and perpetual summer of Calif ornin , and, 

Second: That it could be expanded into a 
suitable system for moving the vast popu- 
lation of our largest cities. 

The former could not be accomplished by 
any fragile construction but required great 
strength and compactness to resist the 
strains inevitable in a large commercial 
city, and the powerful pressure of the frost 
in a Northern winter. The latter could not 
be accomplished by any mile, or mile and a 
half, of timid trying; but with unshaken 
faith in its method of construction and the 
possibilities of the system, twenty miles of 
track were constructed, and the daily trans- 



portation of 100,000 people attained, with 
the ability to move five times as many. 

In addition to the lines indicated above, 
cars have been moved by cable for fifteen 
months over the New York and Brooklyn 
Bridge; an extensive system is building in 
Philadelphia; a line in New York, one in 
Kansas City, and one in Hoboken, and com- 
prehensive systems have been proposed for 
New York and Brooklyn. Recently under 
the superintendence of American engineers 
this purely American system has been in- 
troduced and short lines constructed in 
London, Eng., South Wales and New Zea- 
land. 

The construction consists of an under- 
ground tube through which the cable passe, 
(supported by grooved pulleys,) in constant 
motion and at uniform rate of speed. The 
tube is provided with sewer connections for 
drainage, and an open slot on the tops 
through which passes a gripping device 
which is attached to a car. The cable is 
kept in motion, and its speed regulated by 
a stationary engine or engines. The rope 
is endless and the splices must possess great 
strength, but not increased the diameter of 
the rope, as any enlargement would in cm- 
severe and dangerous abrasion. It should 
be coated with pine tar and lubricated with 
linseed oil to protect it from rust and the 
too harsh action of the grips. The drums 
which impart motion to the cable, and the 
sheaves which carry it around sharp cor- 
ners, should have a diameter about one 
hundred times the diameter of the rope 
Of what material the rope should be made 
t) secure the best returns is a question of 
great importance, affected by climate, the 
rate of speed it is to run, the frequency of 
stopping and starting, the character of the 
gripping device and the manner of apply- 
ing the same, and the hilly or level charac- 
ter of the road . In cases of sharp d eflection s 
from a level, pulleys are required to depress 
the rope, and as these must be small to 
allow the grip to pass below them, the 
wear upon the cable is serious. To meet 
these conditious, flexibility and toughness, 
combined with strength and freedom from 
crystalization are needed. 

Another important feature in a cable sys- 
tem is the device for automatically securing 
the proper tension of the rope. The extent of 
vibration will depend on its length, amount- 
ing in one four miles long, to some five 
feet, and is caused by the sudden grappling 
of the cable by a heavily loaded train. As 
the rope settles some two and a half inches 
between every two carrying pulleys over 
the entire road, the sudden tightening and 
stretching of the cable produces an accu- 
mulation. If this were not instantly taken 
care of, the rope would drop from the car- 
rying pulleys and sheaves and be destroyed; 
also violent surgings of the trains would 
ensue. Were the rope to be draw so rigidly 
as to prevent this settling, the intense strain 
would soon destroy the cable and the oper- 
ating machinery. Provision is also made 
in this device for taking care of the perma- 
nent stretch of the cable amounting some- 
times to two hundred feet. 

The gripping attachment should be 
prompt and positive in its action, and, in 
the most successful forms yet devised, con- 
sists of an upper and lower jaw, between 
which, the cable is seized by the movement 
of a lever, one pound of pressure on the 
handle of which produces four hundred 
pounds pressure on the cable. A small 
sheave is placed at each end of the jaw, 
upon which the cable rides while the car is 
standing. Provision is also made for throw- 
ing the cable out of the grip and entirely 
free from it at any time or place. Exigen- 
cies may arise when this is of the utmost 
importance. The length of the grip issuch 
that it passes some three inches above the 
carrying pulleys and does not come in con- 
tact with them. The cable is brought into 
the open jaws by an elevating sheave jjlaced 
at an angle on one side of the tube. The 
metal used for lining the grip performs 2000 
miles of service, when it requires renewal. 
In Chicago a speed of eight and a half 



miles an hour is attained over one half the 
lines, andnine and one-half miles over the 
other half; except in a few places where the 
speed is one half the above rates and can be 
made as much less at any point as may be 
desired. To operate at this speed with 
safety, the cars are provided with ample 
guards which prevent any one from falling 
under the wheels, and powerful brakes, 
can be applied to every wheel in the entire 
train by the easy movement of a lever in 
the hands of the driver. 

The system possesses special advantages 
in heavy snow-storms, as the power is not 
derived from friction on the rail, but tbe 
apphances for clearing and sweeping the 
track are drawn swiftly and at short inter- 
vals by an untiring power. More power is 
required during a snow-storm, but in ordi- 
nary conditions, the operation of twenty 
and one-fourth miles of cable in Chicago 
has required 477 horse-power; of this 389 
was used in moving machinery and cables, 
and 88 to move the 240 cars and their pas- 
sengers. The cable and its coating weighs 
about 270,000 pounds, and is doing work 
which would require 2,500 horses. 

In hilly sections where horses and loco- 
motives would be useless for the purpose, 
the cable system can move cars as quickly 
and swiftly as on a level road; and on level 
roads it is found t o be only one-half as ex- 
pensive in operation, as the ordinary horse- 
railway system, while its capacity for mov- 
ing vast numbers of people is practically 
unlimited. It is the only system yet de- 
vised, which satisfactorily meets the uneven 
pressure for transportation with the least 
possible increase in expense. No difficulty 
is experienced in turning corners, either 
with main cables or auxiliaries. 

As regards humanity for horses and con- 
sideration for the nerves of passengers, it 
commends itself to all. In point of cleanli- 
ness, a system which saves the use of thou- 
sands of animals in a city is of great sanitary 
value, and the comparative quietness of its 
operations is highly appreciated by those 
who reside beside it. 

The speed at which it runs, and the quick- 
ness and ease with which it starts and stops 
adds to the comfort and well-being of its 
patrons; and when equipped with tha pres- 
ent safeguards and appliances, is found to 
be far more safe to the general, public than 
the ordinary horse-car. It has no will of 
its own to thwart the will and efforts of 
the faithful driver. 

The increase in the value of real estate 
along the street where it operates, and on 
parallel and cross streets for several blocks 
each way, is many times the cost of its con- 
struction, being from 50 to 200 per cent, in 
a single year. 

The cost of construction is much greater 
than that of an ordinary tramway, but the 
economy of operation far outweighs this 
objection, as it saves more than the interest 
on tbe increased cost. 

In Chicago, the cost was perhaps greater 
than would be necessary in most cities, 
owing to the nature of the ground, reach- 
ing $105,000 per mile of single track. Too 
much stress cannot, however, be laid upon 
the importance, the absolute necessity, of a 
substantial and durable structure which will 
not be broken er displaced by heavy trucks 
or by the pitiless frost. If all the parts and 
appliances are well and permanently built 
with ample safeties in point of strength, 
and vigilance attends its operation, it will 
prove a great and unalloyed blessing to any 
city, and bring satisfaction and recompense 
to its owners. 

The limits of this report will not allow 
allusion to the manifold improvements 
made and making in many quarters, in its 
construction and appliances, but what has 
been accomplished in so short a time is 
ample guarantee that vast good is yet to 
come from " The Cable System as a Motive 
Power." In behalf of your committee, 
this report is respectfully submitted. 
C. B. Holmes. 

Chairman. 
Chicago, October 15tb, 1884. 



November, 188+.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



Labor and the Graduated System of 
Compensation. 

Gentlemen : 

Your committee on ' ' Labor and the grad- 
uated system of compensation," beg leave 
to report as follows: — 

The labor system of street railway com- 
panies has this peculiarity, viz. : it is inti- 
mately connected with metropolitan soci- 
ety, and is, consequently, much exposed to 
disturbing influences; it is also distinguished 
by the fact, that the entire income of the 
corporation is collected in small amounts by 
a numerous set of employees. These fea- 
tures render its regulation a matter of con- 
siderable perplexity, and make it all the 
more important that it should be systema- 
tized on simple, practical principles. Street 
railways are pu blic carriers running through 
dense populations, their relations to the 
public being determined in a large measure 
by their employees. Hence it is, that at 
the outset of an inquiry as to the best means 
of regulating their labor system, arises the 
obvious necessity for mutual good- will be- 
tween the companies and the labor they 
control. 

In the acquisition of experience in man- 
aging street railways, and in closely watch- 
ing the details of their operation, the 
stronger is our conviction that the best 
guarantee of the labor employed lies in the 
fidelity, competency and honesty of the 
men, rather than in any ingenuity of me- 
chanical checks, or other protective or de- 
tective arrangements. 

This conclusion may be regarded more as 
a sentiment than a safe tale of business, 
and others may question the practical econ- 
omy of a proposition that savors of senti- 
ment alone, than an enforcement of faithful 
service by arbitrary methods. From a purely 
business stand-point, it is true of all forms 
in which invested capital depends for returns 
on regular continuous labor, that to awake 
in the employees an interest in their duties 
and a "personal friendship towards the cor- 
poration employing them, is the best basis 
for permanent profits. The moral average 
of men is as yet u nknown, and wherever a 
large force is employed, there will always 
be found a certain per centage of disloyalty, 
duplicity and dishonesty. 

To expect to find in artificial devices a 
complete substitute for personal honesty or 
for faithful services willingly rendered is 
fallacious; and we must look farther and 
sink deeper. 

All appointments to positions should be 
made from that class which would dignify 
labor, and avoided from that class, which by 
habit, training or education are suited to 
higher avocations; and in no case should 
any device for safe guard in handling 
money be used that will blunt moral sensi- 
bilities. 

The employees of railway corporations 
cannot properly be classified under the head 
of "skilled labor." The capital invested 
and its returns is largely at the mercy of 
the employees, and in few corporations does 
loss of money more immediatly result from 
inefficient or wasteful labor, or profit more 
quickly accrue from intelligent and consci- 
entious effort, than in street car companies. 
But, nevertheless, the services exacted from 
conductors, drivers and stablemen are not 
of such a character as to require an appren- 
ticeship to understand. Any man of aver- 
age intelligence can discharge the duties, 
and, although he may not be at first as effi- 
cient as an old hand, yet a few days, if he 
be industrious and attentive, wflTgive all 
the experience that is really necessary. It 
is, therefore, unwise for them to represent 
themselves as skilled workmen, or to allow 
themselves to fall into the pernicious notion 
that they are as indispensable to their em- 
ployers, and as difficult to replace as the 
craftsmen in specified trades and manufac- 
turers. In presenting this view, it is only 
for the purpose of more forcibly referring 
to the vital importance of managing and 
directing the labor system. Unless em- 
ployees of lines are faithful, energetic and 



economical, it is impossible to obtain sub- 
stantial success. The neglect or abuse of 
stock or the running gear of cars, the waste 
of feed, caiiessness or insolence towards the 
public, and indifference or dishonesty in the 
collection of fares, are all means by which 
employees can impair the operations and 
entail losses upon these corporations. 

To fully guard all these openings, to es- 
tablish a system of checks by which fraud 
or negligence can be detected or prevented 
is, we are fully persuaded, almost impossible. 

A corporation is an artificial person, ex- 
isting only in the contemplation of law, 
but this does not deprive it of a certain in- 
dividualism; and the employers are gov- 
erned by a distinctive spirit, that in turn 
regulates their feeling of the service towards 
it. Sometimes that spirit is harsh, arbi- 
trary and exacting; sometimes loose and 
improvident; sometimes strict in the en- 
forcement of rules, but tempered with jus- 
tice and moderation. Whatever it may be, 
the employes know it, and their services 
take color from it; and it is highly import- 
ant that they should have a clear and defi- 
nite understanding of the estimate placed 
on their labor. They should be taught in 
the first place, that the management does 
not regard them as skilled workmen; that a 
'strike" may interrupt, but can in no way 
stop operations; that if they were all to re- 
sign on the same day the company could 
go ahead the following, not perhaps satis- 
factorily, but sufficiently so to maintain 
business, and that but a short time would 
suffice to obliterate all effects of the inter- 
ruption. While insisting upon this general 
feature respecting labor, the men should be 
made to feel that, if they are not classified 
as representing skilled labor, neither are 
they on the other hand regarded as regular 
day -laborers; that good judgment, prompti- i 
tude and experience are fully appreciated; j 
that the managements intend and aim to re- 
ward fidelity, and that as long as they are j 
trustworthy, they are sure of their places, 
and that continued conscientious service j 
will be recognized. Promising these gen- 
eral views, there remains to be noticed 
what in our opinion are the best means of 
producing the relations mentioned as most 
desirable. 

It should be a settled principle that dis- 
charges as tar as possible shall not be capri- 
cious or without cause, and that promotions 
will be made on the basis of length of ser- 
vice and personal merit. The labor system 
of an ordinary line is not sufficiently varied 
or extensive to embrace a regular scale of 
promotions, but the principle should be re- 
cognized and established, that the manage- 
ment is influenced by the relative merits of 
their employees; that there is no favoritism 
tolerated, and that a faithful and efficient 
man will not be overlooked or unfairly 
treated. When the men are educated to 
understand this, an "esprit du corps" will 
gradually spring up and a guarantee of 
good work secured, obtainable in no other 
way. In enforcing a system of fair promo- 
tions and a strictly equitable treatment of 
labor, much dependence must, necessarily, 
be placed upon the reports of other officers. 
It is, therefore, of essential importance that 
they should be honorable and just men, as 
well as energetic and vigilant, and that their 
reports should be reviewed carefully by the 
chief executive officer, through whose in- 
dividuality flows the inspiration of manage- 
ment. 

A graduated system of compensation, re- 
gulated according to length of service and 
general efficiency, would also, if judiciously 
introduced, be productive of beneficial re- 
sults. Such a system could not be created 
summarily, but by establishing conditions 
as to the filling of vacancies and fixing a 
lower rate of pay for new appointees, and 
the terms upon which their advancement 
will take place, a complete system may soon 
be created, the features of which can be ad- 
justed to suit the particular circumstances 
surrounding the operation of each particu- 
lar line. A man who possesses experience, 
and whom the company has tested and 



found reliable and competent, is certainly 
worth more wages than a comparatively 
new appointee. 

His services are more pecuniarily profit- 
able, and there is a corresponding loss 
when a new man is placed upon the same 
footing. 

A graduated system of compensation 
should be based upon a permanent and 
well-known classification of the men, and 
by this means there might be, if desirable, 
a saving of wages and a better recognition 
of individual merit and demerit. The sys- 
tem once established would tend to promote 
fidelity and self-respect among the em- 
ployees; seeing its justice they would co- 
operate in its maintenance ; and at the 
same time it would improve the relation of 
capital and labor and give to the men a 
stronger personal interest in the permanency 
of their employment. 

The use of all kind of registers and other 
detective arrangements and contrivances 
simply expresses distrust; all of them rep- 
resent the same efforts of experience and 
ingenuity to devise a. substitute for personal 
honesty; all of them are imperfect and irri- 
tating, tending to blunt moral sensibili- 
ties and foster want of confidence. 

It is undoubtedly true that these devices 
cannot be dispensed with under the condi- 
tions that now exist, and the views here ex- 
pressed have reference rather to general 
principles of the regulations of labor, than 
to the details of detective measures; yet we 
cannot fail to see in their introduction a 
great disturbing element. We will not, 
therefore, discuss the relative values of the 
various contrivances, but insist that were 
it an established fact, that these artificial 
means were indispensable, yet, even then, 
the principles herein set forth ought to con- 
trol the labor system of street-railways. 
The losses incurred by strikes, from which 
we have not been exempt, the ceaseless dis- 
cussion of the relation between labor and 
capital, incident to modern lines; and the 
increasing sensitiveness of capital to social 
disquiet, all unmistakably suggest, that, so 
far as possible, corporations employing 
large forces of men should ground their 
policy on equity, and avoid unnecessary an- 
tagonisms and consequent hostile legisla- 
tion. We owe this duty to society, and we 
owe it to the large interests confided to our 
charge. It may be impossible to prevent 
occasional disputes, but when they arise, 
we should not be found evidently in the 
wrong, and bear the stigma of oppressing 
labor, or of neglecting wise and just rules 
for its employment and control. 

We feel assured that the application of 
principles herein indicated will not increase 
the expense of operation, and will remove 
much of the anxiety and difficulty con- 
nected with the management of street rail- 
ways. 

We recommend no sudden and sweeping 
changes, because the labor system support- 
ing all industrial investments of capital 
cannot be summarily altered without con- 
fusion or loss. It crystalizes in fixed forms 
with the passage of years : and changes, 
even for improvement, should be gradually 
introduced. 

In conclusion, we recommend that the 
principles of management we have briefly 
outlined, should be steadily held in view in 
the treatment of labor, and so far as pos- 
sible incorporated in the practical opera- 
tion of railway lines. 

Respectfully submitted. 

' Julius S. Walsh, 
Jacob Rehm, 
Harvey N. Rowe. 

The following letter was submitted as a 
part of the report of the committee : 

Office of the North Chicago ) 
City Railway Company, V 
Chicago, October 10th, 1884. ) 
Wm. H. Hazard, Esq., President American 

Street Railway Association, Brooklyn. 

N. Y. 

Dear Sir : — Having been appointed by 
you as an associate member of the com- 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[November, 1884. 



mittee on " Labor and the Graduating Sys- 
tem of Compensation" (as refers to labor 
employed by street railway companies), I 
beg leave to report the following on the 
subject: 

For several years our company has divided 
all of its drivers and conductors into four 
classes or grades, as experienced hands are 
of more value to the co mpany than those 
just entering our service. We require every 
man in our employ to remain for the space 
of two months in the first class, receiving a 
compensation of $1.50 per diem. After the 
expiration of two months he enters the 
second class or grade, remaining therein 
for four months, receiving a salary of $1.75 
daily for his services. After the expiration 
of the last-named four months, he advances 
into the third class or grade, remaining 
therein six months, and receiving the sum 
of $2.00 as a daily compensation for his 
labor. Having thus served our company 
for the space of twelve months, and having 
become thoroughly acquainted with the 
duties to be performed by him, and fully 
able to discharge them intelligently, the 
laborer enters the fourth class, and his 
wages are advanced to $2.25, which is a 
higher sum than any laboring man can 
earn. 

The graduated system of compensation 
works well with us here, and makes ' -strikes" 
an impossibility. No honest and intelligent 
laborer will "strike" for higher wages, 
when he knows that by serving through a 
regular course, he will attain what he can- 
not possibly get anywhere else. 

Any laboring man who enters our service 
and has been with us for two months is only 
too anxious to stay, because his wages will 
be increased for the coming four months. 
In short, the longer they stay the better is 
their pay. 

Furthermore, this system furnishes us 
a reliable and trustworthy set of workmen, 
because the longer they stay the more effi- 
cient they become in the discharge of their 
several duties. Such a wage system secures 
to us steady and punctual men, who per- 
form their work more cheerfully because 
they know that their value is acknowledged 
by the company, which remunerates them 
for their services with the highest possible 
wages. 

This system of graduating the wages 
works well here with us. It works some- 
what after the manner of a school of pro- 
bation. After the men have worked through 
it, they find it to their interest to remain 
with us. We have all reason to be 
satisfied with the system, having by it 
secured a lot of good, steady and reliable 
men. who generally stay unless discharged 
for cause. The average hours per man per 
day is ll}^ hours. I have the honor to be, 
Your obedient servant, 
Jacob Rehm. 
Vice-president, North Chicago 
City Kail way Co. 



Completed Construction of New Road. 

In the construction of street railways, it is evident 
that while we must endeavor to get the best roadway 
for the cars, due regard must be paid to the require- 
ments of the general travel, and to the local laws 
governing the form of rail and other details ; so 
that we are not at liberty to use the best means to 
accomplish the end desired. In fact, the matter is 
often so hampered with municipal regulations, that 
it is impossible to accomplish more than an imper- 
fect and unsatisfactory solution of the question. 

The best form of rail for the purposes of the railway 
companyaloneis.undoubtedly, the "centre-bearing," 
as the weight of the car wheel in this case bears 
directly upon the centre of the rail, and is trans- 
mitted evenly to the centre of the stringer, so that 
the track is in the best position to resist the outward 
pressure which is constantly tending to widen its 
gauge, and otherwise injure its condition. The spikes 
with this form are placed alternately on either side 
of the head, so that the rail, besides having a better 
bearing on the timber as above stated, is held down 
equally on both sides. The car wheels run more 



smoothly and with less friction than upon any other 
form, as there can be no possible contact with any 
paving stones, and the open space provided on the 
outside has a tendency to keep the head of the rail 
free from dirt and grit. This is especially the case I 
during cold weather, when one of the most serious I 
difficulties in operating street railways arises from 
frozen mud. ice or snow getting upon the rails, I 
even when the greatest care is taken to keep the 
track clear. The centre-bearing is the standard 
street rail now in use in New York City, and it is 
used to a considerable extent in Brooklyn and a few 
other places. 

In the next form, known as the " slope-back," the 
bearing is approximately in the centre, the head 
being about three inches wide, and beveled or sloped 
off on the outer edge, so that to a certain extent 
it gives the advantages above enumerated for the 
centre-bearing rail, but only to a limited degree. 

The " side-bearing" pattern, with its many varia- 
tions. Is that which is mest generally in use in the 
United States; not because it is the best, but because 
it is the best that the railway companies are per- 
mitted to put down, as wagon wheels can readily get 
on the track, and it gives a good wide tramway for 
general travel. This very fact however, is a great 
detriment, as the general traffic is invited by its 
smoothness and other advantxges to run upon it. 
Heavy teams going at a slow rate are constantly in 
the way of the faster moving cars, and the rails are 
not only worn out by this travel, but the speed of the 
cars and the general business of the road interfered 
with. A very serious objection to all side-bearing 
forms is that the weight of the cars being entirely 
on the outer side, that part of the rail wears into the 
stringer sooner than the other, causing the rail to roll 
out of level and to widen the gauge of the track. All 
forms in which the head of the rail is narrower than 
the tread of the car wheel should be avoided, as the 
wearing surface is too little, and in the side-bearing 
patterns this is especially the case, for unless the 
head is as wide as the tread the projecting edge of 
the wheel will be constantly striking against the pav- 
ing stones outside of the rail when the track is new, 
or the pavement is relaid. This will only cease when 
the paving stones shall have been gradually worn 
away by the action of the wheels, which is a very 
objectionable and costly process, or when they shall 
have been knocked down or otherwise settled below 
the head of the rail. 

Your committee, would, therefore, recommend the 
adoption of the centre-bearing form of rail in all cases 
that it will be allowed by the local authorities, es- 
pecially where the streets or avenues are wide 
enough to provide the general travel of the street a 
good and sufficient roadway, outside of the space 
occupied by the railway. 

Where the service is* heavy, a rail weighing sixty 
pounds to the yard will be found the most satisfac- 
tory and in the end the most economical: but upon 
roads with lighter travel this is not necessary, 
though it should always be borne in mind that it 
is imoossible to get satisfactory results when mate- 
rials of poor quality or insufficient size or weight are 
used. It is not the first cost that should be regarded 
altogether, for if the railway is well built with good 
and sufficient materials the annual wear and tear 
will be proportionately reduced, so that the profit 
and loss account from year to year will not be 
charged with constant repairs rendered needful by 
poor or scanty construction at the outset. 

The spike-holes should be about twelve inches 
apart, so that when the rails are first laid it will be 
enough to spike every alternate hole thus leaving 
new holes with their original countersink to be used 
when the others shall have become worn too large 
and be unfit to retain the strikes. The rails should 
be carefully inspected, and any that are not cut 
square at the ends or not straight and level should 
be rejected and returned to the mill. 

As the gauge of street railways is almost alwavs 
established by the local authorities to conform with 
the legal gauge of the ordinary vehicles of such 
city, there is in consequence no universal or standard 
gauge for them. Your committee is. however, of 
the opinion that from four feet eight inches to five 
feet two inches gauge will give the most satisfactory 
results as a general rule. 

Where double tracks are laid, there should be 
ample space for the cars to pass each other on both 
the straight tracks and the curves without danger of 
striking. Five feet between gauge-lines, unless the 
cars are exceptionally large and wide, will be a suf- 
ficient distance: and with straight tracks it will also 
allow a man to stand betweeu the cars while passing 
each other, which may prevent many accidents. 

All joints of the rails should have rolled iron joint- 
plates not less than eighteen inches long.plac?d under 
them. These should have vertical flanges to fit 
against the sides of the rails, so as to keep them in 
line with each other and to increase the vertical 
strength of the joint-plate itself. If the track is laid 
in cold weather, the joints of the rails should be kept 
anart three-eighths of an inch to allow for expansion 
of the rails in summer- and this space should be less 
when the rails are laid, as the temperature rises, al- 
though the ends of the rails should never be laid less 
than one-eighth of an inch apart even in mid-day of 
the very hottest weather. 

The rail spikes should be five and a half or six 
inches long, of one-half inch square iron, with coun- 
tersink heads, to fit into and not project above the 
countersink in the rail itself. They should be of good 
tough iron, so that when driven, the heads will not 
fly off under the strokes of the hammer. 

As street-railways are nowusually constructed, the 
rails are placed upon longitudinal wooden stringers, 
resting upon transverse wooden cross-ties. Where it 
can be obtained at a reasonable cost, your committee 



recommends the use of yellow pine, free from sap- 
growth, and cut from trees that have not been 
tapped. As a general rule, the best yellow pine rail- 
road lumber is brought from Georgia or Florida, and 
in all cities near the seaboard, at least, the rate of 
freight is low enough to justify its use for stringers 
and cross-ties. Of course, this may not be so in 
cities or towns far inland, and in such cases, other 
lumber must be used which can be more conveniently 
and reasonably obtained . The ties should be of equal 
size, in order to give a uniform bearing and support 
to the track; for if they are of unequal surface, the 
track will be better held up bj the large ties than the 
smaller ones, thus causing it to be uneven and irre- 
gular. For the same reason, they should be placed 
at a uniform distance apart, five feet from centre to 
centre, being probably the most desirable. Unifor- 
mity of dimensions can be more certainly had if the 
ties are sawed than if hewed, and in addition to this 
the stringers will then always have a good flat bear- 
ing upon them. The joints of the stringers should 
never be under the joints of the rails. The stringers 
should be not less than seven inches deep, and of the 
same width as the rail which is to lie upon them, un- 
less it should be one of the narrow forms of rail, in 
which case the timber should project on both sides 
not more, however, than one half inch. It should 
then be beveled off on the upper edges to the width 
of the rail before putting down the pavement. The 
stringers should be, at least, twenty five feet long, in 
lengths divisible by five feet, so that there will be no 
waste in cutting off useless ends to allow the joints of 
the stringers to come exactly upon the cross-ties. Of 
course where there is exceptionally heavy service, it 
may be of advantage to place the ties four feet from 
centre to centre, and the size of the ties may then be 
increased to advantage, say five inches high by seven 
inches wide, although generally four inches by six 
inches is large enough. The ties should project out- 
side of the stringers on both sides at least nine inches, 
and the stringers on the outside should be fastened 
to the ties by cast iron knees not less than six inches 
high and six inches long, and on the inside by similar 
knees three inches high and three inches long. The 
long knees on the outside tend to keep the stringer in 
a perpendicular position and so to preserve the gauge 
of the track: for tracks never get narrower, all the 
conditions of their use tending to press them out- 
wards and to widen the gauge. At all joints of strin- 
gers, joint kntes should be used on both the inside 
and outside of the stringers, and they should 
be broad enough to bear against and be 
spiked to the contiguous ends of the same, thus 
keeping them in line. The spikes used for these cast- 
iron knees should be three and a half or four inches 
long, and three-eighths of an inch square, with but- 
ton-heads The knees should be of good strong iron, 
so as not to break easily, in case the workman should 
miss the spike and accidentally hit the knee itself, 
and all the spike-holes should be carefully drifted 
out. so that in driving the knee-spikes, they will not 
wedge in the holes and split the knee. 

It is very important to have the ties and stringers 
well and solidly tamped-up, and a straight line and 
even surface carefully obtained. This is a matter 
which is often slighted, but which should be attended 
to with great care. 

A very troublesome and expensive item of repairs 
is often caused by the wheels of heavy wagons mak- 
ing ruts alongside of the rails, thus causing the track 
to get out of gauge, and otherwise wrenching and in- 
juring it. This can be, in a great measure, prevented 
by putting a row of substantial square-shaped pav- 
ing blocks on each side of each rail, which, after 
being thoroughly rammed, should be left about one- 
half inch above the rail, otherwise they will settle 
down so as to be below the rail, when their efficiency 
will be greatly lessened. 

All the undisturbed bed between the cross-ties 
should be loosened up with the pickaxe, so that all 
of the pavement shall have the same bearing, and it 
will settle alike all over. 

The best pavement for the horse path is probably 
had by using cobblestones about six inches long, 
about four inches wide and two or three inches thick. 
These dimensions give stones of moderate size, and 
of flat, oval form, so that when closely set on end 
they furnish a very good foothold for the horses, and 
the pavement can be kept in repair with a very 
reasonable cost. The horse path should be paved as 
nearly as possible level, and all crowning or eleva- 
tion in the middle of the track sh'uld be avoided, so 
as to allow the horses' feet to travel evenly and 
squarely. The stones should be laid upon a bed of 
good, sharp gravel or coarse sand six inches deep; 
they should be thoroughly rammed three times, and 
left with a covering of the same material about one- 
half inch deep, from which all stones over an inch 
long should be raked off. 

At prope- and frequent intervals, suitable connec- 
t ; ons should be made with the sewers or with surface 
drains where sewers are not in use. If this matter 
is not properlv attended to. great inconvenience and 
expense will be caused, especially in cities where 
the melting of snow during winter causes a great 
accumulation of water upon the track, which, if not 
promptly removed, may. by a sudden change of 
weather freeze up solid on the track. In any event, 
no tr<ck can be properlv kept in order unless the 
surplus water is promptly and adequately drained 
off. The genera] elevationof the whole track should 
be a little higher than the rest of the street, to aid in 
draining the water away from the track. 

The radius of the curves will be governed by the 
width of the streets and other conditions, but it is 
always des'rab'e to avoid curves of small radius. A 
curve of fifty or sixty feet radius is probably the 
most desirable when it can be laid down, but in many 
cities the width of the streets will not permit curves 
of more than thirty or thirty-five feet radius, which, 
however, if properly laid, will give all reasonable 
satisfaction. The curved rails should be of the 
grooved form on both the inside and outside lires of 
the curve, although in curves of large radius it is 
not necessary to have the outer line laid with grooved 
rail; in such cases bending the rail used upon the 



KOVEMBER, 1884.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



rest of the track to propershape. The groove should 
be about one and a half inches wide, and the inner 
side or guard of the grooved rail should not be more 
than three eighths of an inch above the tread. Great 
care should oe taken in laying the curves to have 
them of regular curvature, uniform gauge, and with 
no abrupt changes of surface. Ordinarily, a curve 
laid with the inner and outer rails on the same level 
will give the best results in service, but there are in- 
stances when, from the grade of the streets it will 
be found necessary to elevate one rail higher than 
the other. The outer rail may then be elevated a 
few inches above the inner without any disadvan- 
tage, and possibly in some cases to advantage; but 
the inner rad should never be higher than the outer 
if it can possibly be avoided, although a slight differ- 
ence in this respect, where absolutely unavoidable, 
can be allowed, if the curve is very carefully and 
accurately laid down. The curves should always be 
so constructed and laid down that all four wheels of 
the car will bear equally upon therads; as other- 
wise, if any one of the wneels should have its por- 
tion of the load removed from it by reason of a 
depression in the track, it will have a tendency to 
run off the curve at that point. The curved rails 
shoidd be, when practicable, in lengths of thirty 
feet, so as to have as few joints as possible, and a 
straight guard-rail not less than seven feet long 
should be attached to each end of the inner line of 
the curve. 

On single track railways where it is necessary to 
have turnouts or passing places, they should be so 
constructed as to allow tue cars to run easily into 
and out of the turnout. This can be accomplished 
by making the curves leading into and out of the 
turnouts of large radius, say three hundred or three 
hundred and fifty feet. As, however, in cities the 
length required for this form of turnout is often in- 
admissible, it will then be necessary to use curves of 
shorter radius, aud a turnout with grooved rails of 
seventy-five feet radius will probably be found the 
most desirable undersuch circumstances. Where the 
curved rails of the turnout are of three hundred or 
three hundred and fifty feet radius, it will not be 
necessary to use any grooved rails, as the ordinary 
rails when carefully curved, whl be sufficient to 
guide the car wheels. 

The castings for all switches, frogs, and crossings 
should be made from hard, tough iron, and of sub- 
stantial size and weight. At each end of the cast- 
ing there should be a recess or pocket of the right 
size and shape to support and retain in position the 
ond of the adjoining rail; or, when two castings 
themselves abut together, the end on to which the 
cars run should rest in a pocket formed in the end of 
the other casting. Particular care should be taken 
to have all castings evenly and solidly bedded upon 
the timber supporting them, for otherwise they are 
liable to be broken by the shocks and strains of 
heavy loads crossing over them. At places where 
frogs or crossings are required and one of the tracks 
is used very much less than the other, it will often be 
found desirable to have the castings so made, as to 
allow a continuous rail to run through a recess in 
the casting, thus giving an unbroken rail to that one 
of the tracks which has much the greater travel, 
while the occasional cars running on the other track 
have their wheels so raised up that their flanges pass 
readily over ihe top of the continuous rail. "Toe- 
pieces," or slight projections, should be made on all 
castings, when, by the size or smoothness of 
the surfaces exposed, horses are otherwise liable to 
slip upon them, smooth spaces being left only where 
the cir-wheels run. 

The use of turntables should, wherever it is possible, 
be avoided, but as they will often be found neces- 
sary, it is important that those only should be used 
which will turn easily, present little or no obstruc- 
tion in the street, and require but a reasonable 
amount of repairs when in use. They should be set 
on brick or stone foundations laid oelow the frost- 
line, and they should be thoroughly provided with 
drainage. 

Within a recent period, and especially within the 
last five years, a very radical change has taken place 
in the manufacture of rails, whether for steam or 
horse-railroads; the material now used in the con- 
struction or repair of railways being almost univer- 
sally steel instead of iron; in fact it is now very diffi- 
cult to get iron rails, as the mills that formerly made 
them have mostly gone out of the business, or have 
changed their plant to make steel rails instead The 
improvements in the manufacture of steel have been 
so great that there is now no inducement 10 use the 
inferior article, as the superior can be had at the 
same or a less price. The service of steel rails on an 
average street-railway is, probably, at least three 
times that of iron rails of equal size and weight, the 
wear of the steel rails being also more even and 
re sular. One great cause of the rapid deterioration of 
iron rails furnished for street-railway use, arose from 
the fact that they would laminate and often split off in 
pieces of considerable size, so that the surfaces were 
not only worn away, but actually broken away and 
splintered off. Steel rails, on the contrary being of 
homogeneous and tough mateiial, are not subject to 
this objection, every particle that is worn off under 
service coming away by itself, but not dragging with 
it any other portion of the mass. 

Before closing, we must not omit to refer to the 
various forms of girder rails introduced within the 
last few years to a considerable extent, by which 
wooden stringers are altogether avoided. One great 
advantage that they give is that a perfectly secure 
and level joint can be had at the ends of the rails, as 
fish-plate joints can be used, similar in general char- 
acter to those in use on steam railroads. The dete- 
rioration of the roadway by reason of the decay and 
wearing away of the stringers under the rails is 
avoided, asno timber is used with them, exceptingfor 
cross-ties, and these are so far underground as to last 
a very much longer time than the stringers would 
last, not being exposed as they are to the constant 
changes of temperature and of moisture and dry- 
ness. It is quite possible that the standard street- 



railway of the near future will be constructed with 
steel girder rails set on iron or steel cross-ties, and 
held to gauge by iron tie-rods. 

No reference is made in this report to the construc- 
tion of cable-railways, as that whole subject is com- 
paratively new, and no special system of construction 
for such railways can as yet Le regarded as being 
proved to be the most desirable one. 

Wm. Wharton, Jr., Chairman of Committee. 
President of Cape May and Schellenger's Landing R. 
R. Co., Cape May, N. J. 

New York, October 15, 1884. 



Vose's Graduated City Car Spring. 

This is intended to do the same thing for 
horse cars as the graduated rubber cone 
spring made by the same firm.* The in- 




tention is to make the car ride softly and 
easily when empty, by putting the weight 
on only one of the concentric springs, and 
to bring both in action when the car is 
heavily loaded. 

* Richard Vose, 13 Barclay Street, N. Y. City. 



Personal. 

F. T. Lerned, formerly of the Baltimore 
Car Wheel Works, now with Andrews and 
Clooney. is certainly "to the manner born" 
as an entertainer. A large number of those 
in attendance went home with very pleas- 
ant feelings toward him and his firm for 
their efforts for their comforts and pleas- 
ure. 

Car Starters. 

Prof. J. E. Sweet, retiring president, 
American Society Mechanical Engineers, 
recently spoke of a car starter that was a 
"perfect mechanical success," but was con- 
demned and thrown aside because it made 
balkv horses. 



Cracliing of Varnish. 

Can any of our readers assign any 
reason why varnish should crack across 
the grain of panels, etc.? Experiments 
show that the expansion of wood due to 
moisture is from five times as much cross- 
wise as lengthwise in young ash, to 213 
times as in ebony, and yet there are five 
crosswise cracks to one with the grain. It 
can hardly be heat that cracks varnish, 
because it gets elastic with heat; and in 
fact, in locomotive cabs Scheller has pointed 
out that all outside and inside surfaces are 
cracked across the grain, except the ceiling, 
which is the hottest part, and which has 
but few cracks except just above the side 
windows (where the cracks are cross grain). 

It is probable that there are more things 
in paint and varnish than are dreamt of in 
our philosophy. 



Only One Dollar. 

That the Street Railway Jourkal may 
be m the hands of every man actively en- 
gaged in street railway management, the 
subscription price has been placed at the 
very low price of one dollar per year. 

Please send in your name at once, and 
begin with Vol. I.. No. 1. 



Street Railway Notes. 

The Washington Street and State 
Asylum road, Binghamtom, N. Y., R. II. 
Midgley, President and General Manager, is 
building an extension of some two miles, 
adding cars and making various improve- 
ments. 

At the John Stevenson Co.'s shops, New 
York, we notice a fair number of cars 
building, and on inquiring, find they are 
for all parts of the world, including Aus- 
tralia and various parts of Europe and South 
America. 



Items. 

The Broadway (N. Y.) Surface Rail- 
way has secured its new grant of the 
Board of Aldermen. 

W. H. Campbell of the Philadelphia 
Traction Co., has secured the controlling 
1 interest in the Transverse Railway of Pitts- 
burgh. It is understood he will introduce 
here his traction system. 

The Third Avenue (N. Y.) Cable Rail- 
way is pushing forward its extension from 
8th to 10th Avenue on 125th Street. 

The Hestonville & Mantua Co., Phila., 
(Race and Vine and Arch St. lines) is add- 

! nig to its equipment one car per month, 
built in its own shops, and is rapidly sub- 

, stituting horses for mules as motive power. 
About twenty horses are substituted for 
mules every two weeks, and. at this rate, 
it will not take long to abolish the long- 
eared hybrid entirely. 

The Peoples' Passenger Railway Co. 
(Phila. ) is building a new branch, running 
west from Germantown Ave., along Sus- 
quehannah Ave., to 23d St., south to Nor- 
ris St., and east on Norris St. to German- 
town Ave. This line will be a great con- 
venience to the rapidly growing northern 
districts of Philadelphia. The route was 
originally projected and partially construc- 
ted by Mr. Singerly (Philadelphia Record) 
under the old Germantown Passenger Ry. 
Co.'s management. The new management 
is pushing it to completion with a large 
force of workmen. 

The same company has recently fitted up, 
in comfortable style, its offices in the second 
story of the depot building, at Eighth and 
Dauphin Sts. They include the presidents 
room, a room for the vice-president and 
directors, and a general business office. 
This company operates, at the present 
time, about 42 miles of street track, com- 
prised in five divisions : — Fourth and Eighth 
Sts., Girard Avenue, Germantown, and 
Green Sts., and Fairmont Avenue and Cal- 
lowhill St. The new Susquehanna Ave. 
fine will add a sixth division. 

It owns about 105 cars, all of which are 
being placed in first-class condition as 
rapidly as possible, and every attention is 
being paid to thoroughness of detail in 
every working department. The business 
of the year just closed shows an increase 
over that of the preceding one ; the busi- 
ness year having amounted to over 20.000,- 
000 passengers carried by the company's 
cars. The combination which goes by the 
title of the Peoples' Passenger Ry. Co.. 
forms the largest street railway interest in 
Pennsylvania, with the single exception 
of the Philadelphia Traction Co. 

G. B. H. 



10 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[November, 1884. 



— TPT E 



Street Railway 

JOURNAL. 



MONTHLY, $1.00 PER YEAR. 

E. P. Harris General Manager. 

P. G. Monroe General Western Manager . 

Robert Grimshaw, M. E Editor in Chief. 

G. B. Heckel, Associate Editor. 



American Railway Publishing Co. 

S. L. K. Monroe, See'y and Treas. 
32 LIBERTY ST., NEW YOKE. 

8 LAKESIDE BUILDING, CHICAGO. 



BRANCH OFFICES! 

Eastern District, 8 Exchange Place, Boston, Mass. 
H. M. Swetland, Manager. 

South-Eastern District, 419 Walnut St., Phila- 
delphia, Pa. G. B. Heckel, Manager. 

Southern District, 68 Alabama St., Atlanta, Ga. 
E. V. Cavell, Manager. 

South-Western District, £04 Temple Building, 
St. Louis, Mo. W. E. Rose, Manager. 



Publishers' Salutatory. 

Every important industry needs a rep- 
resentative Journal. Most such industries 
have them. In the case of Street Railways 
this want became manifest, and has been 
expressed by tramway companies and those 
who wish to supply them. 

A single department of the already 
crowded Journal of Railway Appliances 
having been proved, after 18 months' trial, 
to be insufficient to the requirements of the 
Street Railway interests, we have, in view 
of the fact that encouragement to do so 
has been plentifully held out, and that we 
had, probably, the best facilities in the 
country for doing so, resolved to issue this 
special trade and technical monthly. 



The Street Railway Journal. 

At the recent street railway convention, 
a number of leading men expressed the wish 
that there should be a journal devoted ex- 
clusively to street railway interests. Rep- 
resentatives of the American Railway 
Publishing Co. became aware that this 
need was felt not only by the street railway 
managers and employees, as a source of in- 
formation, and a means of exchange of 
ideas, but by those selling to them, as a 
medium of direct communication with their 
customers. 

Seeing this, a careful canvass was made 
as to the probability of a special street rail- 
way journal being supported by readers and 
advertisers. 

The promptness and enterprise of those 
in the supply trade, in this matter, as shown 
by our advertising pages, certainly proves 
a willingness on their part to do their full 
share towards making a first-class paper. 
With a similar response on the part of street 
railways, in the way of subscriptions, the 
encouragement will be all that we could 
ask, to make a journal in every way credit- 
able to the street railways of America. 



Our Editorial Policy. 

The editorial policy of the new Street 
Railway Journal will be to make the 
paper not only interesting and instructive, 
but essential, to street railway men ; to 
avoid puffing and the publication of stale 
matter and copied items. The phenomenal 
success of The American Journal of Rail- 
way Appliances is in a large measure due 
to the unswerving adherence to such a 
policy, as announced it its initial number. 
By making the paper A No. 1 for the sub- 
scriber, the advertiser will be benefitted in 
the long run and even in the short run, 
more than by running a write-up sheet, 
with neither news, nor opinions, nor self- 
respect. 

We call upon a.l interested to help 
us make the new paper a success; and can 
promise good-will in return. 



Third Annual Convention. 

The recent Convention of the American 
Street Railway Association was emphati- 
cally a success. There were able and ex- 
haustive reports of committees on the 
various subjects assigned, and intelligent 
discussions on the reports. There was a 
remarkable increase in membership. The 
interest manifested was certainly gratify- 
ing to those who have the well-being of the 
association at heart, and who have labored 
for its success. 



Coming' Articles. 

We have in type or on hand articles as 
follows: 

The National Cable Railway System.* 

Demorest's Duplex Register.* 

Accidents on Cable Railways. 

Resistance to Traction on Tramways. 

Record of a Remarkable Horse, by Aug. 
W. Wright, C. E. 

Street Railway Joints, by Aug. W. 
Wright, C. E. 

Mr. I. Watson, President of the Buffalo 
St. R. R. Co., has kindly promised articles 
on Salt or no Salt. 

Heating Cars (negative). 

Interchangeability of Tickets (i. e., all 
Street Rw. tickets good in any town). 

Mr. Wm. J. Richardson, Sec'y A. S. Rw. 
Association, is good enough to promise a 
communication on Fare Collecting. 

Mr. W. W. Hanscom of San Francisco, 
will have some practical things to say about 
Cable Railways, and we have good hopes 
that Mr. Jas. K. Lake, Supt. Western Div. 
R. R., Chicago, will give us "points" 
enough to make some very interesting 
articles. 

*Hlustrated. 



Our Contents. 



The lack of variety of matter in this 
issue of the Street Railway Journal is 
due to the large amount of space given to 
the very interesting reports presented, of 
the Convention 



proceedings of the convention are not 
ready for publication, and the only 
matter which we have been able to get 
from the secretary is the test of the 
reports and the discussion on the " salt" re- 
port. This annoyance to the secretary and 
the members is by reason of a misunder- 
standing in the matter of an official steno- 
grapher. The managers of this journal had 
provided an expert stenographer in the ex- 
pectation of his being permitted to take 
notes. The association having decided that 
all reports should be made by the official 
stenographer, we relied on the latter. 

Owing to the failure of the official steno- 
grapher to hand in his manuscript to the 
secretary, from whom we expected to re- 
ceive them, we prefer publishing in this our 
initial number little else than some of the 
reports, as it is our intention to make the 
Street Railway Journal, in its publica- 
tion of matter coming from, or relating 
only to, the American Street Railway Asso- 
ciation, practically, official, while preserving 
its complete independence of that body. 



Crowding Cars. 

There are some managements which have 
the good sense and keen business perception 
to see that it pays better to afford passen- 
gers at least plenty of room to stand, than 
to have them packed like herrings in a box ; 
and that to give each passenger a seat pays 
better yet. Of course, there are times and 
unforseen occasions when it is impossible 
to have a sufficient supply of cars on hand, 
and this is particularly the case on long 
lines. But we know of instances of rival 
parallel lines, running about the same dis- 
tance and to about the same terminals, one 
of which lines generally manages to seat 
all its passengers, and the other does not, 
although the first line carries nearly double 
the passengers on extra occasions, and has 
about the same number of cars. The super- 
intendent of the first line " watches the 
weather," and inspects the returns for the 
various hours of the day. He knows about 
how many people are out; when they will 
be likely to return in fair weather; and 
how fast they will crowd in if there 
is bad weather. His conductors have plenty 
of time and room to collect all the fares, 
and the road is made popular. 



Convention Proceedings. 

We regret that up to the moment of 
going to press, the oral discussions 
of papers and the complete minutes of 



Choice of Stock. 

We would suggest, as a good subject to 
discuss, the character of stock to be pur- 
chased ; whether it pays best to buy heavy 
or light animals ; young or old ; compact 
or otherwise, etc. ; there is certainly some- 
thing worth thinking about when we con- 
sider the contrast between the magnificent 
Percheron stallions run by the Tramway 
and omnibus lines of Paris, or the fine 
stock between the shafts of the hansoms in 
London, and the ' ' scrubs " which veterinary 
surgeons are expected to keep in perfect 
health and condition in many American 
street railways. It either pays, or it does 
not pay, to run good stock ; whether it does 
or not is worth finding out by inspection of 
the records and comparison of notes and 
opinions through our columns, and if there 
are no records the notes and opinions will 



November, 1884.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



11 



have to do for the present. But there cer- 
tainly should be records ; there is too much 
money at stake for the owners of many 
horses not to have records of cost, mainte- 
nance and performance of each animal. 
If it pays a steam road to keep a history of 
each car- wheel from the first time it chews 
rail-heads until the last moment when the 
rail-heads rasp off its flange beyond the 
safety limit and the possibility of making 
more flange by lessening the tire thickness ; 
then, we say, it will pay a street railway tc 



into him. This is cold business ; shrewd 
and profitable, and what some people would 
consider as foolish, or complex, or costly, 
is bound to bring the ducats. 



Power to Run Cable Roads and Resist- 
ance on Tramways. 

Ed. Street Railway Journal: — 

The Mining and Scientific Press, of San 
Francisco, in its issue of September 3d, 
1881, gave the following table: — 



Railway Appliances of October 15, on the 
origin of the word "tramway,*' I note that 
the Mechanical World, of London, Eng., 
thinks it proper to scout the popular and 
widely accredited derivation for a vague 
insinuation of its own, that it comes from 
the same root as trammel, and is probably 
something French. 

Now is it not anyway rather splitting 
hairs to trace a resemblance between a 
trammel and a tramway ? 

In the count)' of Derby, Eng., is the vil- 
lage of Little Eaton, which is the terminus 
of a branch of the Grand Junction Canal. 



Names of Road. 



Clay Street Hill R. R. 



Commenced operating ^eptember I, 1868 

Length of Road, Double Track 5,300 feet . 

Heaviest Grade 

Number of Engines Employed 

Dimensions of Cylinders 



307 feet in 2,800 feet. 
Two 



Sulter Street R. R. Co. 



1 4 t 28 inches . 
532 feet 



-5-1(5 thick i 



Piston Speed per minute 

Number of Boilers Two 

(16 ft. x54in 
Diameter and thicknt ss of shell ' ■< 

(16 ft. x4Sin.,— 5-16 " ( 

Number and size of Tubes I j 5g_iju; ■• ' f 

Average pressure in Boilers G7J^ pounds 

16 

3,700 

2.800 

2,100 " 

3 to 5 minutes 

221 

7 of each 

1% 

One 



Pressure necessary to move empty rope, 

Consumption of coal per day, and kind 

Weight of empty car 

Weight of empty dummy 

Intervals of departure 

Average Number Round Trips per day 

" '• Cars and Dummies empl'ed 

Hours run per day 

Number of wire ropes in use 



Lengths of Ropss used. 



Circumference of Wire Ropes 

Kind of Ropes 

Speed at which Rope travels . . . 
Average life of Ropes 



Wallsend. 



11,000 feet. 



3 1-16 inches 

Crucible Steel, j^rand. 

528 feet per minute 

5 17 days 



January 27, 1877. 

j On Suiter St., 13.291 feet I 
I On Larkin st., 3,712 " ( 

167 feet in 4,300 

j 4 on Larkin St., 2 on Cem- 1 
I etery ave. ( 

12 x 24 inches 

340 feet 

Six 

2 each, 54"xl6"—% thick 1 

3 " 48x16 % '■ - 
1 52x16 % " ) 

I 53 -3-inch/ 
J 53-3 •' 

I 58-3 " 

(.49— 3 " J 
loo pounds 

40 •• 

24.G0O " Seattle Nut 

3,000 " 

2,000 " 



California Street R. R. 



Gray Street R. R. 



April 9, 1878 February 16, 1883 

12,651 feet 13.200 feet 

265 feet in 2,800 feet 83 feet in 1,925 feet 

Two Two 

22x36inches ]18x48inches 

540 feet 368 feat 

Thin fire-box Thin steel 

52" diameter. 16', 0" long 
% thick 



57" diameter, 7-10 thick. 



81 tubes, 3" dia., 12', 0" long 03 tubes, 3" diameter, steel. 



4 minutes average . 
253. 



14 of each " 

19J4 

4— Sutler St.. 3, Larkin St., 1 . 

f 11,587 feet. "I 

! 7,849 " I 
1 9.800 " [ 

L 8.500 " J 

3 inches 

Crucible Steel, { ,6 stoncl.. 

431 ft. p. min.; 786ft.p.min. 
304 days 



70 pounds 

15 " 

15.680 " Seattle Screen'gs 

4,0u0 " 

3,000 '• 

5 minutes average 

226 



65 pounds 

9 " 

11,230 pounds Seattle Nut. 

4,000 " 

4,800 " 

•&/, to 6 minutes 

228. 



14 of each 16 week-days, 20 Sundays. 

19 19 

iTwo Two 



i 8,840feet ! 16,600 feet. 

i 17,055 feet 111,000 feet.. 



i% and 4 inches 

Norway Iron. . 3 • *•£■ ■ [crucible Steel, -j ■ *«*■ . 

537 feet per minute 600 and 650 feet per minute . 

373 days J 274 days 



3 inches 

Crucible Steel. 



keep a record of each quadruped, from the 
time he first enters the stable until he is 
carted off in the dead van. How much he 
cost, his average amount and cost of food, 
attendance, medicines, shoeing, insurance, 
interest, taxes, etc.; all those tilings which 
pertain to him alone, or differ from the 
same items for his mate, should be con- 
sidered in connection with the number of 
days and miles service, and if possible in 
connection with the number of passengers 
whom he has hauled or helped to haul. 
One horse may be an easy keeper but not 
equal to hauling on a heavy car over a long 
route ; another horse may be a perfect hog 
at the feed-trough but never in the sick- 
box, and so on. 

The idea of keeping a record of cost and 
performance of each horse may be scouted 
at as involving complications and expense. 
So does keeping a cost book in a machine- 
shop or car-shop ; but that pays. I have a 
friend in France, who, in connection with 
an immense establishment for distilling 
alcohol from sugar beets, has about 1,500 
sheep and neat cattle constantly on hand 
to be fed on the pulp from which the juice 
has been expressed. Each animal eats 
about one-tenth of his weight of pulp daily. 
My friend buys the leanest steers he can, 
weighs each one, marks the weight on one 
of the horns, and weighs each steer twice 
a week. When a steer has ceased to gain 
in weight by the time of each successive 
weighing, he is sold at once. He is re- 
garded as a machine for converting pulp 
into beef, and when the machine ceases to 
make beef, not a pound more of pulp is put 



Mr. D. J. Miller, the Mechanical Engineer 
of the Chicago City Railway, in a communi- 
cation to the A. R. R. Journal, March 3d, 
1883, stated that the mere power required 
to operate the cable on that line is as fol- 
lows: 

At 6 p.m., when traffic is heaviest 215 H. P. 

For machinery and cable (no cars running). .138 " 
For driving machinery and engine (no cable) 23 " 

Concerning resistance to traction, Mr. 
Charles E. Emory made dynamometer tests 
on curve of 40 radius, and found it 53.57 
lbs. per ton. On straighter track level 11.8 
lbs. per ton. I presume the latter was on a 
" centre- bearing rail," the head of which is 
cleaner than the "step-rail." 

In 1880 I made a hundred or more tests 
with a Fairbans' dynamometer, and found 
the force required to keep a car in motion 
at five miles per hour on an old track, 32.3 
pounds per ton: on new steel rails, 29. S 
pounds per ton. 

D. K. Clarke in his work on Tramways, 
gives 30 pounds per ton as the average for 
English roads. Henry P. Holt, 22.4 pounds 
per ton. M. Turner. 22.4 pounds per ton. 
You quote the experiments of Mr. Hughes. 
This force varies between great extremes, 
depending upon the kind of rail, the con- j 
dition of track, good or bad joints, clean 
or covered with dirt, etc., etc. 

For steam railroads on " T " rail, clean \ 
and level track, this resistance is estimated | 
as slow speed (5 miles per hour) at 6.1 j 
pounds per ton. See Catechism of the j 
Locomotive. 

The above figures will therefore convince 
one that the resistance to traction on our 
tramways is from 4 to 5 times as great as 
upon steam railroads. 

Augustine W. Wright. 
Chicago. 

+—+■ 

The Derivation of " Tramway ." 

Ed. Journal Railway Appliances:— 
Referring to the article in Journal of , 



, About seven miles from Little Eaton are 
the Kilbowra and Derby Collieries, in 
which, in years gone by, a certain Sir Fran- 
cis Outram had an interest, and in order to 
facilitate the transportation of the pro- 
ducts of those collieries to the canal he 
caused to be constructed a railroad, then 
called an '• Outramway," and since cor- 
rupted into "Tramway." The trucks to run 
upon this Outramway had four flangeless 
wheels. The rails first used were of wood, 
and were afterwards changed to L shaped 
iron ones laid on the stone sleepers. 

I believe it has always been credited to 
Derbyshire as havingbeen the scene of the 
firstOutramway or tramway. This tramway 
is still in use, and any one who cares to fol- 
low up the history of it will find it substan- 
tially as stated. For nineteen years my 
home was but 2| miles from this tramway, 
and I frequently saw it, and I learned its 
history from some of the " oldest inhabi- 
tants •'" as well as, like you, having read its 
history in my ' ' curious youth." 

I am yours very truly, 

James E. Greensmith. 
Mason Machine Works. 

We thank our correspondent for his com- 
munication on the subject of the etymology 
of "tramway." Our own information that the 
word was shortened from Outramway was 
got many years ago, probably from either 
Bourbaugh's admirable " Gleanings for 
the Curious" (now, we believe, out of 
print), or David A. Wells' " Things not 
Generally Known;'' and these more partic- 
ular data are most acceptable, because, not 
only confirmatory, but more explicit than 
our own. The only thing now that we 
wish to supply is as to the pronunciation 
of the proper name Outram ; whether Ow- 
tram or Oo-tram : and on which syllable 
accented. If any one can supply this last- 
ing information we shall be very much 
obliged. 



12 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[November, 1884. 



Only One Dollar. 

That the Street Railway Journal may 
be in the hands of every man actively en- 
gaged in street railway management the 
subscription has been placed at the very 
low price of $1.00 per year. Please send 
in your name at once, and begin with Vol. 
I., No. 1. 

Items. 

The Railway Register M'f'& Co., Buffalo & New 
York, have applied an eye signal to their Pond 
register by which the ringing of the rear bell of the 
car instead of the register bell is readily detected by 
the passenger. 

The Steinway & Hunter's Point Railway Co. 
have bought P. J. Gleason's controlling interest in 
the Dutch Kills & Hunter's Point Railway, excepting 
the Calvary Cemetery line. Various improvements 
will be made, including material additions to rolling 
stock and live stock. 

The Detroit City Railway is being equipped with 
Lewis & Fowler's alarm passenger register. 

Andrews & Clooney, New York, have just com- 



pleted a number of street sweeping machines for 
the N. Y. Eighth Avenue road, a Pittsburg road and 
one or two others. They have recently made wheels 
for parties in South America, East Indies, Australia, 
England, &c. 

The Lewis & Fowler M'p'g Co., Brooklyn, who 
has recently taken hold of Small's automatic fare 
collector, have placed it on the Brooklyn & Coney 
Island Railway, Memphis City Railway, and have 
substantial encouragement elsewhere. The roads 
on which the collector was already in use are the 
Louisville City, Minneapolis Street, St. Paul and 
Baltimore City railways, the latter having just 
given orders to complete its equipment. 

The Randall Gear (Lewis & Fowler M'f 'g Co.) is 
being introduced on various roads. 

The Ch4plin Manufacturing Co., of Hartford, 
is introducing its frictionless roller bearing for street 
car journals. Tests during the past three years 
have given excellent results. H. M. S. 

The Holyoke Street Railway Co.. Holyoke, 
Mass., is now operating two miles of track, making 
forty trips a day on five cent fares. 

A new line, for tramway service, is under con- 
sideration between Chicopee and Chicopee Falls, 
Mass. 

The Wales Manufacturing Co.. Syracuse, is filling 
an order from New Orleans for its new design stree'- 
car fareboxes. Ithas just issued a tasty catalogue 
containing street railway statistics. H. M. S. 



Some very interesting experiments have been made 
by the Salmon Water and Steam Heater Co., of Bos- 
ton, showing economy of fuel and perfect and rapid 
circulation through the radiatmg pipes. In street 
cars this heater occupies no seating room. In steam 
cars it is placed underneath the car and the draft is 
regulated, grate shaken, and ashes are dumped from 
within the car. H. M. S. 



Manufacturing Notes. 

The Brooklyn City R. R. has just added 33 new 
cars built by the John Stephenson Co. They have 
the Vose spring and the Baker box. 

The Railway Register M'f'g. Co., Buffalo and 
New York, has issued a very neat catalogue. 

The 42d Street Railway, N. Y., has just added 
some 35 cars for its extension. They are built by 
Stephenson and have Andrews and Clooney's 
wheels. 

«— »■ 

Scoggan Hudson & Co., Louisville, Ky., sold to the 
Minneapolis Street Railway Co., 13i mules in March 
and 225 in June, the last lot being shipped to Minne- 
apolis by spec al train via Penn. and C. M. & St. P. R. 
R's. making the fastest time on record for stock 
train. The trip was made in 38 hours, including one 
stop of 6 hours to feed. 



Twice a Month. 



$3.00 per Year. 



JL 



p*iti§&w?g= 



n v 



A PRACTICAL JOURNAL OF 



RAILWAY MECHANICS AND METHODS. 

SAMPLES FREE. 

AMERICAN RAILWAY PUB. CO., 



8 Lakeside Building, 

CHICAGO. 



33 Liberty Street, 

NEW YORK. 



DAY'S IMPROVED 

STREET RAILWAY TRACK CLEANERS 

These Track 
Cleaners need no 
extended state- 
ment of their 
great superiority 
over all others 
invented. The 
fact of over two 
thousand pairs 
being now in use, 
is sufficient evi- 
dence of their 
necessity and 
utility. Are adap- 
table to all kinds 
of rails and styles 
of cars. To se- 
cure the largest 
be n efi t they 
should be at- 
tached to every car in use. 

For new catalogue and price list, address, 




AUGUSTUS DAY, 

74 STATE STREET, 



DETROIT, Mich., U. S. A. 



THE 



BELLE CITY FEED GUTTER 





mmm 




IS THE 

Strongest, Most Durable, 

and on the the whole 
it is the 

BEST FEED CUTTER 

IN THE WORLD. 

For Street-Car Barns it 
has no equal. Write for 
Reference, Circular, &c, to 



I IBI BBU8 BTT HT'B CO. 



RACINE, WIS., U.S.A. 



CHAMPLAIN 

Forged Horse Nails 

MANUFACTURED BY THE 

NATIONAL HORSE NAIL CO., 

VEEGEKNES, VT. 

Hot Forged and Cold Hammered, Pointed, made 
of best Norway Iron, and warranted. Used on 
principal Street Car Lines in the United States. 
Special Patterns for Perkins', Burden"s, Good- 
enough & Brydous Horse Shoes. Samples and 
prices on application. 

DUKEIE & McCARTY, Agents, 

97 Chambers St., New York. 



PATENT JOINT FASTENING. 

The accompanying cut shows 
a cross section through joint. 
A is the rail, B the joint chair, 
C the stringer, D the patent 
screw fastening, E the nut, F a 
slot in chair allowing rails to 
contract and expand. The chair 
cannot settle and the rail ends 
are held level with each other, 
preventing the many evils of 
ordinary construction. 

For Further Particulars Address 

AUGUSTIN W. WRIGHT, 

NORTH-CHICAGO CITY RAILROAD, 

CHICAGO, ILL. 




November, 1884.] THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 13 



F. W. DEVOE & CO., 

(Established 1852) 

FULTON ST., Cor. of WILLIAM, NEW YORK. 



I»£-A.iTXr£ ACT'JEEES O^ 



COACH and CAR COLORS 

GROUND IN JAPAN. 

For these colors we received the highest award, the Gold Medal, at the National Exposition of Railway Appliances. 

in Chicago, last year. 



SPECIAL SHADES MADE TO OEDEE. 

We furnish special body colors to Pennsylvania R. R., New York Central, New York & New Haven, Lehigh Valley, 

New Jersey Central and other large Railroads. 



FINE VARNISHES AND JAPANS 

wmm mmMmmmm asm cam* 
Wood Fillers, Wood Surfacers, Wood Stains, Hard Oil Finish. 



- OF - J? UN] Xj JDiW U QllJjrJ Varnishing, Striping, etc. 



ARTISTS' MATERIALS. 

Tube Colors, Artists' Brushes, Drawing Papers. 



ENGINEERS' GOODS, 

Mathematical Instruments, Theodolites, Transits, Cross 

Section Papers. 

Illustrated Catalogues of 250 pages and 800 illustrations on recpiest. 



Manufacturers of 

WHITE LEAD, COLORS IN OIL, DISTEMPER COLORS, 
PURE READY MIXED PAINTS. 

COFFIN, DEVOE & CO., 176 Randolph St., CHICAGO, 



14 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[November, 1884. 



G. W. Scoggan, H. L. Martin, .7. P. Hudson, M. F. Thomson, II. J. Scoggan. 

SCOGGAN, HUDSON & CO., 

i_.ottis'v:ii_,i_iE, izrz-., 

Wholesale Dealers in 




Having furnished Horses and Mules to the Street Railway 
Companies of Louisville, Ky., Minneapolis and St. Paul, 
Minn., New Orleans, La., Pittsburgh and Philadelphia, Pa. 
Richmond, Va., Atlanta, Ga., Chattanooga, Tenn., and a 
large number of other towns in the United States, we are 
thoroughly acquainted with what is wanted, and can fill 
orders promptly, as we always have 

FROM 400 TO 600 

HORSES AND MULES ON HMD. 

OFFICE AND YARDS : 

Cor. 1 6th and Main Streets, 

ZC-iOTJLisville, IZly. 



Established 1832. 



Incorporated 1882. 



VALENTINE & COMPANY, 



Manufacturers of High Grade 



Coach and Car Varnishes and 



Colors. 



NEW YORK, 

2^5 Broa,d.-v7-a,37-. 

BRANCH HOUSES: 

CHICAGO, BOSTON, 

153 Milk Street. 

PAKIS, 
91 Champs Elysees. 



68 Lake Street. 



PLUMBAGO BEARINGS. 



p 

L 
U 
M 
B 
A 
G 




■FOE- 



Cable Roads. 

— ■•« ♦ •»■ — 

Warranted to Eun Cool, without Oil, ' 
Grease or other lubricant, 

4,000 IN NEW YORK. 

2,600 IN KANSAS CITY. 



J. J. RYAN & CO., 



62 & 64 W. Monroe St., CHICAGO. 



B 
E 
A 
R 
I 

N 
G 
S 



PLUMBAGO BEARINGS. 



TRADE 



MARK. 



VA l r e N!JKES 

THE STANDARD FOR QUALITY." 

The Gold Medal 



WAS AWARDED TO 



Valentine's Varnishes 



SEPTEMBER, 1883, 



A Partial List of Awards Heretofore Given Valentine's 
Varnishes: 



1876 



International Exposition, Philadelphia, - 
Bronze Medal and Diploma. 

Exposition Universelle, Paris, Fiance, - ' - 

Silver Medal. 
Melbourne International Exposition, Melbourne, Aus. 

Silver Medal and First Order op Merit. 
Adelaide Exposition, Adelaide, So. Aus., - - - 

Silver Medal and First Degree of Merit. 
American Institute, of the City of New York, - 

Silver Medal and Diploma. 
Maryland Institute for the Protection of Mechanic Arts, - 

Silver Medal. 
Massachusetts Charitable Mechanics' Association, Boston, 

Silver Medal and Diploma. 
Mechanics' and Agricultural Fair Association of the State of 
Louisiana, -. ------- 1873 

Diploma. 
Agricultural Society of New So. Wales, - - - - , 1877 

Bronze Medal. 

Mechanics' Institute, San Francisco, California, - - 1877 

Silver Medal. 



1878 

1880 

1881 

1859-1870 

1873 



1860 



November, 1884.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



15 



J. G. BRILL & CO., 



Builders of 



RAILWAY 



— AND 



CARS 



W^z of all kinds. 




CABLE ilDDEESS EZRILL PHILADELPHIA. 



16 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



November, 1884. 



LAKE & McDEYITT'S 



For Horse Railways, Omnibus Lines, Etc. 




Patent No. 171,383, December 31, 1875. 



The Advantages 



ROPE TRACE 

are its ready application 
to Horse-Car service, or to 
any other purpose where 
cheap harness is required. 
It only costs about half as 
much as leather traces, 
while at the same time 
one set of Rope Tugs will 
(when used on horse cars) 
take the place of three or 
more sets of leather 
traces, as the Tugs remain 
attached to the car all 
day, no matter how many 
changes of stock are 
made. The relief horses 
having hoolis attached t j 
their hames, all that is 
necessary is to unhook the 
tugs from the working 
team back in the fresh 
horses, hook on the tugs, 
and the change is made. 
Railroad men will at once 
perceive their adaptabil- 
ity and economy from the 
above facts. They will 
also last longer than leath- 
er traces, and rs quire but 
very little care. From 
their durability and cheap- 
ness they are also espec- 
ially adapted for all kinds 
of farm use and heavy 
teaming, as farmers, etc., 
can easily repair them. 



In use on the Chicago West. Div. R'y.; Louisville City R'y Co.; Milwaukee City R'y: Transverse R'y Co.. Pittsburg, Pa. ; Citizens Street R'y Co.. Pittsburg:, Pa. : 
Pittsburg and Birmingham, Pittsburg, Pa.; Central Citv R'y, Peoria. 111.; Grand Rapids R'y; Minneapolis St. R'y Co. ; St. Paul City R'y; Houston City R'y, Texas : 
Superior Street R'y, Cleveland. 0.: Cincinntti City R'y Co. : Fifth Ward Street R'y, Syracuse. : Detroit City R'y.; Ft. Wayne and Elm wood St. R'v, Detroit, Mich.: 
Galveston City R'y; Springfield City R'y, Springfield, 111. ; Toledo St. R'y, Toledo, O.; Adams St. R'y, Toledo, O. : Atlanta Street R'y. and others, in all on about 100 
Street R'ys in United States and Canada, and a large number of other prominent Street R'y Companies throughout the Country. lEST* Send for descriptive Circu- 
lar containing'jtastitnoaials, prices, etc., to 

LAKE & McDEVITT, 161 South Robey Street, Chicago, 111. 

CLARK'S PATENT POWER GROOMING MACHINE, 

SINGLE OK DOUBLE, 




TO STREET RAILWAY COMPANIES AND OTHER STOCK CWNERS. 

This machine for grooming may be driven by any known power, and can readily be placed for use in any stable or out-building. It can be operated by an ordin- 
ary groomsman ; its work is perfect; its action simple and effective. Stock owners will readily realize the importance of the machine. The perfection and rapidity 
of its work, and the benefits derived by its use, commend it to those interested in the care and use of all classes of thoroughbred and work stock. The most vicious 
animal readily submits to its use. Machine Grooming is found to be less expensive than hand grooming, saving in food and medicines, and materially increasing 
the value of the animal. 

The Curry Comb and Hand Process Superseded ! Economy of Labor ! Perfection of Work ! 

Three Hundred Head of Stock Thoroughly Croomed with Each Machine every Ten Hours. 

This Grooming Machine is in daily use in some of the largest Street Railway Companies' stables, and has always given perfect satisfaction. Among those using 
it are the City R'y Co., Chicago, 111.; Detroit City R'y Co., Detroit, Mich.; Central City R'y, Peoria, 111. : M. W. Dunham, Wayne, 111 ; West Division Street R'y Co., 
Chicago, 111.; Lindell Street R'y Co., St. Louis, Mo.; Pleasant Valley R'y Co., Allegheny City. Pa.: Marshall, Field & Co., Chicago, 111.; Leroy Payn, Chicago, III.; 
Saginaw City R'y, Saginaw^Mich. ; Pittsburg and Birmingham R'y Co., Pittsburg, Pi. ; and a number of others who have given testimonials as to the perfect work- 
ing of the machine. K#"~ For prices, circular and other information apply to 

161 SOUTH ROBEY STREET, CHICAGO, ILL. 



November, 1884.] 



tup: street railway journal 



DEMOREST 

DUPLEX REGISTER AND FARE-BOX, 

T^OTZ STEEET OAES. 




OUR INFALLIBLE 

DUPLEX REGISTER 

Combines Simplicity, Efficiency, and Absolute 
Accuracy. 



As each trip and each fare, when rung, is duplexed on 
an interior sheet that cannot be tampered with, the con- 
ductor is his own detective, collusion or fraud being 
impossible. 

As an illustration of a practical and unanimous 
opinion, we present the following : 

Cleveland, Ohio : 

I have gone through a thorough examination and trial of the 
Lewis & Fowler's and other stationary Registers, and have been 
using in the past the Hornura or Punch Company's Register. 
After looking over the matter thoroughly, I am satisfied that the 
Half Trips on the Paper Dial is the right principle, and have 
therefore adopted the Demorest Duplex Register. 

TOM L. JOHNSON. 

New York : 

The Demorest Duplex Register is an improvement on the one 
we are using, and is the best I have ever seen. 

J. W. FOSHAY. 

Des Moines, Iowa : 

The Duplex Registers we are using on our Cars are giving us 
entire satisfaction, and can cheerfully recommend them to do all 
vou claim for them. 

M. P. TURNER. 




OUR FAUE-BOX WITH THE REGISTER. 

Embodies the only perfect system for collecting and saving 

the Company ALL THE FARES on "One Horse" 

Cars without a Conductor. 



1. The Register being part of the Fare-box, is in the most con- 
spicuous place possible, in order to be noticed by the passengers. 

2. It is the easiest to deposit the fares in, as the opening is 
larger than others. 

3. It is impossible for the money to be taken out by an im- 
proper person ; for 

4. The box has no lock, therefore cannot (as others) be picked; 
and 

5. There is no access to the Fare-box except through the Reg- 
ister. 

6. The driver has more time to attend to his other duties when 
the Register is combined with the Fare-box. 

7. Our system of trip slips is so effective and yet so simple in 
connection with the fare-box and register, that it cannot be 
surpassed. 

8. There is an internal record on a dial sheet. 

9. This dial sheet is removed from the Register once a day, with 
the money and trip slips They must correspond. 

10. This method of tallying the fares assists both driver and 
receiver, and is a positive check on both, beyond the possibility 
of collusion. 

11. The construction of the Register and Fare-box is simple* 
the parts are well made and will last. Th? material is of the best 
and mechanical adjustment perfect. 

12. The Register and Fare-box can be quickly placed in posi- 
tion and ready for use by any mechanic. 



We will place any number of our Duplex Registers (with or without the Fare-box, according to the kind of car 
upon trial for any time desired, at a very slight cost. Our terms of purchase are quite reasonable. A trial is 



solicited. Address the proprietor, 

R. M. ROSE, Manager. 



W. JENNINGS DEMOREST, 

15 East 14th Street, New York City. 



IS 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[November, 1884. 



FOESTEEETCAESTHEEUEEKAFOLDING 
WOODMATSAEETHEOHEAPESTMOSTPEAOTI 
CALATODUEABLEHIGHESTEEFEEENCESGIVEN 

Fries per running foot, width to fit any car 90 cts. Net, 

FOR FURTHER P A.RTICUL A.RS ADDRESS 

EUREKA ROLLING FLOOR CO., 

14 COOPER UNION, 

NEW YORK. 

Patent ZE^Ig-lrts Poi Sale. 

PERKINS' TOE CALK. 

JUST OUT. 



Fare Besses and Change Receptacles 



MADE BY 



WALES MANUFACTURING CO., 

76 and 78 Eist Water Street, 



i * " 




The old style end prong Calks often cause shoes to break, as the 
prong is driven into the crease. Perkins' new Calk obviates this. 
They are cheaper than any others, and warranted to weld and 
harden. Special pattern for Street Railroad work. Samples and 
price on application. 

DURRIE & McCAliTY, Agents, 

97 Chambers St., New York. 




SYRACUSE, N. Y. 

Oar Street Car 
Fare Boxes, for Sim- 
plicity of Construc- 
tion, Cheapness and 
Practicability are Su- 
perior to Anything of 
Like Character in the 
Market. 

iy Descriptive and 
Illustrated Circulars 
an application. 



C^ 



Front View. No. 3. 





Back View. No. 3 



STREET CAR SEATS AND BACKS. 



kno 
ible 
year 



This Seat and Back, so well known all over the world, has given much satisfaction. We cannot claim for it a merit which is not 

wn and acknowledged. 

It will recommend itself for its lightness, cleanliness, healthfulness and heauty as an ornamental seat; is also indestruc- 

by moths, the great enemies of upholstery, and will not harbor vermin or insect, or carry or communicate contagion or disease. 

On account of its cheapness and durability it is the most popular Seat in the market, and our trade m this line has grown, in nine 

s, to vast proportions. 

To avoid trouble and mis- 
take, our patrons in order- 
ing will give length of in- 
side of car, number of 
windows, width of back and 
depth of seat. 

The woods used in con- 
struction of our Seat are 
Birch, Walnut and Ma- 
hosrany ; ihe Birch is most 
generally used, but Mahog- 
any makes a very handsome 
seat. 

We are making three-ply 
White Wood Car 
Sides, the foot and main 
panel which adds greatly to 
the strength of the car, and 
will not split. We make 
them full length of car 
without a joint. Our dec- 
orated or plain three- 
ply Veneer panels for 
sides and ceiling of car adds 
greatly to the beauty and is 
the cheapest way of decor- 
ating cars and gives better 
satisfaction than anything 
in the market. 

We are prepared to make 
panels for all parts of cars. 
We are also making car 
roofs which give good sat- 
isfaction. Send for blue 

PERFORATED VENEER STREET] LCAR^SEAT: AND BACK. P rmt 

GARDNER, HOLMES &, CO., 183 Canal Street, New York. 




November, 1884.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



I!) 



TOM L. JOHNSON'S 

IMPROVED FARE BOX, 

Patented October 14th, 1873. 

Now in general use in Cities throughout the United States. 

One of the principal merits of tbese Fare Boxes over all others, consists in 
the fact that the fares are not turned out of sight at once by the drivers, leaving 
nothing but the bare word and memory of the parties as evidence of the pay- 
ment, thereby making it easy for deception to be practiced, even though an 
officer is on the car, and endeavoring to see that the driver is faithfully per- 
forming his duties. 

The boxes are so constructed that the fares are kept in sight from one end of 
the road to the other, and at any poiDt on the line an officer of the Company, or 
indeed any other person can tally passengers with the fares. 

The glass fronts and drops render it so transparent that a person sitting in 
the further end of the car can readily count the fares and make the tally, with- 
out making himself conspicuous in the matter, if desirable. 

The drops can easily carry from seventy-five to eighty fares, and can be 
counted without mistake, and counterfeit money can be easily detected. 

These boxes are very simple in construction, being cleaned, when required, 
in five minutes. 

They are lighted from an outside lantern (which is only on the car at night, 
and should be taken off during the day), giving an excellent light, for the fares 
can be seen almost as plain as by day. 

When the box is put in a car it can not be taken out of the car or tampered 
with, unless the keys are obtained from the office, and can not be robbed without violence. 

A new pattern of the Yale Lock is used, having no two keys alike, and the keys can only be withdrawn when locked. 

ROADS EQUIPPED WITH BOXES ON TRIAL, and if not satisfactory, returned without any expense to the company trying them. 

Boxes made of Mahogany, Walnut, or any desired wood, and being nickel-plated throughout, are AN ORNAMENT TO ANY OAE 
Reduction in prices where two (2) boxes are placed in one car. "THE BEST IS THE CHEAPEST." 

Address all correspondence to 

A. A. ANDERSON, 

"^7"itli. Tom Xj. Tonnson. Indianapolis, Indiana. 





FRONT VIEW. 



FRONT VIEW. 



BOX 2STo. 
28 by 9J inches. 



BOX ZbTo. 2. 
27i by 9£ inches. 



F. H. ANDREWS. 



ANDREWS & CLOONEY, 




B. A. CLOONEY. 



STREET RAILROAD SNOW SCRAPERS AND PLOWS. 



NEW YORK. 



-wo:r,:e2:s : 

K/K IVPCtrP Qlil CiPDFrni 535 to 551 WEST 33d AND 

040 WJjtfl OOll Mfl£l£ll, 538 to 552 WEST 34th STREETS, 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

ELLIPTIC, SPIRAL, VOLUTE, CAR AND ENGINE SPRINGS 

OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 

CAR WHEELS, AXLES, PEDESTALS, BRAKE SHOES, BOXES, BRASS BEARINGS AND CASTINGS 

OF ALL DESCRIPTIONS WHERE GREAT STRENGTH IS REQUIRED. 

Also SWEEPERS, SNOW PLOWS, TURN TABLES, TRACK WORK, AUTOMATIC SWITCHES, Etc. 

STEEL GROOVE RAILS AND MACHINERY. SEND FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE. 



20 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[November, 1884. 



RAILWAY REGISTER MANUF'C CO 



IW« 



BEADLE & GODRTNEY 

General Agents. 

1193 BROADWAY, NEW YORK, 



AND — 



426 WALNUT STREET, 
PHILADELPHIA, PA. 




MANUFACTURERS AND OWNERS OF THE 

Latest Designs, Improvements and In- 
ventions in Registers, Indicators, 
Classifiers and Punches, for the 
Recording- of Fares Collected 
on Street and Steam 
Railroads. 

This Company owns over ioo Patents, embrac- 
ing all the Valuable Features of Fare Registers, 
Indicators, etc., and was awarded three 
Medals at the Chicago Exposition of 
Railway Appliances. 



The Alarm Registering Punch. 



This Register, which is so generally 
used throughout the United States 
and Europe, we claim to be the most 
perfect check that has ever been 
placed before the public for the Col- 
1 ction and Registration of Fares on 
Street Railroads, especially where 
different rates of Cash fare and 
tickets are to be collected. 

The Conductor is provided with 
Trip Slips numbered, of different 
colors for different rates of fare, on 
which he is obliged to punch out a 
number every time he receives a cash 
fare ; there is a Register in the Punch 




which records the number of times it 
is used ; the Register and the recep- 
tacle for clippings are secured by a 
combination lock, which renders ac . 
cess to them impossible by any one 
unacquainted with the combination. 
When the Conductor renders his re. 
port to the office, he returns his Trip 
Slips. Tickets and Punch, and the 
Register Totals, Slips and Clippings 
must agree. Roads using tickets 
should not be without it. 

This system has been found very 
perfect by the roads using it, some of 
the largest in the country. 



The Benton Register. 



The Hornum Register. 



This Register is similar to the Benton, and it 
is a perfect check, not only upon the Conduc- 
tor, but being a perpetual Register, is thor- 
oughly reliable as to the Receiver in your 
office— collusion being impossible. A compar- 
ison of the Register with the Conductor's or 
Receiver's books displays all errors at a glance, 
and not only so for the moment, but can be 
traced back to the first fare registered by each 
instrument, being always a reliable and infall- 
ible detective. It does not increase the Con- 
ductor's labors, as he has the free use of both 
hands ; he can collect fares from either side of 
the car, make change, and register the largest 
loads any closed or open car can carry, as has 
been for many months proved ; so that perfect 
attention can be given passengers, and every 
fare registered in a second of time. It does 
not add to clerical labor at general office, as 
the General Register does not require to be set; 
the Trip Register is so constructed that it must 
be set back to 0, and only to 0, each half trip by 
the Conductor, while it prevents him making 
any fraudulent manipulations. This Register 
shows at a glance at its general index the total 
fares collected during the day; this index can- 
not be altered a single fare, except the instru- 
ment be destroyed. 

Its daily record proves the Conductor's report, and the Receiver's account 
at once. It does more, and what is perhaps of greater importance, it shows in 
plain figures in full view, the number of fares collected each half trip, so that 
passengers, time inspectors, or any one interested, can at any time or place 
compare the number of passengers with the Register. 




This Register, 
lately introduced, 
is a very perfect 
one ; it is in use on 
several of the 
largest roads, and 
they express them- 
selves as much 
pleased with it. 

It shows a figure 
on front of Regis- 
ter for every cash 
fare or ticket 
taken, also has an 
indication plate, 
which the Conduc- 
tor is obliged to 
turn at the end of 
the route, showing 
which way he is 
going, East, West. 
North, or South ; 
the same move- 
ment also throws 
back the front 
Register to zero ; 
the permanent 
Register records 
1,000,000. It is also, 
when desired, pro- 
vided with a Punch 
at side, to cancel 
passes or tickets, 
making in all a 
very perfect and 
handsome ma- 
chine. 




November, 1884.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



21 



This cut represents our Pond Fare 
Register with Indicator Plate. 
These machines are constructed so 
that at each pull of the lever an 
alarm is sounded, and, at the same 
time a record shows on the visible 
dials. 

The permanent Register is view- 
ed, when necessary, through the 
four small openings just below the 
visible Register; but when not be- 
ing inspected the registration is 
covered by a slide, which is under 
the control of a lock and key. 

The permanent Register records 
up to 10,000. Another peculiaiity 
in this machine is the Indication 
Plate, which can be changed only 
when the visible Register is at 0. 
This device is intended to make it 
certain that a full transfer of the 
count of the visible Register has 
been made, as the plate cannot be 
changed until an entire transfer has 
been completed. 

When it is absolutely necessary 
to set the visible Register back to 
zero at stated times, then this ma- 



The Pond Register 




j i j 

The Monitor Register 



chine is invaluable, for it will s ow 
upon its face whether the change 
was made at the proper time. 

This machine is specially adapted 
for use on cars of Street Railways, 
to assist in the collection and pro- 
per returns of the fares collected. 
When used for this purpose the in- 
dication plate will show the direc- 
tion the car is traveling, as Down or 
Up, or East and West, or North and 
South, and at the end of ear:)) trip 
the direction or Indicating Plate 
must be shifted, so as to denote the 
direction of the next trip or half 
trip. 

This is done by turning a thumb- 
pin at the right hand upper corner 
of the machine, but before this can 
be done, the trip or visible Register 
must be first set back to zero. 

This Register has been greatly im- 
proved, and we claim for it super- 
iority over all permanent Registers 
now in use. 

It is the only Register of its kind 
that shows a positive figure each 
time it is operated. 




This Machinelbelongs to that class of Registers known as Stationary Registers; that K the machine is 
secured in the car at one end, and connected with it is a small square rod passing through the car and out on 
the platform at each end, and as each fare is collected, the Conductor, by applying a wrench to the rod, re- 
cords the fare. It can also be operated by a cord. 

This Register is of the "Duplex" kind, and resembles a clock in appearance ; the dial is divided into 
one hundred divisions and numbered prominently ; a long hand or pointer moves over this dial, and records 
the fares taken on each trip. A smaller hand, in connection with a hundredth disk, records the totals, and 
constitutes what is known as the " Permanent Register " or Register of Totals. Ihe Trip Register is set 
back to zero at the end of each trip by a key. 

This machine is a very strong, durable Register, and when there is but one rate of fare to be recorded, it is 
one of the best Registers of its kind. The Conductor can record the fares on the platform as well as in the car. 

This machine has a large bell, which can be distinctly heard from any part of the car. It also has our 
Up and D>wn attachment, a very valuable feature to a fare Register. 

The cut herewith, shows the position of the Monitor in the car, and the Conductor about to record the 
fare he has just cohected. 

The rod connection used with this Register, can be applied to the Pond Register. We make all kinds of 
connections to be used with our machines, suitable for one-horse Cars, Omnibuses, etc. 

This Register has also been lately improved and enlarged, it now has a ten inch silver dial, which enables 
the figure s to be seen from any part of the car. If desired it can be operated with a cord instead of the rod 
connector. 



Ohesterman Register 




'— These cuts represent the Chesterman Fare Register, now owned by this 
Company, as well as the patents under which they are constructed, and is an ex- 
cellent Register for either one or four fares for Roads that do not require their 
tickets to be canceled when taken by the Conductor. 



BEADLE * COURTNEY, 

General Agents Railway Register Manufacturing Go. 



1193 Broadway, New York. 



Branch Office: 426 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa 




22 THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. [Novsmbee, 1884. 



J -"° W feen t . _„ ""'■"&,„. 



LEWIS <fc FOWLER M'F'G CO. 

8 COLUMBIA HEIGHTS, 

Near Fulton Ferry. BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

PATENTEES AND MANUFACTURERS OP 

THE IMPROVED "ALARM" PASSENGER REGISTER. 

This Register was awarded and has received the Highest Prize (Silver Medal) at the Chicago Exposition of Railway Appliances 
in 1 883, against all competitors of any note for 

"THE BEST STATIONARY REGISTERING DEVICE." 

This Register is guaranteed to be the most 

Complete, ID-cLraTble and Perfect 

Machine in this Country, for Registering fares on Street cars. We are now manufacturing a 



for Railroad Companies desiring a machine of this style where tickets are required to be Cancelled and Registered at the same time. 

SOLE AGENTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF 

"RANDALLS" PATENT CAR AXLE AND BOX, 



ALSO 

"SMALL'S PATENT AUTOMATIC FARE COLLECTOR" 

FOR FARE BOX CARS. THIS DEVICE WILL SAVE MONEY NOW LOST AND POPULARIZE 

THIS STSTEM OF OAKS. 



November, 1884.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



23 





±3 Barclay Street, 



£Te-\X7" Torfe, 



MANUFACTURER OF THE 



Graduated Street Car Springs, 



ADAPTED TO THE 

STEPHENSON, 
BEMIS, 
RANDALL, 
HIGLEY, 
BRILL, 
JONES, 
BALTIMORE, 

—AND— 

ALL OTHER BOXES. 









||h ?MM- 
lllli 














No. 0, for 10-ft. Light Cars. 
No. 1, for 10-ft. Light Oars. 
No. 2, for 12-ft. Oars. 
No. 3, for 14-ft. Oars. 
No. 4, for 16-ft. Cars. 
No. 5, for 16-ft. Cars. 

SINGLE PEDESTAL. 

No. 1, Cushion, for 16 -ft. 
Cars. 

No. 2, Cushion, for 12 and 
14-ft. Oars. 




STEEL CONE CITY CAR SPRING. 



Patented April 15, 1879— August 5, 1884. 



The unprecedented popularity of the 

"VOSE GRADUATED RUBBER CONE SPRING" 

for Horse Cars has induced the inventor to bring this 
class of Springs as near perfection as possible, and after a 
series of experiments and tests now presents for favor what 
he claims to be the MOST PERFECT SPRING FOR 
HORSE CARS ever offered. It is exceptionally Soft and 
Easy with the Empty Car or with the Greatest Load. It 
is believed to be the Most Durable, being constructed 
upon a principle that seems to insure that the Spring must 
Actually Wear Out. The very Finest Quality of Crucible 
Cast Steel will always be used in these Springs. 




24 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[November, 1884. 



JOHN STEPHENSON CO. 



(LIMITED) 



TRAMWAY CARS 




LIGHT, ELEGANT, DURABLE, 



Every Description. 

Best Materials. 



Minimum Prices. 



ORDERS QUICKLY FILLED. CAREFUL ATTENTION TO SHIPMENTS. 



All Climates 




NEW YORK: 



VOL. 1. | 33 Liberty Street 



,} 



December, 1884. 



I CHICAGO : | 

I 8 Lakeside Building, f 



No. 2. 



Cable Traction Railways in Chicago 
and San Francisco. 

The system which we here illustrate * is 
the outgrowth of the 
inventions of Mr. A. S. 
Hallidie, as first put 
into operation on Clay 
Street Hill, San Fran- 
cisco, in 1873. 

Fig. 1 shows a trans- 
verse section through 
the driveway and road 
bed ; also the tube, sup- 
porting pulley, rope 
and "grip." 

Fig. 2 is an isomet- 
rioal view. (See next 
page.) 

Figs. 3, 4 and 5 show 
the grip of the Clay 
Street, and Presidio & 
Feriies roads. A ver- 
tical slide, working in 
a standard is moved 
up and down by a 
screw and hand wheel, 
and operated by the 
small screw going 
down through the 
large one. The screw 
operates wedges which 
open and close two 
horizontal gripping 
jaws with soft cast 
iron lining-pieces. On 
each side of the jaws, 
and attached to them, 
are two small sheaves, 
held by rubber cush- 
ions sufficiently in ad- 
vance of the jaws to 
keep the rope there- 
from, and yet to lead 
the latter fairly be- 
tween the jaws, and 
let them run between 
the jaws without 
touching them, when 
they are opened out. 
In order to grip the 
rope the slide is drawn 
up by the small screw, 
and the wedge at the 
bottom not only closes 

♦National Cable Railway- 
Co., 2 Wall Street. New 
York City. 



the jaws but forces the guide sheaves 
on to the rubber springs. The bracket 
carrying the standard of the slide is 
attached to a "dummy" car. The steel 




shank of the standard is ^ in. thick and 

1\ in. wide ; the slot in^the tube being % 

in. wide. 

The gripjised onTthe South Street Line, 

San Francisco, is as 

shown in Fig. 6. The 

motion of the grip jaws 

being vertical ; it takes 

and releases the rope 

sideways, instead of 

beneath as on Clay 

Street, and the jaws 

are operated by levers. 

The California Street 
Railway has a lever 
grip taking the rope 
sideways. 

The Grand Street 
Railway has a lever 
grip, vertical in its 
motion, and taking the 
rope from above ; not 
so good an arrange- 
ment, as the jaws and 
rope are under the dot 
and catch the dirt 
therefrom. 

The Presidio & Fer- 
ries Railway has a grip 
of the Clay Street type 
but heavier. 

On this road there is 
a curve at the intersec- 
tion of two streets, 
2,600 feet from the 
start, and the rope is 
deflected by two 8-foot 
horizontal pulleys. The 
sireets descend from 
both directions towards 
the curve, and about 
30 feet before reaching 
the latter the rope is 
released, and picked up 
again after the curve is 
passed ; gravity carry- 
ing the car and dummy 
around the curve. 

The Market Street 
Line, being on level 
ground, uses a com- 
bined car and dummy. 

In Chicago the tube 
is deeper than in San 
Francisco, and the rope 
is 30 in. above the tube 
bottom. 



26 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[December, 1884. 



Origin of the Word Tramway. 

Ed. Street Railway Journal:— 

The origin of the word "tramway" seems 
to be exciting not a little interest, as evi- 
denced by your own columns as well as 
those of other technical journals. I have 
never seen what I believe to be the true 
origin of the word 
stated. In my opin- 
ion, it was derived 
from the word 
' ' trammle " and my 
reasons for this be- 
lief are as follows. 

The word " tram- 
mle " is contained 
in Dr. Samuel 
Johnson's Diction- 
ary, and as a verb 
is defined by him 
" to catch, to inter- 
cept.'' It ha .1 neen 
in use for c anturi s 
in England at that 
time. The word 
' tram ' or ' tram- 
way ' or ' railroad ' 
or ' railway ' is not 
found in his dic- 
tionary, published 
first in 1755, nor in 
the copy I have 
dated 1828. In my 
copy of Smeaton's 
works published in 
1812, I cannot find 
the word tramway, 
but in a report to 
Lady Irwin of Jan- 
uary 27th, 1779, en- 
titled an "account 
of the measures of 
coals at Newcastle 
and London " oc- 
curs the following, 
' ' since the inven- 
tion of coal wagon 
roads," * * * and 
"since the laying 
of "wagon ways in 
Yorkshire (the first 
of which is in Mr. 
Smeaton's memory) 
to carry coals to the 
navigable rivers," 
etc., etc. Nicholas 
Wood in his treatise 
on ra lr ads, pub- 
lished m lb 2", st tes: 
' ' that cast iron rails 
with an upright 
ledge for the pur- 
pose of keeping the 
whe els upon the lin e 
of the former, were 
first adopted about 
1767." In the year 
1800, we are told 
that Mr. Benjamin 
Outram, an engi- 
neer, in adopting 
this rail on the pub- 
lic railway at Little 
Eaton, in Derby- 
shire, first intro- 
duced stone props 
instead of timber 
for supporting the 
ends and joining 
the rails. 

Mr. Outram, how- 
ever, was not the 
first who made use 
of stone supports, as 

the late Mr. Barnes employed them in foini- 
ing the first railroad which was laid down in 
the neighborhood of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
viz.: from Lawson Main Colliery to the 
river, in 1797. In my copy of the Engi- 
neers' and Mechanics' Encyclopaedia, bv 
Hebert, now a rare book, under the head 
Railways it is stated: 

' ' The earliest account we have of the 
introduction of railways is in the 'Life of 



the Lord Keeper North,' from which it 
appears that about the year 1670 they were 
made use of at Newcastle-upon-Tyne for 
transporting coals from the mines to the 
shipping in the river. These railways were 
constructed of timber. It is stated by 
some authors that these wooden rails were 
subsequently improved upon by making 
ledges at their sides to prevent the wagons 




as 1776, or twenty-four years before Outram 
built his road, although Smeaton, in writing 
to a lady, used the expression " coal- wagon 
roads" in 1779, probably because she might 
not understand the new word. Mr. Smiles, in 
his Life of Stephenson, accredits the origin 
of the word to Outram, by dropping the 
first syllable, but we have seen that Outram 
did nothing to warrant such distinction. 
Mr. Wood was living 
at the same time, 
and we have seen 
that in his opinion 
Mr. Outram did noth- 
ing but use stone, 
and was anticipated 
therein by Mr. 
Barnes. If the use 
of stone was consid- 
ered a matter of such 
prime importance by 
the people of that 
day, the roads should 
have been called 
" Barnesway," or 
some equivalent 
word recognizing the 
man who did intro- 
duce stone, antici- 
pating Mr. Outram 
by three years!! I 
therefore do not 
think the word was 
derived from Ou- 
tram. but rather from 
the old English word, 
o trammle. Web- 
ster's Dictionary of 
1850 defined to tram- 
mel — 1st, to catch, to 
intercept ; 2d, to con- 
fine, to hamper, to 
shackle. 

It had been in fa- 
miliar use for years, 
yea centuries, in 
England, and what 
more natural than 
that it should be ap- 
plied to those new 
roads, when they, by 
the use of upright 
ledges upon the rails, 
' ■ confined " the wag- 
ons to the said tracks. 
They could not turn 
off, as was the case 
at an earlier day and 
is the case in the 
strest railroad of to- 
day, and the word 
originated at this 
time, as we have seen. 
The word "tram" 
was not contained in 
Dr. Johnson's Dic- 
tionary, and I, the'e- 
fore, think it origin- 
ated from trammle. 
Yours truly, 
Aug. W. Wright. 
Chicago, Dec. 9, '84. 



i=<J 



from going out of their tracks; a form 
which was subsequently given to them in 
cast-iron and termed Tram Platen. * * 
The introduction of cast-iron plates having 
an upright ledge was originally effected by 
Mr. Carr, at the Sheffield Colliery, about the 
year 1776." 

The foregoing quotations prove that the 
word ' ' tramway" was applied to railways 
with cast-iron rails having ledges as early 



Ed. Street Railway 

Journal:— 
With regard to the 
pronunciation of 
Outram I never 
heard it pronounced 
other than Oo'tram, 
accent on the first 
syllable, and I think 
that is correct, tho' 
don't quote me as an 
authority on that 
point. 
With regard to my letter there is only one 
point on which I am dubious, whether the 
originator, Francis Outiam, had a title or 
not. My reasons are this: James Outram, a 
descendant of the originator, was a promi- 
nent General during the Indian mutiny, and 
was created a Baronet for services therein. 
When he died, in 1863, he was succeeded by 
Francis Outram, now Sir Francis Outram 
and living in Staffordshire, I think. These 



December, 1884.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



27 



two, James and Francis, are always called 
the first and second Baronets; therefore, 
the originator could not have been a Bar- 
onet, though he may have been a knight, and 
if so; then, of course his title died with him. 
Of course you know the title of knight 
dies with the person on whom it is con- 




FIG. 3. 

f erred, and the title of Baronet is heredit- 
ary. I mention that the family seat of 
the Outram's was at Butterly Hall, Derby- 
shire. James E. Greensmith. 
Mason Mach. Works, Taunton, Mass. 



Resistance to Traction on Tramways. 

Ed. Street Railway Journal : — 

In the subjoined extract from a paper 
read before the " Western Society of Engi- 
neers," by Augustine W. Wright, C. E., 
Chicago, May 17, 1881, your correspondent 
"Xerxes" may receive an answer to his 
enquiry as to the " Resistance on Tram- 
ways," on page 124 of your last number. 

Will you or any of your correspondents 

be kind enough to explain the cause of the 

increased resistance on the steel track over 

iron track, viz: 4.1 iron, and 7.1 times steel ? 

Jos. S. Paxson. 

Ambler, Montgomery Co., Pa. 

" I recently made the following tests of 
the force required to start car No. 110, of 
the ' North Chicago City Railway Company,' 





FIG. A. 

and to keep it in motion after it was 
under way, using a Fairbank's dynamo- 
meter. The track has a grade of two-tenths 
of a foot in each hundred, and was not 
very free from sand. Between Chicago 
Avenue and North Avenue, on Clark Street, 
Division and Clyburn Avenues, 88 tests 
with an average of 14.8 passengers weigh- 
ing (estimated at 140 lbs.) with car 6.772 
lbs., the force required to keep the car in 
motion at an average speed of five miles 
per hour, including stoppages, averaged 
109} lbs. , or per ton 32.3 lbs. This is on an old 
worn-out rail. Between Chicago Anenue 
and Madison Street, on Clark Street, on 
new steel rails, 53 tests with an average of 
20.9 passengers, gave 29* lbs. as the force 
required to keep the car in motion. This 



is an average of 15.6 lbs. per ton. The 
car made 17 starts on this track averaging 
18.7 passengers. Average force exerted to 
start, 426.5 lbs; average per ton, 116.5 lbs. 
On the first mentioned track 30 tests with 
an average of 18.1 passengers gave an aver- 
age force of 487 lbs. ; average per ton, 134.6 
lbs. 

These tests indicate that on the steel rail 
about 7.1 times the foice necessary to keep 
the car in motion must be exerted to start 
it. On the iron rail 4.1 times the force 
must be exerted to start the car than is re- 
quired to keep it in motion. 

These tests show the enormous loss of 
power required in making frequent stop- 
pages. 




FIG. 5. 

According to English engineers, a trac- 
tive force equal to 100 lbs., continuously 
exerted will draw on a level rood as fol- 
lows: common gravel, 15 cwt. ; macadam, 
2,700 lbs.; granite pavement. 3,500 lbs.; 
broken stone surface, 3,400 lbs., laid on an 
old flint road ; same on rough stone pave- 
ment, 4,800 lbs.; wood pavement, 5,475 
lbs.; stone pavement (good), 6,700 lbs. ; iron 
railway track, 27,600 lbs. Whitney. 



The St. Paul Street Railway. 

We have to thank Mr. H. M Littell, Su- 
perintendent for a copy of the annual show- 
ing for 1884, of this enterprising road. Dur- 
ing the past year, the old cars have been 
condemned to destruction ; old iron rails 
and vexatious delays at switches, sup- 
planted by double steel tracks. New routes 
have been established and old ones aban- 
doned for more convenient streets; 45,975 
feet of new track were laid. Three new 
snow plows have been bought and one is 
building. The "fare conveyor" will be 
used throughout. New barns and offices 
have been erected, 244 feet on Forbes St., 
286 on Oak St., and 67 on Ramsey St. 

President Lowry will build the Dayton's 



Bluff line as soon as the fill will permit. 
St. Paul and Minneapolis will be connected 
The year's work may be summarized as fol- 
lows : 




I'ig. 7. 

FIG. 6. 

Miles of track and paving (8.65), 

cost $128,700 

New cars added (37), cost 50,000 

Mules and horses added (200), cost . 31,000 
Offices, barns and o;her buildings, 

cost 75,000 

Real estate, cost 30.000 



Total cost of 1884's improvements. $314,700 
The $50,000 for cars includes also other 
rolling stock and equipments. The road 
has cost, up to the present time, a trifle 
over a million dollars. 



Toffler's Rolling Wood Mat. 

The cut shows a make of wood mat * in 
which the slats are connected by two or 




&^) 



i^v, 



&£> 



more continuous double chains, passed 
through small diametrical holes. The 
chains are of tinned wire. 



::: Warneck & Toffler, ill E. 2.'d St., N. Y. 



Reserved for Ladies. 

A New York man suggests that one side 
of the street cars be reserved for ladies. 
One side should also be reserved for the man 
who sits cross-legged and occupies half the 
aisle with his feet, and soils the other half 
with tobacco juice— and that side should be 
t he outside. — JS'oiristoivn Herald. 



28 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[December, 1884. 




American Street Railway Association. 

Officers, 1884-5. 

President. — Calvin A. Richards, President Metro- 
politan Railroad Co., Boston, Mass. 

First Vice-President.— Julius S. Walsh, President 
Citizens' Railway Co., St Louis, Mo. 

Second Vice-President. — Henry M. Watson. Presi- 
dent the Buffalo Street Railway Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Third Vice-President,— Edward Lusher, Secretary 
and Treasurer the Montreal City Passenger Rail- 
way Co., Montreal, Canada. 

Secretary and Treasurer.— William J. Richardson, 
Secretary the Atlantic Avenue Railway Co., Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. 

Executive Committee.— President, Vice-Presidents 
and William H. Hazzard, President Brooklyn City 
Railroad Co . , Brooklyn, N. Y ; James K. Lake. Super- 
intendent Chicago West-Division Railway, Chicago, 
111.; Charles J. Harrah, President the People's Pas- 
senger Railway Co., Philadelphia, Pa.; William 
White, President Dry Dock, East B. & B. R. R. Co.. 
New York. N. Y.; B. Du Pont. President Central 
Passenger Railroad Co., Louisville, Ky. 



Electricity as a Motor. 

The committee on electricity as a motor 
for railroad transportation is not prepared 
to make a report from personal inspection; 
but from the information received from 
different sources, they feel justified in re- 
porting the possibilities of the new system 
to be very flattering. The experiments 
made in different places demonstrate be- 
yond question its safety and practicability; 
and it will not be long before the question 
of economy will be fully determined by the 
experiments at Cleveland. In this country 
and in Europe, there are now several elec- 
tric railroads in successful operation. The 
Litchterfelcle road, in Berlin, has been for 
four years a financial success, and the re- 
sults of the experiments at Coney Island, 
Menlo Park, and by Messrs Daft & Edison, 
at the Mechanics' Fair Building at Boston, 
Mass. , have thus far been very satisfactory 
and encouraging. I herewith submit for 
your consideration the enclosed communi- 
cation of Mr. W. A. Knight, of the Brush 
Electric Company, of Cleveland, Ohio, giv- 
ing the result of the Cleveland experiment 
in detail. This letter, coming as it does, 
direct from the operator of the street rail- 
road at Cleveland, in response to a request 
from this committee soliciting such infor- 
mation as would be valuable and interesting 
to the convention, is really the sum and 
substance of this report, and contains all 
the reliable information before this commit- 
tee. 



As chairman of the committee I confess 
that I have not given to the investigation 
of this question as much of my attention 
as its importance demanded; but the un- 
usual pressure of official duties during the 
last six months has occupied all my time, 
Ed. C. Peters, Chairman. 



Brush Electric Company. 

Cleveland, O., October) 
8th, 1884. f 
E. C. Peters, Esq., Chairman, Committee 

on Electricity as a Motive Power of the 

American Street Railway Association. 

Dear Sir:— Your favor of the 30th ult. 
is at hand, and contents noted. 

The electric railway which we are now 
operating here is about one mile in length, 
and at present only one car is run on it. 
The second car will soon be completed, and 
the line will then be extended across the 
railway-tracks to a distance of about one 
and a-half miles. This section, with its 
two cars, will be operated all winter with- 
out intermission, to demonstrate the 
" rough and ready " character of the motor, 
after which the system will be extended 
over the 20 miles of tramway owned by the 
East Cleveland Co. 

Last winter we operated a trial railway, 
built in the yard of these works; and as it 
stood the tests of all kinds of weather, we 
have no doubt in our own minds as to its 
efficiency the year round. 

Briefly the system may be described as 
follows: 

Midway between the rails a conduit 8 
inches deep is laid flush with the pavement, 
in the manner of a cable road. Two iron 
rails serving as conductors are supported 
within this conduit, and through a slot five- 
eighths of an inch wide in the top of the 
conduit a plow depends from the car, and 
by means of two brushes makes contact 
with the conductors. Through this plow 
the current is conveyed to the motor, which 
is situated between the wheels under the car, 
and is tightly boxed up to prevent access of 
dust, etc. The motor weighs half a ton, and 
the car is an ordinary two-horse box car, 
weighing, exclusive of motor, two tons. The 
motor is geared to the axles of the car by 
friction gear and link-belts. The move- 
ment is controlled by levers at either end 
of the car, these levers operating the com- 
mutator brushes on the motor to start, stop, 
or reverse the motor, or to make it go at 
any speed desired. It has been run at a 
speed of fifteen miles an hour. 

The dynamo supplying the current is 
located about a mile from the line and is 
run by the engine used by the company for 
grinding corn. It is connected to the con- 
ductors in the conduit by an over-head line 
of No. 8 wire. In practice, no over-head 
line will be used and a greater economy 
may be anticipated. The power is suffi- 
cient to run two cars, as the engine and 



dynamo after being started in the morning, 
runs all day without attention. Only one 
man is employed to do the firing, and the 
expense of power, including fireman, coal 
and oil is about four dollars per day. 

With a larger plant, larger and more 
economical engines, boilers and dynamos 
would be used, and a much greater economy 
obtained. 

The conduit will cost from five to seven 
thousand dollars a mile when made of 
steel, and it ought to last a lifetime. To 
equip an ordinary two horse car will cost 
in the neighborhood of $1,500 and the 
power at the central station for each such 
car will be in the neighborhood of $1,200. 
Each car will pull another car of the same 
size. 

The- steepest grade we have experimented 
with is 500 feet to the mile, and no diffi- 
culty was found in overcoming it. 

The conduit is kept free from dirt, snow, 
etc., by a brush depending from the car 
through the slot. Catch basins are placed 
at intervals varying from 50 to 100 feet, and 
where possible a sewer connection is made. 

The system is similar to a cable road in 
that it requires a conduit and a central 
power station; but it differs in every other 
respect. 

It may be operated on single tracks, as 
well as on double tracks; and branches 
may run out from the main road in every 
conceivable manner. Any speed may be 
assumed at the will of the operator without 
wear of machinery. Ordinary car-drivers 
can operate it after five minutes instruc- 
tion. Stoppages can be made quickly by 
reversing the motor. Running off the 
track does not injure the machinery, and a 
flexible connection on every car enables 
the motor to run the car back on to the 
track when the lever is reversed. A much 
smaller conduit can be used than with 
cables, and there is no machinery along 
the line. The conductors cost but $200 a 
mile and the wear of the brushes upon them 
seems to be nil. 

We use a high tension current because 
our investigations have showed us that 
when distances greater than one or two 
miles are to be overcome, no other current 
will give the necessary economy. The 
conductors are, however, inaccessible, and 
no danger is anticipated. We are ready to 
equip any road not exceeding 25 miles in 
length. 

Hoping I have touched upon the main 
points of interest, 

I am, very truly yours, 

W. H. Knight. 



Uniform Syslem of Accounts. 

The American Street Railway Association: 

Gentlemen — The committe appointed on 
"A Uniform System of Accounts," is of the 
opinion that what is wanted is "A Uniform 
System of Operating Expense Accounts," 



Sub-Divisions of Operating Expense Accounts, and of Construction, Equipment and Improvement Accounts. 

1. CONDUCTING TRANSPORTATION. 

1 Supervisors, Inspectors and Starters Labor — Starting Cars, supervising the running of Cars, and overseeing and keeping 

time of Conductors and Drivers. 

2 Receivers and Clerks Labor — Receiving and reporting fares paid to Conductors, putting up and sellling 

change, and handling fare boxes. 

3 Conductors Labor — Conductor's wages. 

4 Conductor's Extra Pay Conditional percentage on Conductor's earnings. 

5 Switchmen, Flagmen, etc Labor — Switching, flagging and pushing, curve men, turntable men, gatekeepers, and 

driver of advertising car. 

6 Car and Lamp Cleaners and Watchmen. . . .Labor — Lampman, Car and Lamp Cleaners, and Watchmen at Car Houses. 

7 Lighting, Oiling and Cleaning Cars Oil, matches, etc., for lighting; oil, brooms, brushes, rags, sponge, etc., for oiling and 

cleaning, and straw used in Cars. 

8 Stationery, etc Envelopes, slips, cards, notices, bill-boards, paste, school tickets, and employees' passes. 

9 Registers and Punches Expense incident to use of same. 

10 Furniture and Implements In Car Houses and Receiver's and Starter's Offices, including money satchels, boxes, 

and carts, and repairs of same. 

11 Car License Payable to City. 

12 Loss from Accidents Legal, medical and other expense growing out of injuries to persons and property. 

13 Fuel, Light and Water Used in Car Houses and Receiver's and Starter's Offices. 

14 Car Houses and Office Repairs Labor — Repairing, whitewashing, and cleaning Car Houses and Receiver's and Starter's 

Offices. 

15 Car House and Office Repairs Materials, etc., used, and other expense of same not charged in No. 14. 



December, 1884.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



29 



2. MOTIVE POWER. 

16 Animals Cost of Animals, and expense incident to purchasing same. 

17 Care of Animals Salt, medicines, etc., and other expense not charged in Nos. 16 and 18. 

18 Stable Men Labor — Foremen, Hostlers, Surgeon and Watchmen. 

19 Forage Cost of same, including freight. 

20 Handling Forage Labor — Hauling, weighing, storing, cutting, grinding, and otherwise handling and 

preparing food. 

21 Stable Tools, Implements and Machinery. Groomers, extinguishers and all Stable tools and machines, and repairs of same, not 

charged in No. 24. 

22 Feed-mill, Implements and Machinery Machinery and Implements used in handling food, wagon license, inspecting scales, 

and all repairs not charged in No. 24. 

23 Blacksmith's Tools Including material used, and other expense of making and repairing not charged in No. 24. 

24 Shoeing Animals, etc Labor — Shoeing animals and repairing machinery, tools, etc., in Stables and Harness 

and Smith Shops. 

25 Shoes and Nails. Including material used, and freight on shoes, nails and material. 

26 Harness and Repairp Labor — Making and repairing Harness. 

27 Harness and Repairs Material and tools used in Harness Shop, and other expense of making and repairing 

not charged in No. 24. 

28 Furniture and Repairs Elevator, Stoves, Clocks, etc., in Stables and Smith and Harness Shops. 

29 Fuel, Light and Water Used in Stables and Smith Shops, including cost of wells and pumps on premises. 

30 Drivers. Labor — Driver's Wages. 

31 Driver's Extra Pay Conditional percentage on Driver's earnings. 

32 Stable and Smith Shop Repairs Labor — Repairing, whitewashing and cleaning Stables, Smith Shops, wells, pumps, 

fences, and yards adjoining. 

33 Stable and Smith Shop Repairs Material used and expense incurred, not charged in No. 32. 

3. MAINTENANCE OF WAY. 

84 Track Repairers Labor — Supervisor, Foremen, Teamsters and Laborers on Track and Turntables. 

35 Track Repairs Cost of Wood material used, including freight and work done on same, not charged 

in No. 34. 

36 Track Repairs Cost of Iron material used, including freight and work done on same, not charged in No. 34. 

37 Track Repairs Water, rock, gravel and other expense not elsewhere charged. 

38 Track Cleaners Labor— Removing obstructions from track. 

89 Cleaning Track Salt, residuum, oil, etc., used for this purpose, and expense of removing obstructions 

from track. 

40 Road Tools and Implements Including plows and scrapers, road wagons and carts, license on same, and repairs not 

charged in No. 41. 

41 Road Tools and Implements Labor — Making and repairing all tools, implements, vehicles, etc., used on road. 

42 Incidental Road Expenses Any expense incident to Maintenance of Way not chargeable to other sub-accounts. 

4. MAINTENANCE OF CARS. 

43 Car Repairers Labor — Repairing Cars. 

44 Car Repairs Cost of Material used, and other expense not charged in No. 43. 

45 Car Furniture and Repairs Fare Boxes, poles, racks, signs, single and double trees, curtains, lamps, chimneys, etc., 

and repairs not charged in No. 46, 

46 Car Furniture and Repairs Labor — Making and repairing any of same. 

47 Shop Tools and Machinery Machinery, tools and furniture, used in Car and Paint Shops, and expense making and 

repairing not charged in No. 48. 

48 Repairing Tools and Machinery Labor — Making and repairing same. 

49 Furniture and Repairs Used in Car and Paint Shops. 

50 Fuel. Light and Water Used in Car and Paint Shops. 

51 Repairing Car and Paint Shops Labor— Repairing, whitewashing, and cleaning Shops and premises. 

52 Repairing Car and Paint Shops Material used, and other expense not charged in No. 51. 

5. GENERAL EXPENSE. 

53 Salaries of General Officers President, Vice-President, Directors, Secretary, Treasurer and Superintendent. 

54 Expenses of General Officers Traveling and other expense on Company business not chargeable to other sub-accounts. 

55 Salaries of Clerks In Offices of Superintendent, Secretary and Treasurer. 

56 Office Expenses Fuel, light, water, ice, postage, telegrams, wages of Janitor, etc. 

57 Stationery and Printing Books, maps, blanks, stationery, printing, advertising, and other like expense, not 

chargeable to No. 8. 

58 Telephone Service Cost of same, and repairs of Office telephone. 

59 Furniture and Repairs Safes, counters, desks, chairs, clocks, money scales, awnings, etc. 

60 Office Repairs Labor — Repairing General Offices. 

61 Office Repairs Material used, and other expense not charged in No. 60. • 

62 Interest, Discount and Exchange Including expense of paying Coupons. 

63 Sprinkling , Sprinkling street in vicinity of General Offices. 

64 Rents On Buildings and ground. 

65 Taxes Payable to City and State. 

66 Insurance Premiums on same. 

67 Legal Expenses Attorney's and Clerk's fees, copies of Court records, City ordinances, etc., not charge- 

able to No. 12. 

68 Detective Service Any expense of this character. 

69 Real Estate Expenses Surveyor's fees and any expense incident to purchase and sale of Real Estate. 

70 Gratuities Rebates of fares, and donations of every kind. 

CONSTRUCTION, EQUIPMENT AND IMPROVEMENT ACCOUNTS. 

71 Cars Labor — Building new Cars. 

72 Cars Material used, and other expense of building new Cars not charged in No. 71. 

73 Track Labor— Constructing new Track. 

74 Track Material used and other expense of constructing new Track not charged in No. 73. 

75 Buildings and Improvements Labor — On new Buildings, Sheds, etc. 

76 Buildings and Improvements Material used, and other expense of new Buildings and Improvements not charged in 

No. 75. 



rather than a Uniform System of General 
Accounts of Assets and Liabilities. 

A circular was issued by the Chairman 
of this Committee to the several street rail- 
road companies belonging to this Associa- 
tion, asking for a list of accounts kept by 
their respective companies. The Chairman 
wishes to report that the responses were 
promptly received from nearly eyery com- 
pany in the Association, showing that a great 



and general interest is felt in this matter. 
The information is gathered that there is a 
great diversity in the methods of keeping 
accounts, and it is certainly very evident 
that a uniform system of keeping operating 
expense accounts would result in very great 
good, not only for the opportunity it would 
afford for comparisons, but it might pos- 
sibly furnish information which would re- 
sult in savings to many companies. 



Your committee take pleasure in present- 
ing the system now in use by the Louisville 
City Railway Company, and of recommend- 
ing and offering the same for your consider- 
ation and discussion. 

The operating expense accounts kept by 
that company are as follows: 

No. 1. — Conducting transportation. 

No. 2. — Motive power. 

No. 3. — Maintenance of way. 



30 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[December, 1884. 



No. 4. — Maintenance of cars. 
No. 5. — General expense. 
Under these general headings are kept 
several sub-accounts, as shown in the ac- 
companying form kindly furnished by the 
Louisville City Railway Company, and 
which is herewith presented by your com- 
mittee as part of this report. The form 
may be modified to suit the different com- 
panies. Respectfully, 

E. K. Stewart, 

Chairman. 

+-+-» : 

Track Salting. 

We continue from page 6 of our Novem- 
ber issue our abstract of the official report 
of the discussion on and documentary evi- 
dence connected with the report of the 
special committee of the A. S. R. W. Ass'n 
oa track cleaning, etc.: — 

Dr. Elijah Whitney said that both the 
railways and the city authorities should be 
taxed for the purpose of salting the streets 
and melting the snow. New York streets 
could be cleaned thus for one-fourth the 
cost of the present way, by horses and 
carts. 

Mr. Johnson, of Cleveland, reported that 
they kept their track clean by salting, 
though against the ordinance. 

Mr. William Richardson said that there was 
a very full investigation of this question in 
Philadelphia, in 1862, before Select Council, 
Board of Health, etc., and published in the 
Sanitarian some five or six years ago. It 
included thermometer and other tests, and 
was used before committee of Brooklyn 
Common Council, which I referred to, and 
had a very considerable effect. 

[Association took a recess for an hour.] 
In a letter from Mr. Richardson to the 
association, furnishing valuable letters and 
other documents, he desired to express the 
obligations he was under, in 1874, to James 
Watt, M. D., Registrar of Vital Statistics, 
who personally appeared before the Brook- 
lyn Council Committee with a statement of 
valuable facts in refutation of the prejudice 
that the use of salt on the streets was injur- 
ious. In these he was supported by the 
Sanitary Superintendent, Dr. Avery Segur, 
and the Health Commissioners, Drs. Hutch- 
inson and Conklin, and James Jourdan, 
Esq., President of the Board. 

The pi-esent Commissioner of the Health 
Department of Brooklyn, Joseph H. Ray- 
mond M. D., at the investigation in 1881, 
at which time he held the office of Sanitary 
Superintendent, in addition to writing the 
Committee a very full and statistical re- 
port (herewith appended ) attended before 
the Committee; and gave emphatic evi- 
dence that there were no evil results from 
the use of salt, on public health. Dr. Ray- 
mond as Inspector, Sanitary Superintend- 
ent and Health Commissioner of Brooklyn, 
had for many years been an untiring and 
anxious investigator of every question af- 
fecting, whether nearly or remotely, the 
health of the city. His wiitten report had 
the emphatic indorsement of James Crane. 
M. D., at that time Health Commissioner 
of Brooklyn, and for many years connected 
with the Metropolitan Health Department. 

Abstract of Report of Brooklyn Committee 
on Public Health, April 4, 1881. 
The Committee on Public Health referred 
the matter to the Commissioner of the De- 
partment of health, who referred it to the 
Sanitary Superintendent. 

In Dr. Raymond's report he says in brief : 
The opponents of salt claim that its use 
tends to the spread and production of con- 
tagious diseases. The diseases of this 
nature in Brooklyn are: diphtheria, scarlet 
fever, measles and small-pox. I am unable 
to see the least relation between the use of 
salt and the prevalence or fatality of these 
diseases. The greatest mortality from 
diphtheria during 1880-81, was for the week 
ending November 6, 1880. Salt had not 
been used up to that time, nor was it used 
■until nineteen days after. 



In 1877 there were 730 deaths from scarlet 
fever; in 1878 there were 3G3 deaths, one- 
half as many as in the preceding year, 
while the salt used was about the same; in 
1879 the deaths were 344, still lower than 
in 1878, while the amount of salt used was 
greater than in the two preceding years; 
during 1880 there were but 222 deaths 
from this disease, yet the railroad com- 
panies probably used more suit than ever 
before. 

In November, 1880, there were two 
deaths from measles ; in December, no 
deaths; in January, 1881, five deaths; and 
in February, three deaths ; this is the time 
of the year when salt is principally used . 
In Ma ch, 1880, there were thirty-two 
deaths; in April, thirty-four deaths; in May, 
thirty-two deaths; and in June, twenty-one 
deaths; this was during the time when no 
salt was used. 

From the summer of 1877 to the summer 
of 1880, there was absolutely no small-pox 
in Brooklyn, and yet during the winters of 
all these years, salt was used in the railroad 
streets. From May 30, 1877, to September 
23, 1880, there was not a single death from 
this disease. It would seem to be a proper 
inference that the sprinkling of salt on the 
streets is not detrimental to the public 
health, through the medium of contagious 
diseases. 

This subject was, during the year 18G2, 
investigated in a most thoiough and scien- 
tific manner by the best chemists and phy- 
sicians of Philadelphia. 

Professor Rogers, of the University of 
Pennsylvania, testified, that the "use of 
salt is calculated to preserve the atmos- 
phere of the streets in a state of salubrity." 

B. Howard Rand,.M. D., testified '-that 
the use of salt in thawiDg the snow cannot 
have any injurious effect on the health of 
the community. * * * In respect to its 
alleged tendency to produce epidemics, I 
do not think it a matter within the range of 
possibility even." 

Dr. Kenderdiue, of the Episcopal Hos- 
pital, testified: "I know of no injurious 
results from salting the streets, except the 
loss of professional business ; it prevents 
falls; I have had no cases of fracture from 
such accidents since— at least, none hap- 
pening on streets with railroads." 

D. Hayes Agnew, M. D., testified: "Dip- 
theria, which is assumed to be one of the 
results of salted streets, is not a new disease, 
but has prevailed both in and out of cities, 
long before railroads of any kind had an 
existence." 

At this investigation, a report was made 
by a Committee of the College of Physi- 
cians, which, in closing, presented the fol- 
lowing resolution: " That in the opinion of 
the College of Physicians, there is no 
evidence that the practice of salting the 
railway tracks passing over the streets of 
the city exerts any injurious influence 1 on 
uhe health of citizens." This was signed 
by the following eminent men: Casper 
Morris, Franklin Bache, Edward Harts- 
horn, J. M. DeCosta, and D. Francis Condie. 

At a recent meeting of the Common 
Council Committee on Public Health, of 
this city, communications were read from 
Drs. Elisha Harris, of the State Board of 
Health, Joseph C. Hutchison, formerly 
Health Commissioner of this city, and 
Avery Segur, M.D., formerly Sanitary 
Superintendent, giving the weight of their 
names and opinions to sustain the state- 
ments made by the Philadelphia experts, 
that there was no evidence that the salting 
of tracks was a detriment to the public 
health. 

In conclusion, permit me to say, that I 
have never been able to discover any facts 
which would, even in the slightest degree, 
tend to prove that this practice is detri- 
mental to the public health, nor have I 
been able to find any such evidence on 
record. 

The following letter is from Dr. Joseph 
C. Hutchison, alike eminent as a physician 
and surgeon, and formerly one of the 
Health Commissioners of Brooklyn. It was 



sent to the Mayor of Brooklyn, at the time 
the question of prohibiting the use of salt ' 
was before the Common Council, in 1881. 

Brooklyn, January 10th, 1881. 
Hon. James Howell, Jr., Mayor of Brook- 
lyn. 

Dear Sir: — Having been requested to ex- 
press to you my opinion of the effect upon 
the public health of sprinkling salt ;Up.on-; 
railroad tracks for dissolving snow and ice 
to effect its speedy removal, I beg leave to 
state briefly and without reservation, that > 
the results of the practice are not injurious 
to the health of the city. 

On the contrary, the well-known anti- "i 
septic effects of common salt in preventing 
decomposition of vegetable and animal ac- . 
cumulations in our streets, which cause the 
exhalation of noxious gases, has a salutary 
effect upon the public health. "Salting," 
by preventing putrefaction, tends to male 
the atmosphere over the salted street moie 
pure and salubrious, and the liquefied snow 
and salt running into the sewers purifies 
and corrects, to a certain extent, their 
offensiveness. 

The public convenience would be pi - 
moted by having a trench made throuj h 
the snow and ice, from the railway traCls 
to the inlets of the sewers, and keeping the 
inlets open, so as to carry off the liquid 
mixture. I presume from the fact that tl e 
sewer inlets are usually closed, that an or- 
dinance is already in existence requiring 
that they be kept open ! 

The greatest sufferers from the use of 
salt upon the railroads are the doctors, 
both by reason of the purifying effects of. 
the melted salt upen tl e sire cts and sewers, 
and the prevention of accidents — brokeu 
bones, etc. — from falls. 

I beg leave to call your attention to an 
exhaustive report on the influence upon the I 
public health of salting the streets for the 
removel of snow, made by the Philadelphia 
College of Physicians in 1862, in which it is. 
clearly shown that the practice is in no way 
injurious to health. 

I am, sir, very respectfully yours, 

Jos. C. Hutchison, M. D. 

The following endorsement is by the laic 
Dr. Elisha Hariis, for many years Regis- 
trar of Vital Statifrth s cf the City of Kew 
York, and. at the time of his death Secre-. 
tary of the New York State Board cf 
Health Commissioners: 

I fully concur in the foregoing statement 
by Dr. J. C. Hutchison. This matter 
should be regarded as one of facts, as here 
stated, and not of mere opinion. 

Elisha Harris, M. D. 

The following approval is from Dr. Wil- 
liam M. Smith, the health officer of the 
port of New York : 

I approve the opinion, and concur in the 
recommendation of Dr. J. C. Hutchison. 
William M. Smith, M. D. 

The following letter is from Dr Avery 
Segur, for several years Sanitary Superin- 
tendent of the City of Brooklyn, and now 
Examining Physician of the Mutual Life 
Insurance Company, of New York: 

281 Henry Street, ) 
Brooklyn, Jan. 31, 1881. ) .-i 

Edwin Beers, Esq., President of the Bicad- 
u-ay Railroad Company, Brooklyn : 

Sir: — My attention was directed to the 
use of salt for removing snow by the horse- 
car railroad companies several years ago 
(1873-4) when I was in -the service- of -the- - 
Health Department as Sanitary Superin- 
tendent. 

I then learned that in the City of Phila- 
delphia an investigation had been made by 
a medical commission, and that no evidence 
of injurious effects on health from such 
use of salt was found; and the result of the 
inquiry was that these medical experts 
affirmed that removal of snow with salt 
was not detrimental to the public health. 

The same opinion was held by such of 



December, 1884.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



31 



our own physicians as I consulted about 
the matter. I was then, and have been 
always since interested in, and attentive 
to, all questions involving the causes of 
sickness in cities; and I have never seen 
any evidence from any source, either pro- 
fessional or the general public, to sustain 
the opinion that the use of salt to remove 
snow from the streets should be prohibited. 

The importance of the sanitary condition 
of the streets to so large a portion of our 
population who pass a considerable time in 
the horse cars, and the difficulty of estab- 
lishing the affirmative or negative of any 
proposition about causes of disease (as at 
present the allegation that the use of salt 
on snow in the streets is injurious as well 
as the contrary denial— more or less valua- 
ble opinions of individuals), have led me to 
consult the reports of various official bodies 
charged with the care of the public health. 
In all the volumes of reports of the New 
York city Board of Health since 1866, 
among the multitudes of matters, having a 
sanitary interest, upon which the board has 
acted, I do not find that this matter has 
demanded or received any adverse atten- 
tion; although street-cleaning, street-filth, 
etc., are very prominent. So with the 
Massachusetts State Board of Health, 
although it has affirmed the proposition 
that the public streets should be no less 
safe to health than secure to limb. I hope 
the present inquiry of our Common Council 
will end in an important contribution to 
the knowledge of this subject, or, if that is 
not immediately practicable, to the suspen- 
sion of opinion which opens the way to 
knowledge. 

The experience of this winter has made 
me wish that all the streets in the city were 
as comfortable, dry and passable on foot or 
in vehicles, as are the streets in which the 
horse-cars run. Very respectfully, 

Avery Segur, M. D. 

The following letter is from Samuel 
Mitchell, foreman and veterinary of the 
Broadway Railroad Company, of Brooklyn: 

East New York, January 21, 1881. 
To the Health Committee of the Common 
Council of the City of Brooklyn : 
Gentlemen: — Having been requested to 
give an opinion on the subject of salting the 
railroad tracks; and as I am the oldest rail- 
road employee in Brooklyn, and having 
given the matter close observation both as 
regards its effects on man and horse for the 
last twenty years, I think I can dispel some 
of the erroneous ideas held by many of my 
fellow citizens on this greatly misunder- 
stood subject. First, as regards its effects 
on the health of the drivers and other 
employees in the Broadway Railroad Com- 
pany's service, several of whom have 
worked with me for the last twenty years, 
would say that they are as hearty and as 
healthy as I am, and few men of eighty-one 
years are better preserved than myself. It 
may be that the salt preserved me ! As 
regards the horses, I never have found any 
trouble with them from the use of salt. I 
have the care and management of several 
hundred, and with ordinary attention to 
cleaning the snow and mud from their feet, 
the horses do as well in the winter as in the 
summer. If the persons who are opposed 
to salting the tracks would take the trouble 
to investigate the subject, they would find 
that salt is soluble in water, but is not vola- 
tile. By mixing eight ounces of salt in one 
gallon of water, and evaporating or dis- 
tilling the dryness, the eight ounces of salt 
will be left. This plainly proves that none 
of it has mixed with the atmosphere. If 
salt were volatile and injurious to health, 
seamen and those living on the sea coast 
would suffer from it. If the fault-finders 
would learn a little practical chemistry 
they would think and speak differently 
concerning the use of salt. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 
Samuel Mitchell. 

The following letter was sent by the 
(then) Professor of Chemistry of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, R. E. Rogers, M. 



D.,* to a special committee of the Select 
Council of the City of Philadelphia, in the 
year 1862: 

University of Pennsylvania, ) 
Philadelphia, February 24, 1862. \ 
To the Committee of Select Council, having 
in charge the inquiry, respecting the influ- 
ence on the public health of the practice of 
sprinkling Salt upon the City Rdlroad 
tracks for removing Snow and Ice : 
Gentlemen:— Having since my interview 
with you at your public sitting on January 
24, obtained additional positive data rela- 
tive to the cooling effect of salt when 
employed to hasten the removal of snow 
from the city railroad tracks, and believing 
that it is your wish to procure all informa- 
tion bearing practically upon the subject, 
I venture to address to you this communi- 
cation, trusting that in a sincere desire to 
oontribute to the cause of truth will be 
found my apology for so doing. 

Satisfactory conclusions upon a question 
so important as this, involving, as it does, 
considerations of public health, cannot be 
reached by the dogmatic assertion of indi- 
vidual opinion, nor by the captious criti- 
cism, nor ridicule of the opinion of others 
who differ from us, neither by mere sur- 
mises as to causes and effects, nor the 
invention of hypothesis, however ingeni- 
ously devised or skillfully reasoned out, 
but alone by carefully ascertained facts, 
the results of observation and experiment. 
I shall, therefore, not undertake to dis- 
cuss or comment upon any of the volumi- 
nous and somewhat conflicting testimony, 
which has been elicited during the agitation 
of the subject, but confine myself to a line 
of demonstration. 

As will be remembered, there occurred 
on the 3d instant a heavy fall of snow, 
commencing in the night, and continuing 
into the next morning. Availing myself 
of the opportunity it afforded of ascertain- 
ing by practical tests more fully than I had 
already been able to do, the extent to which 
salt, as used upon the city railroad tracks, 
really reduces the temperature, I made on 
the 5th inst. two series of observations, one 
upon the materials in which persons walk- 
ing had to tread, the other upon the atmos- 
phere. 

The thermometor which I employed was 
correct in its indications, and graduated to 
half degrees. The day was clear and cool, 
the temperature at noon, in the shade, 
33°. The railroad tracks had been, as I 
was informed, salted to the usual extent, 
and the snow along these portions of the 
lines exposed to the sun was thawing 
rapidly, while that sheltered from its influ- 
ence had melted but little. 

The first observations were commenced 
at 12 o'clock noon, and continued an hour 
and a half, and, whereupon, the tempera- 
ture of the melted or liquid mixture of salt 
and snow, which had accumulated at or 
near the crossings of Chestnut and Eighth, 
Ninth, Tenth, Eleventh, Twelfth and Thir- 
teenth Streets, and upon that of the 
unmelted mixture of the same materials at 
several intermediate points between the 
intersections of these cross-streets and 
Chestnut, stood as follows : 
The columns below exhibit the results. 

TEMPERATURE OF THE MELTED OR LIQUID 
MIXTURE OF SNOW AND SALT. 

Chestnut and 8th, the temperature 

of the liquid mixture was 27-|° 

Chestnut and 9th, the temperature 

of the liquid mixture was 28-J 

Chestnut and 10th, the temperature 

of the liquid mixture was 28 

Chestnut and 11th, the temperature 

of the liquid mixture was 27£ 

Chestnut and 12th, the temperature 

of the liquid mixture was 27^ 

Chestnut and 13th, the temperature 

of the liquid mixture was 28 

Average . . 27 &Y 

*Siuce deceased. 



TEMPERATURE OF THE UNMELTED MIXTURE 
OF SNOW AND SALT. 

At a point 50 feet above 8th, on Chest- 
nut Street 26|" 

At a point opposite the Continental 
Hot^l 26£ 

At a point 50 feet above 9th, on Chest- 
nut Street 27 

At a point opposite the Markoe House. 27 

At a point midway between 10th and 
11th, on Chestnut Street 26£ 

At a point midway between 11th and 
12th, on Chestnut Street 27 

At a point midway between 12th and 
13th, on Chestnut Street 27 



Average . 



The second observations were made on 
the afternoon of the same day, commenc- 
ing at half-past three, and continued for an 
hour and a half. Their object was to 
ascertain whether there was any difference, 
and, if any, how great, between the tem- 
perature of the air which rested at a small 
elevation over the salted streets, and that 
over the snow, where no salt had been used. 
The thermometer employed was the same 
used in the earlier part of the day, and was 
so carried that the lower end, or bulb, hung 
at a point three feet above the snow. 

The afternoon was altogether calm, and, 
therefore, especially favorable for fair ex- 
periment. Starting from the intersection 
of 13th and Chestnut Streets, the ther- 
mometer at 33°, I proceeded down Chestnut 
to 9th, pausing occasionally to note the in- 
dications of the instrument. At each ob- 
servation, a gradual diminution was ap- 
parent, and on reaching 9th Street, the 
temperature, as nearly as I could detect, 
had fallen to 32|°. Turning up 9th, 1 tra- 
versed that street as far as Arch, and in my 
progress observed a similar gradual de- 
cline in the temperature, and by the time I 
had arrived at the corner of 9th and Arch, 
the thermometer marked 32i°. I next 
walked up Arch Street to 12th; still the in- 
strument showed a gradual fall, and on 
reaching 12th Street it stood at 82£°. From 
Arch, I proceeded down 12th to Walnut. 
Along this street was noticed a like pro- 
gressive diminution in the temperature; 
and when I reached the corner of 12th and 
Walnut, it was just 32°. 

Turning now down Walnut, I walked as 
far as 9th. During this interval the decline 
still continued, and at about the previous 
rate, so that when at the corner of 9th and 
Walnut streets the instrument recorded, as 
nearly as the eye could define, 31%°. 
From 9th and Walnut, I walked towards 
Chestnut, and at the intersection of 9th and 
Sansom Streets, lingered 15 minutes to 
make my last observation. The tempera- 
ture of the atmosphere had still continued 
to fall, and at this point was a minute frac- 
tion of 81 J£ °. For clearer inspection, 
these results may be tabulated thus : 
Commencement of observations at 13th 
and Chestnut, temperature 33°. 

Along Chestnut to 9th (salted), fall from 33° to 32%° 
" 9th to Arch (unsalted), " " 32% to 3;^| 
" Arch to 12th (saltedi, " " .32^ to 32}4 
" 12th toWalnut (unsalted)," " 32^ to 32 
" Walnut to 9th (salted), " " 32 to 31% 

At intersection of 9th and Sansom (un- 
salted), fall from 31% to 31>g 

From this record it was evident that the 
afternoon was steadily growing colder as 
the horn' became later, and too, at about the 
somewhat uniform rate of about a quarter 
of a degree for every fifteen minutes. At 
9 o'clock p.m., the thermometer stood at 
28°. The diminution took place as rapid- 
ly, and to an equal extent, in one street as 
in another, thus conclusively proving that 
at an elevation of three feet above the surface 
of the material on the ground there was no 
essential difference between the atmosphere 
of the salted streets and that of those where 
no salt had been thrown; since had such a 
difference existed, the thermometer should 
have fallen more rapidly and to a greater 
extent, so soon as it was taken from an un- 
salted to a salted street, and then should 



32 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[December, 1884. 



have risen again, or shown a more tardy 
rate of fall upon being removed from a 
salted to an unsalted avenue. 

These observations of matters, purely of 
fact, while confirming statements previous- 
ly made to your Committee, furnish, I con- 
ceive, evidence of significant bearing upon 
the question at issue, and will, I hope, tend 
to correct some of the misimpressions and 
misapprehensions which have prevailed on 
the subject. Thus, in the first place, it is 
shown that the belief that salt as usedin the 
quantity employed by the City Eailroad 
Companies for hastening the removal of 
snow from their tracks produces a mixture 
intensely cold to the feet, is erroneous, since 
the average reduction of temperature in 
the liquid mixture of snow and salt was, 
at the places of experiment, only 4.17° 
below that of snow water, and the average 
reduction in the unmelted mixture was but 
5.22° below that of snow itself. 

In the second place, it is demonstrated 
that a like error has prevailed in supposing 
that the atmosphere breathed by the men 
and horses over the salted streets is greatly 
colder than that which they inhale on the 
unsalted thoroughfares, the tables showing 
that, at an elevation of three feet above the 
ground, there is no appreciable difference 
between the temperature of the air resting 
over the salted snow and that of the snow 
alone. That the air immediately in contact 
with the salt and snow mixture is a little 
colder than that resting upon the snow it- 
self, no one will doubt, but so little is the 
air a conductor of heat, that this small dif- 
ference of temperature does not, as proved 
by experiment, extend to any considerable 
distance into the upper strata. 

In regard to the point about which there 
may appear to be some difference of opin- 
ion, I would here reiterate the statement 
already elsewhere made, with a word of 
explanation, that so far as the admixture 
of salt with snow really cools the atmo- 
sphere immediately adjacent to it, an effect 
at most but very limited, so far does it 
tend to condense, and thus abstract the 
moisture which that atmosphere contains 
dissolved. 

If then a portion be condensed, it must 
hold less moisture than it did before, there- 
fore, it is less wet, less damp, in other words 
it is drier. 

As the question is a practical one, these 
terms should be employed in that sense 
alone. An atmosphere to be wet or damp 
must by common interpretation be capable 
of communicating wetness or dampness to 
bodies in contact with it, and to do this, 
two conditions are requisite, the one, that 
it be in the language of the meteorologist, 
saturated, that is the "dew point," and the 
temperature of the atmosphere must corres- 
pond; the second, that that saturated at- 
mosphere be warmer than the objects which it 
surrounds. 

It is, therefore, evident that in the case 
under consideration, the air, resting on the 
snow and salt mixture being colder than 
animals and the garments of persons, it 
cannot give to them any of its moisture 
— it (the air) cannot be to them wet or 
damp. 

In conclusion, I would submit the follow- 
ing summary of what I regard to be the es- 
tablished points connected with this vexed 
question. 

That salt does not itself volatilize or 
evolve either of its constituents, and being 
an antiseptic, or correction of putrefaction , 
tends so far as it exerts any influence, to 
preserve the atmosphere over the salted 
thoroughfares pure and salubrious. 

That the practice of salting the railroad 
tracks is attended by the production in the 
liquid and semi-liquid mixture, of a tem- 
perature not more than a few degrees colder 
than that of melted snow. 

That the use of salt, while it accelerates 
the thawing of the snow, likewise, by 
forming a solution less readily frozen at 
night or in cold weather, than simple snow 
water, promotes and greatly hastens the 
drainage of the city, and thereby in pro- 



portion curtails the period to which the 
feet of persons and horses are subjected to 
the cold. That this depression of tempera- 
ture is only temporary, and continues just 
so long as the snow is melting. The solu- 
tion when once formed obeys the law of 
all other liquids, and may be warmed by 
the sun or other influences. 

That the atmosphere at the elevation 
above the surface at which men and ani- 
mals on the street breathe it, is not ren- 
dered perceptibly colder by the use of salt. 

That so far as there is any hygrometric 
change produced in the air, the effect of 
salt is to render it more free from moisture, 
practically drier. This effect is at most but 
small, and only occurs near the surface of 
the cold mixture. 

That leather is penetrated by salt and 
water less readily than by pure snow-water, 
and in consequence of the very small per- 
centage of salt present, is not, when wet 
with it, sensibly more difficult to dry than 
when wet with pure water alone. 

The erroneous impression which widely 
prevails that salt, as used in the streets, 
greatly promotes the absorption and reten- 
tion of water by leather, is derived from 
the fact that, at the sea shore, shoes often 
remain damp, and are at times prone to 
moldiness upon the surface. 

The cases are not analogous. The water 
of the sea is not merely a solution of com- 
mon salt but contains likewise along with 
other ingredients chloride of magneaium, a 
substance which is remarkably hygrometric, 
or disposed to absorb moisture from the air. 
Besides, the air, itself during the preval- 
ence of winds from the sea, is often so 
loaded with moisture as to explain, in it- 
self the excessive dampness experienced. 

That there is nothing corrosive in the 
solution of salt and water, nor any specific 
power to rot or disintegrate leather or fade 
colors. 

In making this communication, which is 
intended as testimony chiefly on the scien- 
tific points involved, I would not have it 
understood, that I either ignore or under- 
value the importance of that attention 
which it is the duty of the railroad com- 
panies to bestow, to keep the crossings 
clear, and to provide adequate outlets at 
intermediate points along their tracks for 
the escape of liquid accumulations. 

On the contrary, I believe that much of 
what has been said in extenuation of the 
practice of " salting," depends upon their 
being a correspodingly free drainage. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient 
servant, 

R. E. Rogers, M. D. 

(To be continued.) 



Car Decoration. 



Those of us who can remember a few 
years back, and call to mind the growth 
and change of car decoration, during 
twenty years, many perhaps ask themselves 
what we are drifting to in this direction. 
There was a time when light colors and 
curved mouldings were the only things 
" proper," and the ceilings were of various 
styles from jumble-esque to mixtoidal. 
Hard woods were religiously filled, painted, 
rubbed, and varnished, lest the too curious 
traveler should see that the Almighty had 
presumed to put a grain in wood. Rare 
and strange flowers lolloped all over the 
canvas; red tailed birds with marvelous 
purple crests hung horizontally in a laven- 
der colored sky, and spread their yellow 
wings and displayed their sea-green breasts 
to the admiring gaze of beefy but boneless 
cherubs, who were engaged in weaving end- 
less and useless wreaths and garlands, from 
trailing branches of endless length and 
great uniformity of leafage. The skilful 
application of grindstones and upper disks 
to glass, with a red or blue veneering, pro- 
duced pineapples scarcely less prickly and 
uninviting than thistles, and fat comfort- 
able nettles growing on the same stalk as 



the classic acanthus, the civic oak, and 
fame's own laurel. 

All this has changed. 

Outside the cheerful canary and the 
honest though ugly buff have given place 
to hybrid olive and funeresque maroons. 

Within, ash and butternut, cherry and 
bay, are Queen Anned and Eastlaked, 
graved ; gouged and gargoyled ; chamfered 
and daveled, filled and varnished " flat." 
Monochrome ceilings rest the eye. In some 
places, wicker-work overhead racks, more 
tasty than the brass bird cages which they 
supplanted, certainly give one the impres- 
sion that if the car upset they wouldn't cut 
you very deep — at least not " on de bias, so 
'twon't nebber heal up." 

And so through, around and over the car 
and its decorations — there have been some 
changes and some improvements, but the 
end is not yet ; unity is absent ; harmony 
seems to hate traveling ; and the "eternal 
fitness of things " is largely unattained in 
car decoration. 

We want to put more brains and less 
money in this line. — Journal Railway 
Appliances. 

« • » 

Ou. Title. 

The publishers of this paper had so far 
decided to call it " the tramway," that they 
had the design for a heading prepared by 
an artist; but the prevailing opinion seemed 
so strong against the title, that the name 
was changed to the present one, more es- 
pecially as the matter, though an unimport- 
ant one to us, seemed to be considered a 
serious one by the National Association. 
This latter body, had, in fact, requested 
another railway paper to change the name 
of one of its departments from " tramway " 
to Street Railway. So it may perhaps, 
be considered as settled that there are, offi- 
cially, no " tramways" in America. In this 
connection, however, let us say that the 
prejudice against the word "tramway" is 
far from universal on this side of the water, 
even in quarters where Anglophobia is 
most pronounced. 

In this connection we may say to those 
who object to the word " tramway " sim- 
ply because it is English, that street rail- 
way men are largely responsible for the in- 
troduction of the word "railway" in 
America, instead of the word "railroad." 

" Consistency, thou art a jewel." 



Salting. 

We think that this will be the last year 
that municipal corporations will try to stop 
track salting. Perhaps in the not distant 
future they will make it compulsory. Al- 
dermen and Councilmen are strange beings. 

*-►♦ 

Annual Reports. 

The season for annual reports draws 

nigh, in fact, is at hand. We hope that 

the "crop" for '84 will make a favorable 

and satisfactory showing. We should take 

it as a favor if officers would see that we 

get early copies of their reports when 

issued. 

+-~+ 

Teaching Conductors to Steal. 

We hope to have something to say at an 
early day upon the subject of the action of 
passengers in teaching conductors how to 
steal, and encouraging them in their pecu- 
lations. 

*-•-# 

The Convention Reports. 

In reply to numerous inquiries we have 
to make a general statement : that as the 
American Street Railway Association de- 
cided to exclude all reporters, except its 
own official stenographer, from the recent 
convention, and to limit the publicatian of 
reports and discussions until edited by the 
1 Secretary, we cannot give in this issue any 
I part of any of the discussions on reports 
] except that on salting. 



December, 1884.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



33 



TH E — 



Street Railway 

JOURNAL. 



MONTHLY, $1,00 PER YEAR. 



E. P. Harris General Manager. 

P. G. Monroe General Western Manager. 

Robert Grimshaw, M. E Editor in Chief. 

G. B. Heckel, Associate Editor. 



American Railway Publishing Co. 

S. L. K. Monroe, Sec'y and Treas. 

32 LIBERTY ST., NEW YORK. 

8 LAKESIDE BUILDING, CHICAGO 



BRANCH OFFICES: 

Eastern District, 8 Exchange Place, Boston,Mass. 
H. M. Swetland, Manager. 

South-Eastern District, 419 Walnut St., Phila- 
delphia, Pa. G. B. Heckel, Manager. 

Southern District, 68 Alabama St., Atlanta, Ga. 
E. V. Cavell, Manager. 

South-Western District, 504 Temple Building, 
St. Louis, Mo. W. E. Rose, Manager. 



Editorial Notes. 

The number of subscriptions received 
for the Street Railway Journal since the 
issue of its first number, and the words of 
commendation accompanying many of 
them are very gratifying to the publishers. 
If the subscriptions continue to come as 
they now bid fair to, our subscription list 
will soon be a tolerably good directory of 
the street railroads of the country, giving 
not only the general officers, but in some 
cases a dozen or more foremen, etc., as 
well. 

Would it not be a good plan to see that 
the Street Railway Journal reaches 
some of your foremen and other leading 
men, as well as the officers of the company ? 

Subscribers to the Journal of Railway 
Appliances, who wish to transfer their sub- 
scription to the Street Railway Journal 
will please write us to that effect. There 
are quite a number of names on the list of 
the former paper who took it on account of 
its street railway department, and who 
would now prefer the Street Railway 
Journal, but we are not in all cases able to 
distinguish such, and would be glad to have 
them write us. 

We shall esteem it a great favor if our 
readers will notify us of changes on the 
roads with which they are connected, or of 
which they have knowledge. Such for 
instances as changes in officers ; extension 
of track or addition to rolling or live stock, 
either made or to be made, and in short 
everything of interest, especially if you 
know of a proposed road. But don't assume 
that it requires some event of great import- 
ance to warrant your writing, we want to 
hear from you. 



Coming Articles. 



In coming issues of the Street Railway 
Journal, the Reports and Discussions of 
the National and State Association Conven- 
tions will appear regularly. There will be 
plenty of short news items from all over 
the country, and, among other things, 
editorial and communicated articles about 
Car Painting, Heating, Lighting and Ven- 
tilation ; Best Form and Material of Rails 
and Best Mode of Construction of Track ; 
Grinding Wheels ; Independent vs. Rigid 
Wheels ; Choice and Care of Stock ; Car 
Starters ; Fare Collection ; Motors and the 
Cable System ; Shoeing Horses ; The 
Refined Habits of the Louisville Street 



Railway Mule ; Humorous Incidents of 
Street Car Travel ; the Kickers' Column (a 
sort of "Lions Mouth" for memoranda 
concerning faults and abuses). All sub- 
jects considered by the National and State 
Street Railway Associations will be dis- 
cussed editorially ; and our columns will be 
open to communications from Street Rail- 
way men all over the country. 



Our "Kicker's" Column. 

We have already announced our inten- 
tion to maintain our editorial independ- 
ence, and while offering good will to all, to 
express at the same time our candid opinion 
on all subjects which may come to us for 
notice. We give the street railway 
interests credit for fair-mindedness and 
common sense, and are perfectly satisfied 
that they are willing to hear objections and 
acknowledge faults. No one would attempt 
to say that street railway service and 
methods could not, in some instances, be 
improved. These faults are, in most cases. 
trifles, but everything worth doing at all 
is worth doing not only well, but perfectly. 
Trifling faults are the most pernicious, 
because usually the last to be corrected, 
yet we have the word of a great master of 
trifles that "Trifles make up perfection, 
and perfection is no trifle." 

Our " kicker " —omnipresent — always on 
the alert, will give his attention to these 
trifles, criticising with unsparing pen, 
where criticism is deserved, and commend- 
ing where praise seems merited. On the 
other hand, we feel convinced that those 
criticised will take his comments (which will 
be rigidly impersonal) in the spirit in which 
they are made, and will heartily support 
his efforts to enhance the value of " trifles." 



Which Side of a Tie Should Go Up? 

[The following editorial from the Track 
Department of the Journal of Railway 
Appliances should prove interesting to 
those of our readers using timber for either 
cross-ties or stringers.] 

There is one question on which there is a 
great diversity of opinion, although there 
are very few reasons adduced as to why 
one opinion or the other is formed, and 
that is whether the heart or the sap side of 
a tie should be laid uppermost; and in this 
we think our readers ought to be consider- 
ably interested, and might with great ad- 
vantage exchange views, with the reasons 
therefor. 

Opinions are plenty, but reasons, facts 
and figures scarce. In looking over the re- 
ports of a meeting of road masters on a 
well-known line, we find one claiming that 
"the heart side of a square sawed tie should 
be turned up in all cases, for the reason that 
a tie sawed in this way will warp to the 
heart, and if heart side down will make 
loose tracks and be difficult to keep in line 
or surface." Another gives us a reason for 
putting the heart side next the rail, that 
"when the timber is dry this is the round- 
ing side of the tie, and being the hardest 
part of the timber is the best side for the 
rail to rest on, and will hold the spike the 
best." A third says that "the sap side 
would better be turned down, as ties rot 
first on top." A fourth calls for the sap 
side up, because ' 'the sap side, when it be- 
comes seasoned, throws off the water much 
better than the heart side." A fifth says 
(and this man is a " timber man ") : " Take 
trees that will face 7 to 10 inches, and I do 
not think that it makes any difference in 
the durability of the tie, if it is properly 
hewn and so laid heart down or up. I do 
not think it makes much difference which 
side is up; I do not see why it should. * * * 
A tie never seasons after it is laid in the 
ground; it will never season so as to check 
more on one side or the other. The dura- 
bility is in this — that is, in having the back 
taken off." 

Number six wants the sap side up, "be- 



cause it checks from the heart and the 
water runs in." 

And number seven says: "It is owing 
a good deal to tbe time when the timber 
was cut. In our country a good many cut 
then - timber in the spring, and all the logs 
are either split or sawed, and in two or 
three months in summer you find two or 
three inches of sap rot that is not fit to go 
up under the rail, and you have got to turn 
it down to get some good part of the tie. 
What I claim about turning the heart down 
is this: if the tie be cut at the proper sea- 
son of the year then the sap side of the tie 
would have no sap in it. The reason for 
turning the heart side down is that it will 
rot more quickly than the other side. 
Whether it is best to turn the heart side 
down or up is all owing to the time when 
the timber is cut. We buy timber at all 
seasons. When you cut large oak down in 
the spring just one-half of the life of the 
timber is gone on account of the sap being 
in it. Big heavy timber should not be cut 
in the spring." 

The economical side of the matter calls 
for expert judgment; whether it pays best 
to get a longer life, or to hold the spikes 
better; and here comes in the opportunity 
for keen appreciation and wise balancing 
of the comparative and actual values of 
each advantage and disadvantage. 

We hope that this question may interest 
our readers and call forth some expressions 
of opinion. 

•» ■ » 

Jottings. 

The best pavement between the rails — 
upon which the animals appear to travel 
with greater confidence and less fatigue 
than any other possessing the requisite 
firmness and durability — is said to be one 
of rather small cobble stones laid with a 
slight inclination from the centre towards 
the rails. The top of the pavement should 
be of the same height as the adjacent 
edge of tbe rail. Horses should be shod 
with flat shoes, rather broad at the heel and 
without calks. The frog should not be cut 
away, so that a portion of the weight shall 
come upon it when even the animal treads 
upon an even surface. Horses on the 
Brooklyn City R. R's. travel an average of 
16t miles daily. The average rate of speed 
on the New York City R. R's. is from 6 to 
6| miles per hour, including stoppages. 

A CAR weighing 4,000 lbs., carrying 28 
passengers, would require the exertion of a 
force of 68£ lbs. (^"ir) *° move it upon a 
level rail at a low speed. 

By far the larger proportion of street 
cars used in the world are of American 
design and construction. The present ten- 
dency is to build cars light, thus economiz- 
ing the dead weight to be hauled. 

Double-decked cars are largely used 
upon the street railways of Europe. Such 
cars usually seat 22 passengers inside and 
24 outside, and weigh about 5,000 lbs. 

One-horse cars are said to be more eco- 
nomical in use and to cause a saving of time 
of about 15 per cent, over two-horse cars. 

A horse can draw on a good stone tram- 
way road a load 11 times as great as he can 
move with the same effort and the same 
speed on an ordinary gravel road. The 
force of the draught being only 1-189 of 
the load in the first instance, while in the 
second it is l-16th. Even upon a very dry 
and smooth Macadamized road in its best 
condidion, the traction power required is S£ 
to 4 times as great as upon a firmly sup- 
ported tramway. F. G. B. 



Notes. 

The Cincinnati Street Railway has put 
in ten sets of Vose's new steel Cone Springs. 
The Cincinnati Inclined Plane Railway is 
also using the spring, and speaks very 
highly of it. 

The Globe Street Railway, Fall River, is 
putting on a number of new cars. 



34 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Decembee, 1884. 



The Pronunciation of "Advertisement." 

We were "brought up" to say adver- 
tisement, but got switched off to pronoun- 
cing it advertise' ment about half the time. 
On consulting the "booktionaries," we find 
that Perry, 1805; Smart, 1857; Cooley, 
1863, and Cull, 1864, give the word as our 
home instructors of Lancashire English 
predilections started us. But Webster, 
1864 ; Walker, 1806 ; Knowles, 1845, and 
Worcester, 1860, give both pronunciations 
as allowable ; although every one of these 
last give advertisement first. 

The word advertise is given with the ac- 
cent on the last syllable by Webster, Perry, 
Walker, Knowles, and Cull. Smart and 
Cooley put the accent on the first syllable 
only, with a long i in the third syllable, 
and couldn't pronounce it that way to save 
their tongues. Worcester puts the accent 
on either the first or the third, and Cull on 
both, and the latter gets our vote. 



Comments of our Kickers. 

— Every time I pay six cents on a Phila- 
delphia Street Railway, I feel myself de- 
frauded to the amount of one cent. A cent 
is not much to me, but it is an unhandy 
coin, and when I hand out a dime I get four 
of these awkward discs of bronze to carry 
about in my pocket. They won't buy any- 
thing but stamps or newspapers, and I take 
the latter by the year and the former I buy 
in quantity, and the principle is what galls 
me most of all. 

— Street cars will stop anywhere for any 
one in Philadelphia and some other towns. 
This is unfair for horses, passengers and 
drivers of other vehicles. Better the Chi- 
cago rule ; stop only at the further side of 
street crossings. The lady who is too tired 
or too sick to walk half a block ought to 
stay indoors till she recovers or gets 
rested. 

— The Allentown, Pa. , street cars are very 
dirty, and usually "funky." Soap and 
water don't cost much and it should be re- 
membered that " cleanliness is next to god- 
liness," especially in cholera seasons. 

— Opinion is divided between those favor- 
ing car windows to raise, and those favor- 
the pattern which drops. The question can 
be settled by coaxing the drop-window 
crowd to ride in one of their favorite cars 
on a right cold day. It will kill off the 
whole generation with congelation of the 
spinal marrow. 

— The People's Co. (Philadelphia), uses 
disinfectants liberally about its depot. 
My comment is hearty endorsement. 

— The Union Line (Philadelphia), charges 
six cents fare, and sells five tickets for 
thirty cents; wherefore the tickets? Same 
comment applies to all but three Philadel- 
phia companies. P. 

— When a conductor will not stop the car 
at West Warren Street, but insists on car- 
rying me in a driving rain, some eighty or 
a hundred feet further, to Warren Street 
crossing, I can bring him to a stop in just 
twenty feet, by ringing in fares on him at 
the rate of 35 a minute. This is calculated 
so: — Velocity of car, eight miles, or 5,280 X 
8 = 42,240 feet, in one hour or 60 X 60= 3,- 
600 seconds; that is, 42,240-h3,600 = 11.73 
feet per second, then as 20 is to 11.73, so is 
60 a minute to 35 and a small fraction. 
How beautifully science aids us in our 
daily affairs! 

— It might not be a bad idea for conduc- 
tors to be furnished with tarred-ended 
sticks, with which to fish pennies out from 
between the cracks of the wooden mats on 
car floors. 

— In Wilmington, Delaware, there was 
at one time a director of the city railway, 
who was in the habit of collecting cash car 
fares (seven cents) in the ' ' bobtail " cars, 
and depositing tickets (20 for a dollar.) 
" How doth the Little Busy Bee," etc. 

— Is there any particular use in having a 
car stop at No. 369, and then again at No. 
375, on an up grade? 



— " Kid-knockers " are needed on many 
lines. They prevent children from getting 
under the wheels, and often save the car- 
horses from serious injury. 

— In some cities the centre bearing rail is 
the one allowed, and in others, it is abso- 
lutely prohibited. Is there not a good deal 
of whichness in this howness? 

— Rubber covered steps are desirable in 
icy weather. 

— The man who jumps backwards off a 
car, and thereby falls on his what-do-you 
call-it, should be run over by a dray and 
put out of the world where his example 
does harm. 

— How many conductors are lead to steal, 
by old drivers ? 

— On some lines, the old diphtheria-laden 
straw litter is still used in cars. That is 
the only thing good that I can see in the car 
sto< e — it renders the use of straw impossi- 
ble. 

— Don't you think that drivers would see 
more passengers if they had nice warm 
' ' mitts " on ? 

— You can rest assured that if it costs a 
man $12 a week to live, he will not be both 
honest and over-active if you pay him only 
$10. 

— They say that if the East New York and 
Bedford night cars down, on the the Ful- 
ton Street Line, Brooklyn, were just two 
minutes earlier, they would connect every 
time at the City Hall with the Court Street 
Line. It might pay somebody to cipher 
this out sottiat passengers would not be ex- 
asperated by seeing the hind green light 
about ten blocks ahead on Court Street. 
Both the Fulton Avenue and the Court 
Street lines lose night fares in damp 
weather on this account. "All of which I 
saw, and part of which I was." 

— What redress is there for the country- 
man who puts his fifty cent piece in the 
box in the bobtail car, and has to whistle 
for his change? 

— In Camden, N. J., the City Railway 
people are pious — at least they keep Sun- 
day. From the fact that Sunday is about 
the only day that most Camden people 
have for exchange of family and friendly 
visits, I'm inclined to think that the piety 
is enforced on the street railway men. 

— Car steps should have a back guard 
where the riser would be in a regular stair 
case. A passenger is liable to put his foot 
through and get his ankle broken or his 
head thumped. 

— Has a thin man any rights that a fat 
woman is bound to respect ? It's no fun to 
be "sat upon," as often happens, by a 340 
pound sylph. 

— How pleasant it is to have your face 
wiped by an umbrella in the hands of some 
one who has stacked it (the umbrella, not 
his hand nor your face) in the space where 
the window sash goes when the window is 
opened. 

— The conductor who objects to taking 
all pennies for two six cent fares is apt to get 
nothing but pennies so long as this kicker 
rides in his car, which he does pretty 
often. 

— Who should decide whether or not a 
silver piece is too smooth to pass ? I've had 
conductors refuse to accept smooth pieces, 
and others insist on giving them in change. 
It woull seem to me that the recipient 
should have the say in all cases. 

— Has a driver any right to insist on re- 
ceiving a fare before the passenger has 
ridden ten feet in " the wrong car" simply 
because he rang the fare up when the pas- 
senger touched the platform ? Strangers 
unfamiliar with car-lines are just as much 
entitled to protection as though they needed 
none. 

— Who shall decide whether an over- 
sized eleven-year old boy is or is not en- 
titled to ride for half fare? Must the 
boy carry a birth certificate with his photo- 
graph, attested each year by his pastors 
and masters? 

— Hasn't a woman a right to nurse her 
baby in a crowded car ? Has a conductor 
the right to suggest that the meal be de- 



ferred in consideration of the mixed char- 
acter of the load ? W. 



Colors versus Oils, Dryers & Varnishes. 

Tal;e it in general, the manipulator of 
the above has very little or no knowledge 
of the chemical combination of the articles 
he uses, nor does he know anything about 
the chemical reactions, oxidation or de- 
composition of the same, and that through 
these almost all difficulties arise. 

All colors, oils, dryers and varnishes 
should be divided into two classes: firstly, 
those containing sulphur, and secondly [ 
those containing lead. 

It is an old established fact, that when- 
ever sulphur and lead become closely com- 
bined, they will form black sulphite of lead; 
and through the chemical action taking 
place, destroy the color crumble it down 
and separate a part of its constituency. 
Thus we find a white color— for instance, 
white lead if mixed with linseed oil, boiled 
with sulphate of zinc or sulphateof manga- 
nese, or a dryer containing any compound 
of sulphur turn yellow, crack and decay 
while had they been mixed with an oil 
dryer or varnish containing a manganese 
and lead complication, the action of the 
sulphuret of hydrogen could not have taken 
effect; at least not so soon. 

Some of our best and finest colors con- 
tain sulphur; as for instance, cadamium 
yellow, vermilion (sulphate of mercury), 
sulphate of indigo, etc., and it is especially, 
these colors which are the most brilliant 
used by painters. If these colors are mixed 
with an oil or dryer, or covered with a var- 
nish containing lead, they certainly must 
go to pieces; for the sulphur will unite with 
the lead and form black sulphite, and 
through this will darken the color, or 
change it and destroy the luster. 

It is often the case that a painter can 
work a certain color with one dryer, while 
he cannot begin to use it on another. This 
is simply because the one or the other color 
contained the opponent ingredient of the 
dryer used with it, and the sulphur or lead 
will unite, and the color instead of liquefy- 
ing becomes thick as mud. 

The same might be said of varnishes. 

There is no doubt but every respectable 
house in the country manufactures good 
varnishes, which are appreciated and liked, 
where they are used on the articles and 
colors for which they were intended. 

It is very often the case, that the poor 
varnish manufacturer is pounded down by 
reason of the want of chemical knowledge 
of the consumer of paints, oils and var- 
nishes. Too often the dullness and crack- 
ing have nothing to do with the varnish, 
but lead and sulphur do it all. 

Take for instance vermilion (sulphite of 
mercury) and its compounds, colors largely 
used by our different manufacturers. Why 
is it that so few varnishes will stand the 
test to retain color and brilliancy ? Simply 
because they are destroyed by combining 
them either with other colors containing 
lead or with a dryer containing lead, or are 
mixed with a coloring varnish containing 
lead, or are finished with a finishing var- 
nish containing lead. 

The painter stands dumbfounded, and 
don't know what in the world did the mis- 
chief, for nothing but the lack of the 
knowledge of the different actions of one 
color, dryer or varnish on the other. 

Therefore I would say : — 

That all dryers and varnishes made with 
oil boiled with any lead compound are not 
fit to go on a color compounded with sul- 
phur, and vice versa. 

To be on the safe side, it is bettei to use 
neither one, but to adopt the so-called 
liquid manganese dryers. 

They will mix with any raw oil, do not 
alter the colors, and are the best guard 
against the action of sulphuret of hydrogen . 

W. Zeiss. 

Akron, O. Practical Chemist. 



December, 1884.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



35 



Cracks in Varnish. 

Ed. Jouenal Railway Appliances:— 

•We have not (and do not now) manu- 
factured varnishes for some years, and 
therefore have never had the question re- 
garding the crafeks presented to us. We 
Should- say, however, that the varnish- 
filling in the pores and grain of the wood 
has a certain reserve to draw on when it 
comes to any expansion, while laterally 
there is no such reserve, and the cracks 
are formed in consequence. 

• D. F. Tiemann & Co. 
New York. 

■♦ •*■ ■ 

Cost of Working English Steam 
Tramways. 

Engineering gives the following partic- 
ulars of the working cost for twelve 
months of the engines referred to, in use 
on the Dewsbury Tramways, where they 
have been running for the past 4-J years. 
The line is equipped with nine Merry- 
weather engines:. 

Cost per Mile 
run. 
d. 

Coke 0.72 

Oil and waste 0.11 

Water 0.02 

Firewood, etc., for lighting. . . 0.02 

Locomotive repairs 0.59 

drivers 0.83 

C )ke, watering and relief man. 0.11 
Cleaners 0.17 

Total cost of working per mile 2.57 

Our exchange believes that these figures 
are the best yet shown by any makers of 
steam tramway locomotives, and says: "It 
will be noticed that the renewals and re- 
pairs only amount (after over 4 years' work) 
to 5 per cent, per annum on the cost of the 
engines. It may be interesting also to note 
that the weight of coke consumed through- 
out the year has averaged 6.54 lb. per mile 
run, the number of miles traveled being 
141,065." 



Personal. 

— R. J. Wylie, Superintendent of the 
Forty-second Street, Manhattan ville and 
St. Nicholas Avenue Railway, was for two 
years identified with the Cable Railway in 
Chicago. 

— H. C. Simpson, Secretary of the Lewis 
& Fowler M'f 'g Co. , will make a western trip 
about the first of January, taking in Pitts- 
burgh, Columbus, Cincinnati, St. Louis, 
Chicago, Kansas City, St. Joseph, Omaha 
and Denver. 



The Hind Roost. 



In these days of heated cars, many per- 
sons find the rear platform more comfort- 
able than the inside of the car ; and, in fact 
the crowded condition of the cars at many 
times makes platform riding a necessity. 
This being the case, the action of these 
companies is commendable which give a 
four inch strip as a cover for the hind 
rail instead of compelling the open air 
passengers to sit on " hex " nuts. 



Frequent Stoppages. 

. In our "Kicker's Column'' is a squib 
about frequeut and unnecessary stoppages. 
Unreasonable passengers who call for 
stoppages every ten feet, especially on up 
grades, should be made to know that their 
selfishness, causes suffering and fatigue to 
the horses and loss of time to fellow pas- 
sengers, to say nothing of the loss to the 
company. Just cipher it up and see how- 
much shorter trips could.be made with 
stoppages only at crossings. 



Varnishing. 

About half the trouble in car varnishing 
comes, not so much from purchasing poor 
varnish, as from improper care and un- 
skilled use of what varnishes are bought; 
putting a fine grade on top of a cheap 
grade having different expansion and con- 
traction under heat and cold, and so on. 
The varnish maker gets blamed in such a 
case as the last-named, because his varnish, 
warranted better than lower grades which 
had been used before, does not show up as 
well as when the last coat was of the cheap 
grade and just like the under coats. 



Hughes' Car Gate. 



In the side wall of the car in a plate is 
inserted a series of tubes. The openings in 
the plate are made smaller in diameter than 
the tubes to prevent the bars from being 
drawn out. A gate, composed of the bars 
projecting through the end wall of the car 
into the tubes and secured at their outer 
ends to a vertical bar, is capable of sliding 
in or out over the car platform. The ends 




of the bars have rollers to steady them in 
the tubes, and the vertical bar is provided 
at its lower end with a roller, which rests 
upon the car platform and sirpports the 
outer end of the gate. The openings in the 
plate, through which the bars slide, are 
made smaller in diameter than the tubes to 
prevent the rollers from being drawn out. 

When the gate is closed the bars are 
partly withdrawn from the tubes, and when 
it is open the bars are pushed into them. The 
gate has an eye capable of being engaged 
by either of the hooks attached to the end 
of the car and to the platform rails to hold 
the gate in either an open or closed posi- 
tion. A cord, secured to an eye in the upper 
end of the bar, extends under a pulley at- 
tached to the side of the car and over 
other pulleys, which bring it within easy 
reach of the conductor or other person near 
the door of the car. By pulling this cord 
the gate is opened. 

The patentee * claims that " this car gate 
will not open by lateral pressure, conse- 
quently no accidents can happen from 
cro w din g against the ga t e . It is applicable 
to street and railway cars, platform exits 
and entrances from and to cars, and can be 
applied without material change in the cars 
or in the building." 

* Dr. C. H. Hughes, 3000 Chestnut St., St. Louis. Mo. 



Notes. 

— The Third Avenue (N. Y.) Cable Rail- 
way is being rapidly pushed towards com- 
pletion. A large quantity of the iron work 
such as that for carrying the rails, elevat- 
ing sheaves, crossings, curves, etc., is being 
furnished by Andrews & Clooney, N. Y. 

— The Forty-second Street, Manhattan- 
ville & St. Nicholas Avenue Railway 
Company's lines, when all complete, will be 
as follows : 42d St., East and West : East 
34th St. Ferry to First Ave., to 42d St., to 
Seventh Ave., to 45th St.; Broadway to 
59th St. ; Boulevard and Manhattan St. to 
Bull's Ferry; West 34th St. Ferry to 
12th Ave., to 42d St., to 10th Ave., to Man- 
hattan St., to Bull's Ferry; 109th St. at 
East River, to 1st Ave., to 110th St., to St. 
Nicholas Ave., to Manhattan St., and 
Bull's Ferry, 34th St. East and West, 42d 
St , 110th St. and Broadway and Boule- 
vard Lines are now complete ; 600 men 
are now engaged in constructing. The 34th 
St. track will be laid in the spring. Iron 
work is furnished by Wm. Wharton & Co., 
Andrews & Clooney and Z. S. Ayers. 

— The 42d Street, Manhattan & St. Nich- 
olas Avenue Railway now have 25 cars 
running; are about adding 25 more, and 
will, soon after the first of the year, have 80 
on the road. All are built by John Steph- 
enson Company, have super springs, White 
wheel, and are first-class in all respects. 

— Andrews & Clooney, New York, have 
a new graduated spring running on several 
of the roads which, it is claimed, is a suc- 
cess. It is said to carry the cars more 
steadily without the ducking motion so 
common, and to ride equally well with 
empty car as with heavy load. A. & C. re- 
port good orders on hand, and the outlook 
for the coming year flattering. 

— The Broadway & Seventh Avenue road 
is putting on forty new cars built by 
Stephenson, thirty of which are to replace 
old cars. 

— The 42d St. & Grand St. Ferries Rail- 
road has, during the past eighteen months, 
put on 30 new cars, 15 of which were built 
by the John Stephenson Co., and the re- 
mainder at its own shop. Other cars are 
being rebuilt in the Company's shop. 

— The Kansas City Cable Railway Co. has 
just placed on its road ten grip and ten pas- 
senger cars, built by Stephenson. They 
have super springs and ventilating ceiling. 

— The John Stephenson Company, N. Y., 
have in hand large orders for different 
parts of South America, including four 
different cities in Chili. Of the first-class 
cars now built at these works, about nine- 
tenths are fitted with the super spring, and a 
large proportion with the perforated venti- 
lating ceiling. 

— W. Jennings Demorest, N. Y., has a 
factory in Norwalk for the manufacture of 
his fare-register and other railway supplies, 
including^ a registering punch, etc. It is 
claimed that his duplex register accom- 
plishes the same without the paper dial as 
other registers, and admits of using the per- 
manent record dial at any time desired. 

— The Troy and Lansingburg Railway is 
re-laying tracks with steel, and will double 
portions of its track as soon as permission 
can be had. Six open cars have been 
ordered for the new Green Line of this 
Company. 

— The Troy and Lansingburg road will 
gain considerable new business on account 
of a large roller skating rink now building 
in Lansingburg. The company will issue 
tickets to the rink, and it is understood the 
enterprise was very materially encouraged 
by stockholders in the company. There may 
be in this a suggestion for other roads, 
which may be able to engineer similar 
enterprises to then- profit. Other cases 



36 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[DECEkBEB, 1884. 



Railroad Joints. 

[Read before Wisconsin Society of Engi- 
neers, Sept. 2, 1884.] 

The editor of the American Journal of 
Railway Appliances wrote: "A recent caller 
complained that he could not get any satis- 
faction out of the ordinary tram-rail 'joints,' 
that they were unstable and caused bat- 
tering of the rail ends and uneven riding 
of the cars. 

"W e were not aware that on many of our 
tramw ay lines there was such a thing as 
' joints ' in the rails. There are periodical 
breaks or spaces or interruptions or some- 
thing like that, but on careful examination 
and recollection we do not find any- 
thing which would justify us in swearing 
that there were ' joints. ' The alleged joints 
remind us of a story concerning a certain 




member of the theatrical profession, who 
was what is technically called by his fel- 
lows a ' barn-stormer ' of the ' wild and terri- 
ble' variety. This individual was a witness 
in a legal case. Upon being sworn and 
asked his name he gave it as christened; 



speaks of the practice then in vogue, of 
putting plates under the strap-rail joints. 
The specifications for track laying on the 
Utica & Syracuse R. R., contained the fol- 
lowing: "As each joint of the iron plate 
(rail) end plates shall be neatly fitted into 
the oak ribbons, so as to bring their upper 
surfaces in the same horizontal place, the 
end plates shall be six inches long, 2i inches 
broad (same width as rail) and J^inch thick." 
This was prior to 1843. 

When " street railways" for passenger 
service were inaugurated by the construc- 
tion of the New York & Harlem, in the city 
of New York, 1832, operated by horse 
power and laid in the street, it at once 



each other, and the latter the stringer and 
rails. The common practice in this country 
has been merely to spike the joints, through 
suitable openings in the chairs to the 
stringer beneath. If carefully laid this 
would give a reasonably smooth joint for 
a time, but the weight of the loaded car 
would press down the end of the rail upon 
which it rested, and no weight being upon 
the other rail end it would project a little. 
The wheel striking against this projecting 
end, deflects it, and bears a trifle from off 
the top of the chair and the bottom of the 
rail. This action taking place upon the 
passage of every car wheel soon makes a 
"bad joint." The chair I now show you 



FIG. 1. 




7 — 








X 






H 












■\ 




— 




\ 

< 














: 37? "P '■ 


* 




i 










Sir " 








9 



and when asked his profession he replied, 
' I am an actor,' upon which every one of 
his comrades shouted by preconcerted 
arrangement, ' Perjury ! your Honor ! per- 
jury ! ! ' There is no good method known 
to us, by which the common flat street rail 
can be given a good, real substantial, dur- 
able, smooth acting joint." 

I have given much study during some 
years to this question The ordinary prac- 
tice of our street railroads is practically 
the same that was introduced upon steam 
railroads with the use of " strap-rails" laid 
upon wooden stringers. Stevenson, in his 
Civil Engineering of North America, 1838, 



became evident that to protect the general 
public in the use of the street, the rails 
should be low and offer as little obstruction 
as possible to the passage of vehicles. As 
other street railways were built the shape 
of the rail was fixed by ordinance. The 
rails have been designed, in the majority 
of instances, to serve merely as a protection 
to the timber substruction. They vary in 
size and shape, and joint chairs are made 
to correspond. When the bottom of the rail 
is flat, plates of sheet iron have been used 
at joints. Also chairs of cast iron, with 
tips on each side, top and bottom. The 
former to hold the rail ends in line with 



was thus worn one quarter of an inch in 
four years. The spikes become loose al- 
most from the start and rapid depreciation 
follows. To avoid these discomforts to the 
passengers, rapid destruction of the rails, 
wear and tear in rolling stock and horse 
flesh, different remedies have been pro- 

Eosed. In foreign countries, bolts have 
een used passing through the rails and 
stringer with a washer and nut on the bot- 
tom. Another fastening consisted of a 
"staple" driven into the side of the 
stringer, one leg passing through a suitable 
opening in the side of a specially designed 
rail. A little reflection will, I think, con- 



December, 1884.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



37 



vince you of the inutility of such joint fast- 
enings. In the first place, unless the tim- 
ber is thoroughly seasoned, it shrinks. 
Cond Lt, in his work on painting, quotes the 
measurements of Karmasch in Germany 
on percentage of shrinkage of timber in 
seasoning. In the direction of yearly rings 
"pine" shrinks from 5.5$ to 12.7?, white 
pine 4.1% to 8.13$. If no other objection 
existed to the bolt this would suffice, for 
very little, if any, track timber is thor- 
oughly seasoned and the shrinkage will 
loosen the fastening and allow a little play 
at the joint to be soon increased by wear; 
but as all track men know, the water fal- 
ling upon our tracks consisting of rain, 
sprinkling, etc., etc., follows along the flat 
"train-rail" until it reaches a rail joint, 
when it soaks through. The recess cut 
into the stringer for the chair beneath the 
rail joints, seems to retain this moisture 
and this is the first portion of 
the stringer to become soft and rotten. 
The load upon each wheel of a street rail- 
way car, upon "rush trips" at times equals 
three tons. This great weight forces the 
chair into the wood. If an ordinary spike 
has been used to fasten the joint, it does 
not follow, and the joint is then loose. 
This is also true of a bolt pass- 
ing through the stringer with 
a nut beneath. The carpenter, 
who cuts into the stringer for 
the chair, may adze true and 
level, and the chair be "in 
wind " or have slight projec- 
tions upon its lower surface, 
bo that it does not take a firm 
bracing upon the wood until 
the weight of the loaded car 
wheel comes upon it. In such 
event, the joint will soon have 
play and rapid wear results. 
It has been proposed to fasten 
the rail ends to the joint chair 
beneath by short bolts, but 
this fastening bracing the 
joint unattached to the tim- 
ber allows the whole joint to 
vibrate under passing trucks, 
and thus wear into the wood. 
The joint I have presented as 
the result of my investigation, 
is constructed as follows: The 
chairs may be of steel, wrought 
or cast iron. Those used by us 
were made of cast-iron, they 
correspond in width and shape 
with the bottom of the rail, 
5 inches wide, 1£ deep under 
rail head, which is rolled 
hollow, % deep under train 
of rail 18 inches long. They 
are let into the stringer so 
that their tops project y z inch, 
and tw o-thirds of their length 
is laid against the traffic on 
tracks, when the travel is all 
in one direction. The form of 
rail and corresponding chair is 
immaterial. Under the chair, two or more 
nuts are let into the top surface of the stringer 
flush with the latter, and beneath the holes 
in the rail ends. The chair is then placed on 
three nuts, through which holes have been 
bored into the stringer, less in diameter 
than the opening through the nuts for the 
bolt to pass. Suitable openings are pro- 
vided in the chairs through which these 
bolts pass, long enough to allow contrac- 
tion or expansion of the rails. The rail is 
placed on the chair and the bolt secured 
through the nut into the stringer. The nut 
securely fastens the chair and rail ends 
together and prevents wear. It is longer 
across the stringer than it is wide, so that 
the wood acts as a nut lock and prevents its 
unscrewing by traffic vibrations. The pro- 
longed screw beneath the nut fastens the 
entire joint to the stringer. Beneath the 
stringer, between it and the cross ties at 
the rail joint, I put in apiece of timber two 
inches thick, same width as stringer, to 
compensate for the timber cut away for 
the insertion of the chair. This construc- 
tion renders the joint fastening independ- 



ent of all shriukage in the wood. Should 
the chair sink from any of the aforemen- 
tioned causes, the nuts beneath carry both 
rail ends with them and no jar results. 
The nut also forces the screw down into the 
solid wood, and no vibration can take place. 
This joint will add to the life of the rails, 
for they first fail at the joint. The man- 
ager of a large rolling mill told me he 
thought it would prolong the rail serviece 10 
per cent. It will save horse flesh, requir- 
ing less power to keep a car in motion and 
less effort to start, for the car is most apt 
to stop at a defective joint. It will save 
the rolling stock that is racked and strained 
passing over bad joints with heavy loads; 
and lastly, it will add to the popularity of 
a railroad by affording increased comfort 
to its patrons. I have used it in our tracks 
and would be pleased to have you notice 
Fullerton Avenue or Garfield Avenue. The 
track rides as if constructed with one solid 
rail. My aim has been to provide a better 
joint, for the various rails now in use with- 
out any expense that would be involved by 
changes in them. This joint fastening is 
inexpensive and easily applied. In the ac- 
companying drawings Fig. 1 shows a 
cross section of track; Fig. 2, a ground plan; 



through the central grip or handle shown 
in the cut, and actuating the gears, and 
through them a cross shaft, from which a 
small belt carries the motion to the brush. 
A second handle, attached to one corner of 
the frame, facilitates manipulation. The 
vertical spindle operated directly from the 
flexible shaft, carries two gear wheels, 
either of which can be made to engage 
with the wheel of the horizontal shaft, thus 
causing the brush to revolve at will in 
either direction. Motion is provided by 
hand, steam or animal power, as may be 
most convenient. As all belts are swung 
from loose weighted pulleys, and the 
actuating shaft itself is flexible, great lati- 
tude and freedom of motion and application 
are provided. 

The flexible shaft is enclosed by a stout 
leather casing which is stationary. 

* Ellis Pennington, 304 Walnut Place, Philadelphia, 
Pa. 




Fig. 3, top view of a chair ; Fig. 4, section 
through the joint. A is the Chicago rail ; B 
the chair; C, the stringer; D, the joint 
screw; E, the nut, fastening the rails to the 
chair; F, the opening through the chairfor 
the bolt; Q, the additional timber put 
under the stringer. In Fig. 3 the points H 
and I show where the rails join in the 
chair, the direction of the traffic regulating 
each of the tire points. This figure shows 
the openings through the chair F, for the 
fastening, allowing expansion or contrac- 
tion of the rails. 

Augustine W. Wright. 



Rights of Street-Car Passengers. 

A Tribune reporter mentioned to Lewis 
Lyon, President of the Third Avenue Rail- 
road, the case of a man who had recently 
been fined $10 for refusing to 
leave the car of one of the city 
companies, and asked his opin- 
ion upon it. The driver claimed 
that the man had not paid his 
fare, while he swore with equal 
vehemence that he had. Said 
Mr. Lyon : ' ' The Judge must 
have been convinced in one 
way or another that the pas- 
senger's fare had not been paid. 
What safguard have passen- 
gers against illegal ejection 
from streeet cars? Well, the 
practice on our line is this : 
We give our conductors the 
strictest orders never to turn a 
passenger out for non-payment 
of fare unless they can secure 
the testimony of two respect- 
able witnesses to support them. 
We prefer to let a few rascals 
ride free rather than expose 
ourselves to possible lawbuits. 
There are some men who make 
a practice of provoking assaults 
with a view to bring suits for 
damages. It is the old cry: 
Anything to beat the corpora- 
tions. If, however, a conductor 
should turn out a passenger for 
non-payment of fare and had 
no witnesses to support him, 
the jury would be obliged to 
decide whether they would be- 
lieve the passenger or the con- 
ductor." 

' ' What remedy would a 
passenger have who had been 
ejected after actually paying 
his fare ?" 
" He could recover whatever damages he 
could prove. It would be a case of assault, 
and the element of public disgrace and in- 
jury to the plaintiff's feelings might be 
used to swell the amount. There are some 
persons whose feelings become wonderfully 
delicate when they expose them to the 
scrutiny of a jury." 



Pennington's Grooming Machine. 

The illustration herewith gives a very 
clear conception of a recently invented 
machine * for grooming horses and cattle 
rapidly and easily. It consists of a cylin- 
drical brush, held so as to revolve in a suit- 
able frame, carrying also an actuating set 
of beveled gear wheels. Motion is com- 
municated from a flexible shaft passing 



Car Decoration. 



In future issues we shall treat of the 
question of car decoration, particularly as 
regards the production of a style and man- 
ner which shall combine beauty, appropri- 
ateness, durability aud low cost. We shall 
show how it is possible so to decorate a car 
that there shall be a proper fitness and unity, 
and that the work shall not be expensive 
nor complicated, and that it shall be of a 
character which shall stand wear, tear and 
the action of heat and cold, wetness and 
dryness and their sudden alterations, as 
well as the gases peculiar to the street rail- 
way car stables or "barns." 



38 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[December, 1884. 



could be sighted where the same thing is 
done successfully. 

The Concord, N. H., Horse Railroad Co. 
is considering the purchase of motors to be 
used on the Penacook extension. 

A new horse railway is under considera- 
tion at Gloucester, Mass. 

Three leading lines of horse railway in 
Boston will reduce fares to five cents on 
Jan. 1st, and it is thought all other lines 
will adopt the same rate at that time. 

H. M. S. 

The Susquehanna Avenue Line of the 
People's Passenger Railway Co. (Philadel- 
phia), has been completed, and is equipped 
with 13 double team cars. (For route, see 
issue of Nov. 1884.) 

The Annual Meeting of the People's Co. 
(Phila.), takes place on the second Monday 
in January. The report will be a very 
favorable one ; the increase for the year 
showing to date (Dec. 10th), an increase of 
600,000 passengers carried over last year. 



The Philadelphia Traction Co's. car shops 
at 48th Street and Haverford Road, were 
burned on Saturday, Dec. 13th. All the 
machinery was lost (mostly new), and some 
cars in for repairs. Loss $50,000, partially 
covered. Two of the new cars were burned, 
the rest being stored in a shed some dis- 
tance away. 

The Hestonville & Mantua Co. (Phila- 
delphia), is gradually getting into better 
shape, and it is currently believed that it 
will take but a short time to get the com- 
pany back to its old fine condition. When 
accomplished it will be a fine business suc- 
cess; as. when the present owners took hold 
the road was worse than bankrupt, and no 
one ever expected to see it maintained in 
its integrity. 

Cable cars are running on Columbia 
Avenue, Philadelphia. 

A new bridge is to be erected over the 
Schuylkill River, at Market Street, Phila- 
delphia, wherein, we believe, provision will 



be made for the conduction of the Traction 
Co's cable. This is possible in Philadelphia, 
the last dra w-bridge being at South Street. 

G. B. H. 

Syracuse (N. Y.), City Railway Co. — 
Sanford D. Evans, for some ten or fifteen 
years Superintendent, died on the 4th inst., 
aged 71 years. Geo. Crampton formerly a 
conductor is elected to take his place. 

The Syracuse (N. Y.), & Geddes Railway 
has put on a number of new cars, laid new 
steel rail and made various improve- 
ments. 

P. H. Hersey of Hersey Brothers, manu- 
facturers of machinery, South Boston, has 
been chosen President of South Boston 
Horse Railway Co. 

The Metropolitan Street Railway Co., of 
Boston has just opened a new line from 
Temple Place to Coolidge corners, a dis- 
tance of four miles, cars every fifteen min- 
utes; six cent fares. 



POWER. 

A practical Journal devoted entirely to the Genera- 
tion and Transmission of Power. Specimen Copies Free. 

AMERICAN RAILWAY PUB. CO., 

NEW YORK AND CHICAGO. 

THE STREET RAILWAY LUBRICANT 



EAMES, ALL KINDS. 



€€ 



99 



Will last FOUR TIMES AS LONG, and is CHEAPER and MORE ECONOM 
ICAL than Oil. Samples free on application. 

HENRY F. ROHBOCK, 

109 WOOD ST., PITTSBURGH, PA. 

Used by Pittsburgh Transverse Railway Co. 



Up CHAMPLAIN 

Forged Horse Nails 

MANUFACTURED BY THE 

NATIONAL HORSE NAIL 00., 

VEBGENNES, VT. 

Hot Forged and Cold Hammered, Pointed, made 
of best Norway Iron, and warranted. Used on 
principal Street Car Lines in the United States. 
Special Patterns for Perkins', Burden's, Good- 
enough & Brydon's Horse Shoes. Samples and 
prices on application. 



DUKKIE & McOARTT, Agents, 



9 Chambers St., New York. 




S'reet Railway, 

CONCORDS, 

as desired. 

Manufacturers of 
-A-XjXj styles 

Saddlery Hardware. 

Send for Catalogue 

Pratt & Letch worth, 

BUFFALO, 



N. Y. 




STREET RAILWAY CONCORD HAMES. 



Manufacturer and Patentee. 

Send me full size section of rails to 
be used at points A, B, C, D, E, G. 



No. 625 TENTH AVENUE, 

NEW YORK. 




December, 1884.] THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



39 



F. W. DEVOE <fe CO. 

(Established 1852), 

FULTON ST., cor. of WILLIAM, NEW YORK. 



MAN"OTii.CTT7EEES O^ 



COACH and CAR COLORS 

GROUND IN JAPAN. 

Eor these colors we received the highest award, the Gold Medal, at the National Exposition of Railway Appliances 

in Chicago, last year. 



SPECIAL SHADES MADE TO ORDER 

We furnish special hody colors to Pennsylvania R. R., New York Central, New York & New Haven, Lehigh Valley, 

New Jersey Central and other large Railroads. 



FINE VARNISHES AND JAPANS 

Wood Fillers, Wood Surfacers, Wood Stains, Hard Oil Finish. 



MAn-j-FACTVHEEs 1?T^T1? T2 13 T T C! XT T? C! For Painting, 

- OF - JJJiiMJj -DJEW U O XI JJM Varnishing, Striping, etc. 



ARTISTS' MATERIALS. 

Tube Colors, Artists' Brushes, Drawing Paper. 



ENGINEERS' COODS. 

Mathematical Instruments, Theodolites, Transits, Cross 

Section Papers. 

Illustrated Catalogues of 250 pages and 800 illustrations on request. 



Manufacturers of 

WHITE LEAD, COLORS IN OIL, DISTEMPER COLORS, 
PURE READY MIXED PAINTS. 

COFFIN, DEVOE & CO., 176 Randolph St., CHICAGO. 



40 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[December, 188J. 




DAY'S IMPROVED 

STREET RAILWAY TRACK CLEANERS 

These Track 
Cleaners need no 
extended state- 
ment of their 
great superiority 
o er all others 
invented. The 
fact of over two 
thousand pairs 
being: now in use, 
is sufficient evi- 
dence of their 
necHSsity and 
utility. Areadap- ,.===1 
table to all kinds 
of rails and styles 
of cars. To se- 
cure the largest 
benefit they 
should be at- 
tached to everv car in use. 

For new catalogue and price list, address, 

AUGUSTUS DAY, 

74 STATE STREET, 

DETROIT, Mich., U. S. A. 



BELLE CITY FEED GUTTER 

IS THE 

Strongest, Most Durable, 

and on the the whole 
it is the 

BEST FEED CUTTER 

IN THE WORLD. 

""*n! THE BELLS CIIH'F'G CO 




For Street-Car Barns it 
s no equal. Write for 
sference, Circular, &c, to 



RACINE, WIS., U.S. A. 



FOKSTKEETOAESTHEEUEEKAFOLDINa 
WOODMATSAEETHEOHEAPESTMOSTPEACTI 
OALANDDUEABLEHIGHESTEEFEEENOESGIVEN 

Price per rawing foot, width to lit any car 90 cts. Net. 

FOR FURTHER PARTICULARS ADDRESS 

EUREKA ROLLING FLOOR CO., 

14 COOPER UNION, 

NEW YORK. 

Patent DR,igrlvts For Sale. 



PERKINS' TOE CALK. 

JUST OUT. 




The old style end prong Calks often cause shoes to break, as the 
prong is driven into the crease. Perkins' new Calk obviates this. 
They are cheaper than any others, and warranted to weld and 
harden. Special pattern for Street Railroad work. Samples and 
price on application. 

DURRIE & McCARTY, Agents, 

97 Chambers St., New York. 



PENNSYLVANIA 
STEEL COMPANY, 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Steel Rails 



Of T patterns, weighing from 16 to 76 lbs. per yard. 
CENTRE BEARING Street Patterns, 42 to 60 lbs. per 
yarl, TRAIN Street Patterns 45 to 47 lbs. per yard, 
and Street Patterns for STEAM ROADS. 



WORKS AT 

STEELTOX, DAUPHIN CO., PENN. 



NEW YORK OFFICE, - 160 Broadway. 

Philadelphia Office, 208 South Fourth St. 



WEIGHTS 

PATENT JOINT FASTENING. 

The accompanying cut shows 
a cross section through joint. 
? A is the rail, B the joint chair, 
C the stringer, D the patent 
screw fastening, E the nut, F a 
slot in chair allowing rails to 
contract and expand. The chair 
cannot settle and the rail ends 
are held level with each other, 
preventing the many evils of 
ordinary construction. 

For Further Particulars Address 

AUGUSTIN W. WRIGHT, 

NORTH-CHICAGO CITY RAILROAD, 

CHICAGO, ILL. 




Decembee, 1884.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



41 



J. C- BRILL & CO., 



Builders of 



RAILWAY 



TRAMWAY 

CARS 

of all kinds. 




C^BLE iLDDBES! 



-BRILL PHILADELPHIA. 



42 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[December, 1884. 



G. W, Seoggan, H. L. Martin, J. P. Hudson, M. F. Thomson, n. J. Scoggan. 

SGOGGAN, HUDSON & CO., 

LOUISVILLE, KZ-5T., 
Wholesale Dealers in 




Having furnished Horses and Mules to the Street Railway 
Companies of Louisville, Ry., Minneapolis and St. Paul, 
Minn., New Orleans, La., Pittsburgh and Philadelphia, Pa. 
Richmond, Va., Atlanta, Ga., Chattanooga, Tenn.. and a 
large number of other towns in the United States, we are 
thoroughly acquainted with what is wanted, and can fill 
orders promptly, as we always have 

FROM 400 TO £00 

HORSES AN D MULES ON HAND. 

OFFICE AND YARDS : 

Cor. 16th and Main Streets, 

I_iO-u.isv-Ille, 2£l-y- 



PLUMBAGO BEARINGS. 



p 

L 
U 



B 
A 
G 



-lE^OIR- 



Cable Roads. 

♦•-♦-•♦ 

Warranted to Eun Cool, without Oil, 
Grease or other lubricant, 

4,000 IN NEW YORK. 

2,600 IN KANSAS CITY. 



J. J. RYAN & CO., 



62 & 64 W. Monroe St., CHICAGO. 



B 
E 
A 
R 
I 

N 
G 
S 



PLUMBAGO BEARINGS. 



Established 1832. 



Incorporated 1882. 



VALENTINE & COMPANY, 



Manufacturers of High Grade 



Coach and Car Varnishes and 



Colors. 



NEW YORK, 

BRANCH HOUSES: 

CHICAGO, BOSTON, 

68 Lake Street. 153 Milk Street. 

PARIS, 
91 Champs Elysees. 



m VA l r e N!shES mark 

THE STANDARD FOR QUALITY." 



The Gold Medal 



WAS AWARDED TO 



Valentine's Yarnislies 



Amsterdam International 



SEPTEMBER, 1883. 



A Partial List of Awards Heretofore Given Valentine's 
Varnishes: 

International Exposition. Philadelphia, .... 1876 

Bronze Medal and Diploma. 
Exposition Universelle. Paris, France, ... - 1878 

Silver Medal. 
Melbourne International Exposition. Melbourne, Aus., - 1880 

Silver Medal and First Order op Merit. 
Adelaide Exposition, Adelaide, So. Aus., - 1881 

Silver Medal and First Degree of Merit. 

American Institute, of the City of New York, - - 1859-1870 

Silver Medal and Diploma. 

Maryland Institute for the Protection of Mechanic Arts, - 1873 

Silver Medal. 

Massachusetts Charitable Mechanics' Association, Boston, 1860 

Silver Medal and Diploma. 

Mechanics' and Agricultural Fair Association of the State of 
Louisiana, - . -- - - - - - 1873 

Diploma. 

Agricultural Society of New So. Wales, .... 1877 
Bronze Medal. 

Mechanics' Institute, San Francisco, California, - - 1877 
Silver Medal, 



December, 1884.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



43 



LAKE & McDEYITT'S 



For Horse Railways, Omnibus Lines, Etc. 




The Advantages 



HOPE TRACE 

are its ready application 
to Horse-Car service, or to 
any other purpose where 
cheap harness is required. 
It only costs about half as 
much as leather traces, 
while at the same time 
one set of Rope Tugs will 
(when used on horse cars) 
take the place of three or 
more sets of leather 
traces, as the Tugs remain 
attached to the car all 
day, no matter how many 
changes of stock arc 
made. The relief horses 
having hoo s attached to 
their names, all that is 
necessary is to unhook the 
tugs from the working 
team back in the fresh 
horses, hook on the tugs, 
and the change is made. 
Railroad men will at once 
perceive their adaptabil 
lty and economy from the 
above facts. They will 
also last longer than leath- 
er traces, and r quire but 
very little care. From 
their durability and cheap- 
ness they are also espec- 
ially adapted for all kinds 
of farm use and heavy 
teaming, as farmers, etc., 
can easily repair them . 



latent No. 171,232, December 81, If r». 



In use on the Chicago West. Div. R'y.; Louisville City R'y Co.; Milwaukee City R'y; Transverse R'y Co., Pittsburg, Pa. ; Citizens Street R'y Co . Pittsburg, Pa. ; 
Pittsburg and Bi-mingham, Pittsburg, Pa.; Central City R'y, Peoria. III.; Grand Rapids R'y; Minneapolis St. R'y Co. ; St. Paul City R'y; Houston City R'y, Texas: 
S 1 jarior Street R'y, Cleveland, O ; Cincim iti City R'y Co. ; Fifth Ward S .reet R'y, Syracuse. ; Detroit City R'y.; Ft. Wayne and Elm wood St. R'v , Detroit, Mich. : 
G ilveston City R'y; Springfield City R'y, Springfield, 111. ; Toledo St. R'y, Toledo, O.; Adams St. R'y, Toledo, 0.; Atlanta Street R'y. and others, in all on about IOC 
Street R'ys in United States and Canada, and a large number of other prominent Street R'y Companies throughout the Country. ^p~ Send for descriptive Circu- 
lar containing testimonials, prices, etc., to 

LiKE & McDEVITT, 161 South Robey Street, Chicago, 111. 

CLARK'S PATENT POWER GROOMING MACHINE, 

SINGLE OB DOUBLE. 




TO STREET RAILWAY COMPANIES AND OTHER STOCK OWNERS. 

This machine for grooming may be driven by any known power, and can readily be placed for use in any stable or out-building. It can be operated by an ordin- 
ary groomsman ; its work is perfect; its action simple and effective. Stock owners will readily realize the importance of the machine. The perfection and rapidity 
of its work, and the benefits derived by its use, commend it to those interested in the care and use of all classes of thoroughbred and work stock. The most vicious 
animal readily submits to its use. Machine Grooming is found to be less expensive than hand grooming, saving in food and medicines, and materially increasing 
the value of the animal. 

The Curry Comb and Hand Process Superseded! Economy of Labor! Perfection of Work! 

Three Hundred Head of Stock Thoroughly Croomed with Each Machine every Ten Hours. 

This Grooming Maohine is in daily use in some of the largest Street Railway Companies' stables, and has always given perfect satisfaction. Among those using 
itaretheCity R'y Co , Cnieajo, 111.; Detroit City R'y Co., Detroit, Mich. ; Central City R'y, Peoria, 111. ; M. W. Dunham, Wayne, 111 ; West Division Street R'y Co., 
Chicago, 111.; Lindell Street R'y Co., St. Louis, Mo.; Pleasant Valley R'y Co., Allegheny City, Pa. ; Marshall, Field & Co., Chicago, 111.; Leroy Payn, Chicago, III.; 
Saginaw City R'y, Saginaw, Mich. ; Pittsburg and Birmingham R'y Co., Pittsburg, Pi. ; and a number of others who have given testimonials as to the perfect work- 
ing of the machine. t3ff°° For prices, circular and other information apply to 

161 SOUTH ROBEY STREET, CHICAGO, ILL. 



44 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[December, 1884. 



RAILWAY REGISTER MANUF'G CO 



THE MONITOR REGISTER. 




MA2TOFACTURERS AND OWNERS OF THE 

Latest Designs, Improvements and Inven- 
tions in Registers, Indicators, Classi- 
fiers and Punches, for the Re- 
cording of Fares Collected 
[on Street and Steam 
Railroads. 

This Company owns over loo Patents, embracing all 
the Valuable Features of Fare Registers, In- 
dicators, etc., and was awarded three 
Medals at the Chicago Exposi- 
tion of Railway Appli- 
ances. 



THE ALARM REGISTERING PUNCH 



THE BENTON REGISTER. 





SEND TO 



BEADLE & COURTNEY, 

GrEIfcTJEia.A.Xj AGENTS 

Railway Register Manufacturing Co., 

1193 BROADWAY, NEW YORK. 

Branch Office : 426 "WALNUT STREET, Philadelphia, Pa. 
FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE. 



December, 1884.] THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL, 45 



J. W. FOWLER, DAN'L F. LEWIS, 

President. ■■W^T ■ M ■ Treasurer. 



LEWIS <fc FOWLER M'F'G CO. 

8 COLUMBIA HEIGHTS, 

Near Fulton Ferry. BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

PATENTEES AND MANUFACTURERS OP 

THE IMPROVED "ALARM" PASSENGER REGISTER. 

This Register was awarded and has received the Highest Prize (Silver Medal) at tha Chicago Exposition of Railway Appliances 
in 1883, against all competitors of any note for 

"THE BEST STATIONARY REGISTERING DEVICE." 

This Register is guaranteed to be the most 

Complete, ZD-mra/ble and Perfect 

Machine in this Country, for Registering fares on Street cares, We are now manufacturing a 



for Railroad Companies desiring a machine of this style where tickets are required to be Canceled and Registered at the same time. 

SOLE AGENTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF 

"RANDALL'S" PATENT CAR AXLE AND BOX, 



-ALSO- 



"SMALL'S PATENT AUTOMATIC FARE COLLECTOR" 



FOR FARE BOX CARS. THIS DEVICE WILL SAVE MONEY NOW LOST AND POPULARIZE 

THIS SYSTEM OF OAKS. 



46 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[December, 1884. 



DIHORESrS INFALLIBLE 

DUPLEX REGISTER 

Combines Simplicity, Efficiency and Absolute 
Accuracy. 

As each trip and each fare, when run?, is duplexed on an interior sheet that 
cinnotbe tamp red with, the conductor is his own detective, collus on or fraud 
teing impossible. 

As an illustration of a practical and unanimous opinion, we present the 
following : 

Cleveland, Ohio : 

I have gone through a thorough examination and trial of tbe Lewis & 
Fowhr's and other Stationary Register--, and have been using in the past the 
Hornum or I'unch Company's Register After looking over the matter thor- 
oughly, I am satisfied that the Half Trips on the Pupir Dial is the right 
principle, and have, therefore, adopted the Uemorest Duplex Register. 

TOM. L. JOHNSON. 
New York : 

The Demorest Duplex Register is an improvement on the one we are using, 
and is the best I have ever seen. 

J. W. FOSHAY. 

Des Moines, Iowa : 

Th"* Duplex Registers we are using on our cars are giving us entire satisfac- 
tion, and can cheerfully recommend them to do all you ctaim for them. 

M. P. TURNER. 

We will place any number of our Duplex Resisters (with or without the 
Fare-box, according to the kind of car) upon trial for any time desired, at 
a very slight cost. Our tirms of purchase are quite reasonable. A trial is 
solicited. Address the proprietor, 

W . JENlTnTGS DEMOEEST, 
15 EAST 14th STREET, 



R. M. ROSE, Manager. 



NEW YORK CITY. 



Fare Imi and Change Receptacles 



MADE BY 



WALES MANUFACTURING CO., 

76 and 78 E ist Water Street, 
SYRACUSE, N. Y. 




Our Street Car 
Fare Boxes, for Sim- 
plicity of Construc- 
tion, Cheapness and 
Practicability are Su- 
perior to Anything of 
Like Character in the 
Market. 

iW Descriptive and 
Illustrated Circulars 
an application. 



Front View. No. 3. 





Back View. No. .3. 



E. H. ANDREWS. 



ANDREWS & CLOONEY, 



B. A. CLOONEY. 




STREET RAILROAD SNOW SCRAPERS AND PLOWS. 



545 WEST 33d STREET, 



NEW YORK. 



T7sTO:R<:E^S : 
535 to 551 WEST 33d AND 
538 to 552 WEST 34th STREETS, 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

ELLIPTIC, SPIRAL, VOLUTE, CAR AND ENGINE SPRINGS 

OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 

CAR WHEELS, AXLES, PEDESTALS, BRAKE SHOES, BOXES, BRASS BEARINGS AND CASTINGS 

OF ALL DESCRIPTIONS WHERE GREAT STRENGTH IS REQUIRED. 

Also SWEEPERS, SNOW PLOWS, TURN TABLES, TRACK WORK, AUTOMATIC SWITCHES, Etc. 

STEEL GROOVE RAILS AND MACHINERY. SEND FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE. 



December, 1884.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



RICHARD VOSE, 



13 Barclay Street, 



£TeTX7" "STorH^:, 



MANUFACTURER OF 



Graduated Street Car Springs. 



ADAPTED TO THE 

STEPHENSON, 
BEAMS, 
RANDALL, 
HIGLEY, 
BRILL, 
JONES, 
BALTIMORE, 

— AND— 

ALL OTHER BOXES. 



Patented, April 15th, 1879. 



~m 





k:^ 



*£> 



ill 




No. 0, for 10-ft. Light Oars. 
No. 1, for 10-ft. Cars. 





'^EST.SO.N"' 7 ' 



S| No. 3, for 14-ft. Cars. 
^P No. 4, for 16-ft. Cars. 
No. 5, for 16-ft. Cars. 

(Single Pedestal.) 



No. 1, Cushion, for 16-ft. 
Cars. 

No. 2, Cushion, for 12 and 
14-ft. Cars. 





STEEL CONE CITY CAR SPRING. 



Patented April 15, 1S79— August 5, 1884. 



The unprecedented popularity of the 

"VOSE GRADUATED RUBBER CONE SPRING" 

for Horse Cars has induced the inventor to bring this 
class of Springs as near perfection as possible, and after a 
series of experiments and tests now presents for favor what 
he claims to be the MOST PERFECT SPRING FOR 
HORSE CARS ever offered. It is exceptionally Soft and 
Easy with the Empty Car or with the Greatest Load. It 
is believed to be the Most Durable, being constructed 
upon a principle that seems to insure that the Spring must 
Actually Wear Out. The very Finest Quality of Crucible 
Cast Steel will always be used in these Springs. 




48 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[December, 1884. 



JOHN STEPHENSON COMPANY 



(LIMITED), 



TRAMWAY CARS 




LIGHT, ELEGANT, DURABLE. 



Every Description. 



Best Materials. 



Minimum Prices. 



ORDERS QUICKLY FILLED. CAREFUL ATTENTION TO SHIPMENTS. 
All Climates Suited. 




Vol. I. 



NEW YORK: 

32 Liberty Street. 



JANUARY. 1885 



CHICAGO 



8 Lakeside Building, f IN O. O. 



Small's Automatic Fare Collector. 

This device,* intended for fare box cars, 
consists of a flat brass channel about an 
inch wide and one-quarter inch tbick, 
placed on its edge, and running from the 
rear to the front end of the car at a slight 
inclination, and terminating in the money 
box. The tube, is so constructed that the 
money or disk-shaped 
checks dropped into 
it are kept in sight, roll 
readily, and cannot be 
extracted until they 
are taken out of the 
locked box. Whatever 
is placed in it is visible 
to all who may be in 
the car. The ways, or 
" collectors," pass from 
the rear platform along 
each side of and around 
the corners of the car 
into the money box. 
The money passes into 
the collectors through 
boxes placed on each 
stanchion of the car, so 
that the passenger is 
enabled to pay the fare without leaving the 
place where he may be sitting or standing 
InNew York, Baltimore, Minneapolis, Louis- 
ville and other places where this system is 
in operation, we learn that the regular 
patrons of the cars make it a point to come 



ually much cheaper than paper tickets. 
By the use of such " Automatic Col- 
lectors" cars sixteen feet in length can be 
operated by one man at least as easily as 
those of ten feet under the old money box 
system. Several open cars equipped with 
this invention have been running for the 
last three summers, on the One Hundred 
and Twenty-filth Street branch of the 




Third Avenue Line, New York. They were 
managed entirely by the driver, and fif- 
quently carried over fifty passengers at a 
time, the fares being paid and collected with- 
out the least inconvenience or trouble. On 
account of the difficulty of getting to the 



avoidance of sudden changes in tempera- 
ture therein. 

It consists of two wrought iron cylinders, 
one placed within the other. The inner 
one is four inches in diameter, filled four- 
fifths full of water strongly impregnated 
with salt to prevent freezing when the 
heater is not in use, it is closed at both 
ends and hermetically sealed. The outer 
cylinder is four and 
one-half inches in di- 
ameter, and the ends 
are closed with cast 
iron caps; each cap tap- 
ped to receive a one 
inch pipe, one for steam 
supply and the other to 
allow the water con- 
densed to escape. 

When steam is ap- 
plied to the outer cylin- 
der, the inner one ab- 
sorbs and stores all the 
heat in the steam that 
is not radiated through 
the outer cylinder, and 
gradually gives it out 
for hours after the 
steam is shut off. 
The economy of[such heaters is apparent 
in their capacity to store heat where there 
is waste steam from any cause, and on 
railroads when running on down grades, 
stopping at stations, etc., or when there is 
an extra pressure'in the boiler. 




provided with the exact fare, to save them- 
selves the trouble and annoyance of going to 
the front end of the car to deposic the fare, 
or of asking others to do so for them, thus 
relieving the driver to a great extent from 
the troublesome and dangerous duty of 
making change. Hard rubber or celluloid 
checks are substituted for paper where 
tickets are used. They claim it to be more 
secure from counterfeiting, and event- 



fare box it would hardly be possible to 
work these cars without a conductor, were 
it not for the "automatic fare collector." 
This system makes the open car entirely 
practicable without the aid of a conductor. 

* Lewis & Fowler M f 'g. Co., 8 Columbia Heights, 
Brooklyn, S.T. 

•—•■ 

Gold's Heat Storing Apparatus. 

This device * has for its principal objects 
the prevention of fire in cars, and the 



For heating horse cars, a small stationary 
boiler at one end of the trip (when it does 
not exceed two and one-half hours dur- 
ation) is all that is required ; the cylinders 
are placed under the seats, thus sav- 
ing the space occupied by a stove, and 
diffusing the heat more equally through 
the car. 

* E. E. Gold & Co., 14 Vandewater St., ST. Y 



50 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[January, 1885. 




American Street Railway Association. 

Officers, 1884-5. 

President. —Calvin A. Richards. President Metro- 
politan Railroad Co., Boston, Mass. 

First Vice-president.— Julius S. Walsh, President 
Citizens' Railway Co., St Louis, Mo. 

Second Vice-president.— Henry M. Watson. Presi- 
dent the Buffalo Street Railway Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Third Vice-president,— -Edward Lusher, Secretary 
and Treasurer the Montreal City Passenger Rail- 
way Co., Montreal, Canada. 

Secretary and Treasurer. — William J. Richardson, 
Secretary the Atlantic Avenue Railway Co., Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. 

Executive Committee.— President, Vice-presidents 
and William H. Hazzard. President Brooklyn City 
Railroad Co.. Brooklyn. NY ; James K. Lake. Super- 
intendent Chicago West-Division Railway. Ch'cago, 
HI.; Charles J. Harrah, President the People's Pas- 
senger Railway Co., Philadelphia. Pa.; William 
White, President Dry Dock, East B & B. R. R. Co.. 
New York. N. Y. ; B. Du Pont. President Central 
Passenger Railroad Co., Louisville, Ky. 



The October Convention, A. S. R. W. A. 

We are at last able, through the courtesy 
of Secretary Richardson, to present an ab- 
stract of the official meeting of the Fifth 
Annual Convention. 

wednesday's session. 

Fifth Avenue Hotel, }_ 
New York City, N. Y., October 15, 1884. f 

The meeting was called to order at 10:25 
a.m., by the President, Mr. William H. 
Hazzard, of Brooklyn, who announced, the 
first business in order to be the reading of 
the minutes of the last meeting. 

On motion of Mr. Thurston, of Jersey 
City, the reading of the minutes was dis- 
pensed with, inasmuch as each member 
had received a printed copy. 

The President said : It becomes my duty 
to make a short speech to you. I will do 
it, however, by reading a brief address. 

ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT. 

The President then read the following 
address : 

The American Street Railway Associa- 
tion : 

Gentlemen : It is with pleasure I again 
meet so many of the representatives of the 
members, and the friends of this Associa- 
tion. 

It is with deep regret we have learned 
that one of the gentlemen whom so many 
of us have had the pleasure of meeting at 
the two former meetings, Mr. L. Brayton, 
the President of the Union Railroad Com- 
pany of Providence, has been taken from 
us by death. 

This Association was organized in the 
city of Boston, December 13th, 1882, and 
held its second annual meeting in the city 
of Chicago, October 9th, 1883. We have 
come together to hold its third regular 
meeting. It is believed that this meeting 
will fully develop the value of the Associa- 
tion, to the street railroads of the United 
States and Canada. If the first two meet- 
ings have proved as beneficial to all the 
representatives of the association, as they 



have to myself, I think that they will not 
rega rd as lost, the time or money they will 
have spent in attending this meeting. It 
is well for those who represent this impor- 
tant interest to meet together, and inter- 
change thoughts regarding the manage- 
ment of our business. We, who are young 
in the business, will thereby learn from 
those who have been street railroad men 
for many years, what their experiences are 
as to the best way of operating street rail- 
roads in all their various parts and phases. 
We shall learn how their roads are run for 
the best accommodation of their patrons, 
both in the United States and Canada. 

It seems as though we should all be able 
to gather some knowledge that will better 
fit us to fill the various positions we hold, 
whatever they may be in our respective 
companies. 

As we progress with the business which 
may be brought before the convention, we 
hope that all will be brief in discussing the 
various subjects that may te introduced, 
taking care to give all who may desire to 
speak, a chance to be heard ; for, no doubt, 
there will be many subjects brought be- 
fore the meeting of great interest to us 
all. 

I have not attempted to give you any 
statistics, for you will, undoubtedly, ob- 
tain them in the report of the Executive 
Committee. 

The Secretary then called the roll. There 
were 76 delegates, representing 50 com- 
panies, and 35 cities and towns. 

There were then added to the list 

delegates, representing companies in 

cities. 

Letters and telegrams were read from 
companies that were members and could 
not be present at the meeting — also from 
companies that were not members. 

The Secretary then read the report of 
the Executive Committee, as follows : 

New YORk, October 15th, 1884. 
The American Street Railway Associa- 
tion. 

Gentlemen : — Your Executive Committee 
would respectfully offer, as its report, the 
following resume of the work of the Asso- 
ciation during the past fiscal year : 
special committees. 

The selection of the titles of the Special 
Committees was deferred to the President, 
who, after consultation with members of 
the Executive Committee, determined on 
the following, viz. : 

Completed Construction of New Road ; 

Repairs of Track ; 

Track Cleaning and Removal of Snow 
and Ice : Is Salt necessary ! If so, is its 
Use Detrimental to the Public Health ; and 
Especially, is it Injurious to Horses ? 

Stables and Care of Horses ; 

Electricity as a Motive Power ; 

The Cable System of Motive Power ; 

A Uniform System of Accounts ; 

Labor and the Graduated System of 
Compensation ; 

Ventilation, Lighting and Care of Cars, 
and 

Taxation and License. 

The committees were duly appointed, 
and, with one or two exceptions, will, 
doubtless, be prepared with reports. Cov- 



ering, as the subjects do, a very wide range 
of vital questions regarding the street rail- 
way business, the reports and discussions 
arising therefrom should be very helpful to 
even the wisest of railroad men. 

The street railway business requires of 
its managers knowledge concerning a 
greater number of distinct and separate 
lines of business than almost any other 
that can be mentioned. No man, however 
versatile his talents ; however gifted in in- 
tellectual endowments, can ever hope to 
know this business so thoroughly, that he 
need concern himself to learn no more 
about it. Practical and experienced street 
railway men from widely separated tec- 

i tions of this great country will tell us their 
experiences in the management of their 

! roads ; and we shall be well repaid for our 

' attention thereto. 

NEW MEMBERS. 

The Association left Chicago with a 
membership of sixty-two companies. Dur- 
ing the year twelve companies have joined, 
] as follows : 

Niagara Falls and Suspension Bridge 
i Railway Co., of Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

Jersey City and Bergen Railroad Com- 
pany, of Jersey City, N. J. 

Citrzens' Passenger Railway Company, 
of Philadelphia, Pa. 

Richmond City Railway Company, of 
Richmond, Va. 

The Brooklyn Street Railroad Company, 
of Cleveland, O. 

Wilkes-Barre and Kingston Passenger 
Railway Co., of Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 

Pittsburgh and Birmingham Passenger 
Railroad Company, of Pittsburgh, Pa. 

The Fort Wayne and Elmwood Railway 
Company, of Detroit, Mich. 

The Baltimore Union Passenger Railway 
Company, of Baltimore, Md. 

Washington Street and State Asylum R. 
R. Co., of Binghamton, N. Y., and 

The Springfield Street Railway Company, 
of Springfield, Mass. 

The total membership, therefore, is sev- 
enty-four companies, many of which are 
among the largest in the country, and rep- 
resent in the aggregate about one-half of 
the entire street railway wealth and busi- 
ness of America. 

The Secretary has received notices from 
quite a number of companies that are not 
members, stating that they will be repre- 
ented at this meeting and join the Asso- 
ciation. The indications are, that the ac- 
cessions at the New York meeting will 
nearly, if not quite, bring the membership 
up to one hundred companies. That the 
nucleus of thirty-one companies from 
amongst the number represented in Bos- 
ton should have, in two years' time, in- 
creased over one hundred and fifty per 
cent., evidences very remarkable growth. 

FREE PRINTED MATTER. 

That the gain has been so consider- 
able has, doubtless, very largely, been the 
result of the generous course adopted by 
your Committee in the circulation of the 
annual reports of the Association, and its 
other printed matter, copies of all of 
which, up to the present time, have been 
issued to all the street railroads in the 
United States and Canada — as well to those 



January, 1885. J 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



51 



companies that are not members, as to 
those that are. 

It was considered advisable for the Asso- 
ciation to do a certain amount of adver- 
tising of its objects and its work, that 
thereby the companies not members would 
see, not only the desirability of joining, 
but the necessity for so doing. It was be- 
lieved that in no way could this advertis- 
ing be done so satisfactorily and effectively 
as by the issue of this printed matter di- 
rect to the companies. The wisdom of this 
course is apparent. 

The letter sent with the annual reports 
to companies not members, reads as fol- 
lows : 

Office of the ) 

American Street Railway Ass'n, - 

Brooklyn, N. Y., Jan. 8th, 1884. ) 

Dear Sir: — A year ago a copy of the 
proceedings of the convention, which re- 
sulted in the organization of this Associa- 
tion, was sent to you. In tins mail is sent 
a copy of the Report of the recent annual 
meeting, held in Chicago. 

It has been deemed advisable to circulate 
this report as freely as was the former, 
believing that when the character of the 
work, which the Association is doing 
among and for its members, had become 
thoroughly known, the large majority of 
the street railway companies of America 
would join the Association. 

You will, undoubtedly, carefully peruse 
its pages. They contain considerable valu- 
able information concerning the street 
railway business. It is sent to you, confi- 
dently believing that you will find it to 
your interest to become associated with us. 
The unanimous desire of the members is 
that the Association shall embrace every 
street railway company in America — that 
it might be, indeed, as comprehensive as 
its name. It is needless to say that we 
should be pleased to welcome your com- 
pany to membership. "Will you kindly ac- 
knowledge the receipt of the Report, and 
oblige, Yours truly, 

W. J. Richardson, 

Secretary. 

It would, seem, however, as if the time 
had now come when the companies that 
do not contribute to the support of the 
Association should not be treated with the 
same consideration as those that do. 
Surely the management of the Association 
cannot be charged with illiberality, if, 
after two years of free distribution of its 
knowledge, it should decide that, for the 
future, the benefits arising from member- 
ship should be enjoyed by members exclu- 
sively, so far as the annual reports of the 
meetings of the Association and its other 
printed matter is concerned. 

STATE RAILROAD REPORTS. 

The following letter was sent to all the 
Secretaries of State of all the States in the 
Union : 

Office of the 
American Street Railway Ass'n, 
Brooklyn, N. Y., Jan. 14th, 1884. 

To the Honorable the Secretary of 

State of 

Dear Sir : — I send you in this mail a copy 
of the Report of the Second Annual Meet- 
ing of this Association, held in Chicago, 
111., October 9th and 10th, 1883. You will 



find that its pages contain considerable 
valuable information concerning the street 
railway business. 

May I ask you to favor me with a copy 
of the last published State Engineer's 
Report, providing your State has such an 
officer, or, as in the State of New York, 
the Report of Railroad Commissioners, in 
order that I may be informed of the names 
and officers of the companies in your State, 
as well as the laws which may affect the 
same; provided, of course, that the latter 
are in compact printed form. 

I do not desire to put you to unnecessary 
trouble, but should highly esteem the in- 
formation asked for. It is our wish that 
this Association shall be a power for good 
in America, and in this connection refer 
you to Article II. of the Constitution, 
found on page 138, setting forth the ob- 
jects of the Asssociation. 

I remain, very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 
W. J. Richardson, Secretary. 

In reply, copies of valuable reports were 
received from fifteen States, some of which 
are of service in ascertaining the operating 
companies. 

international association. 
The following letter was sent to the 
General Manager of every tramway in 
operation in Great Britain and Ireland. 

Office of the 
American Street Railway Ass'n 
Brooklyn, N. Y., Feb. 15, 1884. 

Dear Sir : — I have the honor to be the 
Secretary and Treasurer of the American 
Street Railway Association, and take pleas- 
ure in forwarding you, in the accompany- 
ing mail, a copy of the Report of the 
Second Annual Meeting of this Association, 
recently held in Chicago, 111. It will be 
found to contain considerable information 
that will be valuable to you. 

I have noticed, with considerable inter- 
est, the preliminary proceedings in regard 
to the formation of the proposed " Tram- 
ways Institute." This organization will, 
doubtless, have a local significance, similar 
to kindred organizations, as in the indi- 
vidual States of New York and Ohio. It 
has occurred to me — and, indeed, the mat- 
ter has been on my mind for over a year 
past — to correspond with the managers of 
tramways in Great Britain and Ireland, 
with a view to solicit opinions as to the 
practicability (of which I have no ques- 
tion), of your union with us, in an Inter- 
national Association. 

I believe our members would be very 
glad to amend Article I. of the Constitu- 
tion, so as to change the word "Ameri- 
can " to " International." I see no reason 
why the Association should hot be inter- 
national in its scope. It now embraces 
Canada and the United States, and may 
enter any tramway in either North or 
South America. We have already a mem- 
ber, oue company, in the State of Texas 
(which is as far away as England) ; and 
will, doubtless, soon have members from 
California, which is further away, both in 
distance and time, than some parts of 
Great Britain. 

The circular-letter is, therefore, sent to 
the managers of all operative tramways 



throughout Great Britain and Ire- 
land, in the hope that the proposition 
will be considered favorably. Of course, 
it is well known that the United States is 
the great tramway country of the world, 
having upwards of four hundred and fifty 
street railways in actual operation, with an 
investment of one hundred and fifty mil- 
lion dollars. One feature of our work, 
just developing, is the publication of legal 
opinions regarding suits against the com- 
panies, and which can be gathered only 
through the medium of such an Associa- 
tion as this. Hoping to receive from your 
corporation a favorable reply, I remain. 
Very respectfully and truly yours, 
"W. J. Richardson, 

Secretary. 
(To be Continued.) 



Jumping off Moving Cars. 

The fools are not all dead yet, and the 
supply is not likely to be exhausted. 
Street Railway Companies get blamed, and 
mulcted, for many injuries which result 
solely from haste, ignorance, awkwardness 
and bullheadeness on the part of passengers. 
In this age of rush, people may have a 
right to risk their limbs and lives, jumping 
off rapidly moving cars, but the companies 
should not " pay the piper." 



Track Salting. 

[The following is the conclusion of the 
matter relative to the Track Salting ques- 
tion, which has been made public by the 
American Street Railway Association in 
advance of the discussions upon the other 
reports, and of the minutes of the meetings 
at the Fifth Avenue Hotel.] 

REPORT OF THE COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS OF 
PHILADELPHIA. 

The names attached to the following re- 
port will be at once recognized as those of 
men of the highest rank in their profes 
sion : 

The Committee to which was referred 
the communication addressed to the Col- 
lege by a Committee of the Select Council 
of the City of Philadelphia, "requesting 
the views of the College of Physicians in 
regard to the influence upon the public 
health of the practice of salting the rail- 
way tracks," respectfully report : 

That in pursuance of the wishes of the 
College, they held repeated meetings, at 
which the subject was fully discussed. 
Two points especially claimed attention. 

First — Could any appreciable physical 
phenomena, which would be capable of 
producing disease, result from the prac- 
tice? 

Second — Was there any evidence that 
could connect the prevalence of disease or 
increase of mortality with this mode of 
cleaning the railroad tracks from snow 
or ice ? 

The fall of snow and its accumulation in 
the streets being beyond human control, 
its removal by melting and evaporation is 
equally so. The question, therefore, is 
narrowed to the single point whether the 
rapid removal by chemical agents of a 
small portion of the snow in a few streets 
of the city can produce such a change in 



52 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[January, 1885. 



the atmosphere, either in its temperature 
or hygromefcric relations, as would give 
rise to new diseases, give greater intensity 
to those already known, or diminish the 
amount of vital resistance to lethal influ- 
ences already operating. 

Your Committee learned with great sat- 
isfaction, that a series of experiments had 
been performed by a Fellow of the College, 
to test these very points, and conscious of 
want of time in which to pursue similar in- 
vestigations, as well as confident in the 
skill and faithfulness of the gentleman 
who had manifested his qualifications for 
the service, and interest in the cause, by 
his spontaneous investigations, your Com- 
mittee solicited from him a statement of 
the result of his observations. 

In compliance with this request, Dr. 
Rogers, Professor of Chemistry in the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, attended a meet- 
ing of the Committee, and made a detailed 
statement of the elaborate experiments 
conducted by him. It is certain that no 
influence can be exerted upon the atmos- 
phere by its impregnation with saline mat- 
ter, the chloride of sodium employed, not 
being volatilized at the temperature which 
prevails at the time it is employed for the 
purpose of melting the snow. It must be 
carried immediately off with the fluid as it 
runs away. 

The only remaining influence is tbat 
caused by the reduction of temperature, 
consequent upon the rendering latent a 
certain amount of heat. 

While it is evident, that at the moment 
of solution, a considerable change must be 
produced in the air, and snow and pave- 
ment, contiguous to the point at which the 
solution is being made, it is equally evi- 
dent that this influence muit be limited to 
a very small space, and can continue but 
a very short time, and is not greater than is 
often produced by purely natural causes. 
Your Committee believe it may be dis- 
missed from consideration as an element 
of causation of disease. There is indeed 
one point of view, from which it might be 
determined that the influence of the appli- 
cation of salt is advantageous. The snow 
which has fallen must be melted ; a given 
quantity of snow in a given temperature 
will be dissolved five times as quickly 
when salt is added to it, as without ; thus 
diminishig in the same ratio, the duration 
of the impression of the melting snow. 
Nor is this all. When melted by the nat- 
ural influences, much of the liquid becomes 
again congealed by the falling temperature 
to be again the agent in rendering latent 
the same amount of heat when again dis- 
solved by a rising temperature, and this 
process is often repeated during many days 
and even weeks. Whereas the saline so- 
lution, not being again congealed, flows 
slowly and immediately off, so that if a 
free outlet can be maintained by keeping- 
open the gutters and inlets to the sewers, 
those streets over which the railways pass 
and on which salt is applied, will be kept 
drier than those where no salt is used. If, 
therefore, an ordinance were passed, pro- 
viding for the flow of melted snow and ice 
into the sewers without delay, a decided 
increase of the comfort, at least, of pedes- 
trians would result. Having thus disposed 



of the question of atmospheric influences, 
the attention of the Committee was next 
directed to the inquiry as to the effect of 
the application to the feet of the saline so- 
lution. It will be seen by reference to the 
experiments of Dr. Rogers, that the saline 
solution, of the density made by the rail- 
road companies does not penetrate leather 
more quickly than simple water, nor does 
it produce a much greater degree of cold 
to the feet, when applied to the shoe, than 
is caused by the application of snow itself, 
melting as it does rapidly and constantly 
at every step. The argument offered pri- 
marily, as to the comparative rapidity with 
which the snow and ice are removed, di- 
minishing the amount of exposure, is 
equally as applicable here. The number of 
days in which the feet of pedestrians are 
subjected to the wet, being only as one to 
five, while the opportunity for avoiding 
this influence almost entirely, afforded by 
the passenger-cars, diminishes still more 
this influence on health. The quantity of 
salt left in the leather of the shoes after 
drying, is to small to produce any appre- 
ciable influence in attracting the moisture 
from the air, as is done by those and other 
garments soaked in the water of the sea, 
which, moreover, contains other saline in- 
gredients, in addition to the chloride of 
sodium. In order to ascertain by personal 
and practical observation, the influence of 
constant exposure of the feet and hands to 
solutions of salt water under circumstances 
very similar to those produced by the ap- 
plication of it to the railway tracks, a 
member of your committee made a visit to 
one of the extensive packing establish- 
ments, in which a large number of men 
are constantly engaged during the entire 
working hours of the day, with their hands 
in the melting salt, their feet wet, and 
their clothing more or less moistened by it. 
We found the floors of the various apart- 
ments covered with matter closely resem- 
bling the slush of the streets, while the 
temperature differed but little from that of 
the outer air. The cases might, therefore, 
be considered as nearly parallel. 

The proprietor of the establishment not 
only gave his own testimony to the absence 
of any disease peculiar to the occupation, 
but put direct inquiries on the subject to 
the men, as we passed among them. 'L'hey 
were healthy in appearance, and professed 
an entire exemption from disease of any 
kind, and, especially of the throat. Sev- 
eral of them had been many years in the 
establishment, and some spoke of the en- 
joyment of better health since they had 
entered it than they had previously. It is 
very certain that no deleterious influence 
emanates from the floors which are per- 
fectly saturated with brine, and on which 
there is in many places a thick coating of 
half-dissolved salt mingled with animal 
fluid. 

The second question is one much more 
difficult and requiring a much more ex- 
tended inquiry. The statistics of disease 
and mortality have been of late years at- 
tracting the attention of the guardians of 
public health, in a degree even yet only 
partially commensurate with the impor- 
tance of the interest committed to their 
care ; and every one who has paid any at- 



tention to the subject, must be impressed 
with the conviction, that we have not yet 
reached a point which enables us to prepare 
any exposition of the laws which govern 
disease and death. It is ceitainly true, as 
regards Philadelphia, that while the 
record of deaths in 1859 were only 9,742, in 
1860 the number rose to 11,568, and in 1861, 
to 14,468, while the increase of population 
bore no relation at all corresponding. It 
was during this period that the new regis- 
tration laws went into operation, and as 
the old were so confessedly imperfect as to 
require change, and the new are still liable 
to the uncertainty which must attend all 
changes, it would be evidently unfair to 
draw any positive deductions from these 
statistics. The great variation in the rates 
of disease and mortality caused by epi- 
demic influences is familiar to us all, and 
so numerous and inscrutable are the causes 
which operate upon them, that it would be 
unjust to assign to any one the causation 
until the power of others had been detected 
and measured. 

Your Committee is indebted to the 
kindness of a Fellow of the College, who 
has long been engaged in pursuits which 
render him familiar with the statistics of 
disease and death of this city, Dr. W. 
Jewell, for the accompanying statement, 
by which it will be seen that the relative 
mortality of the winter months to that of 
the entire year, has been varied greatly 
during the last decade, the extremes being 
20.83 per cent, for the lowest, and 30.64 for 
the highest. The highest mortality being 
in the years of 1856-7, before the applica- 
tion of salt to the melting of snow was 
resorted to, while that of 1857-8, in which 
the salt was used, was the lowest in the 
entire period, with the exception of 1853-4 : 




It is perfectly clear that the increased 
mortality of even those years in which it 
has been greatest, depends on influences 
operating during the summer as well as 
winter months ; and even during the win- 
ter months, on some other cause than the 
application of salt to railway tracks — the 
mortality during the winter months having 
fallen from 30.64 per cent, in 1856-7 to 
22.59 in 1859-60. Indeed, if we deduct 
from the entire mortality of 1861, the num- 
ber 2,448 reported as dying from small-pox, 
scarlet fever and diptheria, the increased 
mortality of that year is reduced to less 
than four per cent. 

Such variations have been recurring at 
all times and in all places, which have been 
subject to observation. Neither of the 
diseases is new ; and all have, at several 
periods, assumed the epidemic form with 
varying degrees of malignity, at times al- 
most disappearing from observation, but 
only to return with renewed violence under 



January, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



53 



the influence of unknown and unappreci- 
able causes. 

To go no further back than the experi- 
ence of many of the fellows now partici- 
pating actively in the practice of medicine, 
we may refer to the sudden, unlooked-for 
and unaccountable epidemic of small-pox 
which commenced about thirty years ago, 
shaking the confidence of the community 
in the protective power of vaccination, and 
arousing the attention of the profession to 
the necessity of a more careful and active 
resort to it. Scarlet fever, which, during 
the years intervening between 1807 and 

1827, had caused only 102 deaths out of 
53,000, and only one death in 1827, nine in 

1828, and only nine in 1829, at the time 
broke out upon us with a malignancy and 
wide-spread prevalence, which carried dis- 
may into the community. The deaths 
from that disease in 1832 rose as high as 307. 

Still confining our attention to our own 
city, though with a retrospective view, 
putrid sore throat or malignant angina 
(doubtless, identical with the disease now 
known as diphtheria), in the year 1735, 
raised the mortality of the city, as shown 
by the records of interment in the burial 
grounds of Christ Church, about 50 per 
cent. It were a work of supererogation to 
present facts to the College of Physicians, 
in proof of the absurdity of attributing to 
the practice of salting the railroad track, 
the prevalence of small-pox, scarlet fever 
or diphtheria, the diseases by which the 
great increase of mortality in the last few 
years has been induced. Yet, it may not 
be uninteresting nor inappropriate to pre- 
sent to the notice of the Fellows, the record 
of a fatal prevalence of one or both of 
these diseases of scarlet fever and diphtheria 
in this city in the year 1746. There is in 
the possession of our Fellow, G. W. Norris, 
a MS. tract by Dr. J. Kearsley (the liberal 
founder of the Asylum for widows and 
single women, known as Christ Church 
Hospital), describing the symptoms and 
treatment. So extensively did it prevail 
and so numerous were the fatal cases, that 
Dr. Kearsley says, ' ' It baffled every attempt 
to stop its progress and seemed, by its dire 
effects, to be more like the drawn sword of 
vengeance to stop the growth of the Col- 
onies than the real progress of the disease.' 
This epidemic certainly could not be attrib- 
uted to any influence under human con- 
trol. It commenced in an inland village in 
the New England Colonies, where, accord- 
ing to Dr. Kearsley, ' ' villages were almost 
depopulated." 

While it is beyond doubt a duty owed by 
every citizen to the community in which 
he dwells, and by which he is protected 
and supported, to aid in every effort for 
the preservation of the health of the people, 
this duty presses with especial claims upon 
us as members of a profession to whose 
keeping are entrusted the health and lives 
of our fellow-citizens. Still stronger is 
the obligation which rests upon us in our 
corporate capacity, as the College Phys- 
icians of Philadelphia, since we find men- 
tioned among other inducements to our 
originators, that ''the objects of this Col- 
lege are to advance the science of medicine, 
and thereby to lessen human misery by in- 
vestigating the diseases and remedies which 



are peculiar to this country, by observing 
the effect of different seasons, climates and 
situation upon the body," etc., etc. 

Your Committee, therefore, in closing 
this report,present the following resolutions : 
First. — That in the opinion of the Col- 
lege of Physicians there is no evidence that 
" the practice of salting the railway tracks " 
passing over the streets of the city exerts 
any injurious influences on the health of 
the citizens. 

Second. — That the College of Physicians 
respectfully suggest to the City Council the 
necessity of making provision by ordinance 
for keeping open the gutters and inlets to 
the same, in the period when the snow is 
melting, and keeping the footways at the 
intersections of the railways free from the 
melting snow and ice, or, of enforcing 
such ordinances, if already existing. 

Casper Morris, Chaiiman. 

Franklin Bache. 

Edward Hartshorn. 

J. M. De Costa. 

D. Francis Condie. 

[Letter from Messrs. Haller, Beck & Co.] 
The following letter (supported by affi- 
davit) speaks for itself : 

Union Salt Works. 

office of 

Haller, Beck & Co. 

Allegheny City, Pa., Aug. 16, 1884. 

Mr. Harvey N. Rowe, 
Secretary of the P. O. & E. L. Passenger 
Railway Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Dear Sir— As we have been asked time 
and again by many parties, whether or not 
salt had any bad effect on our horses' feet, 
on account of their being in it more than 
any others, we would simply say that we 
have been in the salt business for over 
twenty years, and so far have never had 
any trouble with our horses' feet being in- 
jured from salt. We work from twenty 
five to thirty horses, and claim to have the 
best stock in the city, to which we can get 
most merchants to testify. In twenty 
years we have never had a horse troubled 
with thrush ; never any troubled with 
" scratches ; " and our stable is open for in- 
spection by any one, the agents of the 
Humane Society preferred. If salt were 
detrimental to horses' feet, we surely think 
ours are the first it would tell on, as they 
are in it about the works, and then in the 
car-tracks as much as car-horses. 
Respectfully yours, 

Haller, Beck & Co. 

office of ] 

The American Street R'y Association, ' 
Corner Atlantic and Third Avenues, 
Brooklyn, N. Y., Nov. 6, 1884. 

James Watt, M.D., 

Dear Doctor— In the year 1874, while 
you were Registrar of Vital Statistics of 
the City of Brooklyn, a resolution was in- 
troduced in the Common Council of this 
city, prohibiting the use of salt by the 
Street Railway Companies for the removal 
of snow and ice from the tracks. 

The resolution was referred to a com- 
mittee, before which you appeared, and, I 
believe, gave evidence to show that the 
use of salt for the removal of snow and ice 
was not detrimental to the public health, 



and especially was not a causation of dis- 
ease, particularly diphtheria, which, at 
that time, was prevalent in a very malig- 
nant form. 

The American Street Railway Associa- 
tion, at its recent meeting in New York 
City, requested me to have printed in 
pamphlet form, certain attainable informa- 
tion, in reference to the subject of the re- 
moval of snow and ice. It is now in course 
of preparation, and will be issued within a 
day or two. I desire, for the purpose of its 
publication therein, that you will give me 
a statement of the facts in connection with 
your appearance before the Committee, and 
you will oblige, Very truly yours, 
Wm. J. Richardson, 
. Secretary. 
[Letter from James Watt, M. D., Registrar 
of Vital Statistics of Brooklyn, 1875.] 
384 Court Street, / 
Brooklyn, Nov. 8th, 1884. J 
Wm. J. Richardson, Esq., 
Sec. American Street Railway Association. 
Dear Sir— In reply to yours of the 6th 
inst., I would say that I appeared before 
the Health Committee of the Common 
Council during the winter of 1875, and laid 
before them such statistics as I had in my 
possession, in regard to the cause of the 
disease of diphtheria. This disease at the 
time prevailed to an alarming extent in 
this city, more than five per cent, of the 
death-rate being due to it ; and the public 
mind was greatly exercised in relation 
thereto. 

It was desired especially to ascertain 
whether the use of salt by the railroad 
companies on their tracks for the removal 
of snow and ice had any influence in the 
production and spread of the disease. The 
salting of the tracks was one of the causes 
assigned for the increased mortality by 
diphtheria. A number of other causes 
were given, such as sewer gas, the filling of 
low lands with ashes, garbage, and street 
sweepings, etc. 

I prepared a map showing the location of 
every case of diphtheria in the city. This 
was carefully examined by the committee, 
and showed that the majority of the cases 
did not occur upon the line of any railroad, 
or in its immediate vicinity. 

So far as statistics were concerned, the 
use of salt by the railroad companies 
showed that it did not in any way contrib- 
ute to the cause of the disease, for on 
those streets occupied by railroad tracks, 
and where salt was used for the removal of 
snow and ice, the death-rate was not in- 
creased in the least. 

Very respectfully yours, 

James Watt, M.D. 
[The lithographic map attached to this 
letter of Dr. Watt's, is of great interest. 
We should give an analysis of it in this 
issue of the Street R all way Journal, 
but that there are other data which we 
should prefer to see before making any de- 
ductions, or expressing any opinion. In 
this connection, we may say that the map 
would have been even more convincing had 
it shown in some way the density of popu- 
lation, the location of sewers, and the ele- 
vation above tide-water ; also, the cases of 
diphtheritic disease not resulting in death. 
We shall endeavor to obtain some, if not 
all of these data, and to work them up for 
the benefit of the Association — and the en- 
couragement of track salting. 



54 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[January, 1885. 



Personal. 

— James G. Speer, Vice-president of the 
P. M. & A. Railroad, Pittsburgh, has re- 
turned from New York very much im- 
proved in health. 

— John G. Brill, of J. G. Brill & Co., 
Phila., is about making his annual trip 
through Mexico, taking in New Orleans 
and various other cities. 

— Mr. Hildebrand, Supt., has severed 
his connection with the Union Line, Pitts- 
burg. 

— Mr. Eberhard, Supt. of the Pittsburg, 
Oakland & East Liberty R. R. , Pittsburg, 
has resigned. 

— The following have been elected offi- 
cers for the Brooklyn City Railroad for the 
ensuing year : Wm. H. Hazzard, Pres. ; 
Wm. M. Thomas, Vice-pres. ; Daniel F. 
Lewis, Sec'y and Treas. ; Francis E. Wrig- 
ley, Asst. Sec'y. Directors : Seymour L. 
Husted, James How, George N. Curtis, 
Alexander Stud well, Wm. H. Husted, 
Crowell Haden, Wm. M. Thomas, Wm. H. 
Hazzard, George W. Bergen, John C. 
Barron, Abraham B. Baylis, Daniel F. 
Lewis, Edwin Packark. 



Notes. 

— At the annual meeting of the stock- 
holders of the West Division Railway Co. 
of Chicago, held January 15, the following 
directors were elected for the ensuing year : 
B. H. Campbell, John A. Tyrrell, Jerome 
Bucher, S. B. Cobb, Nathan Corwith, J. R. 
Jones, and Wm. H. Bradley. Officers : 
Pres., J. R. Jones ; Supt., James K. Lake ; 
Sec'y, George L. Webb. 

— The Bush wick R. R., Wm. N. Morrison, 
Supt., Brooklyn, is extending its line about 
a mile, double track, on Knickerbocker 
avenue. 

— Another line of cable road, it is said, 
will probably be laid in one of the principal 
avenues of New York before the close of 
the present year. The details are not yet 
made public. 

— M. Verner, Supt. of the Central R. R. 
of Pittsburg, has patented a device for 
carrying cars over a line of hose across the 
track without hindrance to the car or dam- 
to the hose. 

— The Central Park, North & East River 
Railroad has added to its depot, a building 
75 ft. wide, and three stories, extending 
from 54th to 55th street, to accommodate 
the addition of a hundred or more horses 
and seventeen new cars. Of the latter, fifteen 
are smoking cars, two one-horse cars, all built 
by Stephenson. This road usually lays a hun- 
dred tons of new steel rails every year to 
replace old ones ; last year a hundred and 
fifty were laid. A new eighty-horse engine 
has just been put in by them. 

— The Ninth Avenue R. R. has extended 
its track to 126th street ; is now running to 
110th street. Eight new cars are added. 

— The Broadway & Seventh Avenue R.R. 
is rebuilding a number of cars, and con- 
templates various improvements in the 
spring, but has not yet made definite plans. 



— Supt. Bidgood, of the Sixth Avenue 
road, New York, speaking of the elegant 
new cars recently put on to that road to re- 
place old ones, said in reply to an inquiry 
made by a representative of the Journal : 
"Yes, I am very sure it pays to run nice 
cars. No, I have not any exact data on the 
subject ; but have, no doubt, that our 
earnings have been very materially in- 
creased on account of substituting these 
new cars for the old ones formerly run. 
The people want a nice car ; and while, of 
course, the fare is fixed at the same time 
they will pay for it." Mr. Bidgood here 
showed some of the new cars, which are of 
Stephenson's most approved pattern, fitted 
with super springs, ventilated ceiling, tele- 
phone signal, etc., nicely decorated and 
finished in every way. "I would not," 
said he, " run a car inferior to these. No, 
we have no new drivers on trial on our 
road at present ; we adopt as a rule, how- 
ver, most of the improvements brought out 
by Stephenson." 

— The Brocton Horse Railroad Co. of Broc- 
ton, Mass. , has, during the last year, extend- 
ed its line fromNorth End to Stoughton. 
The stock is all taken in a new Company, 
formed to build a line from Brocton to North 
Easton, five miles, and a line from Brocton 
to South Abbington is under discussion. 
These new lines are discussing the feasibil- 
ity of the Daft electric motor system, instead 
of horse-flesh as motive power. 

— L. O. Crocker, of East Braintree, Mass., 
manufacturer of conductor's railway ticket- 
punches, among other work, is filling or- 
ders for punches from the Atchinson, 
Topeka & Santa Fe, Union Pacific, Dela- 
ware, Lackawanna & Western, Old Colony, 
Boston and Maine, Maine Central, Inter- 
colonial and other companies. 

— The New Bedford & Fairhaven Street 
Railway Co., New Bedford, Mass., operates 
688 miles single track, 14 cars, 136 horses, 
51 employees, with conductors for extra 
train and mill trips. For ordinary service 
the Carey fare box is used. This box 
"rings up" as each fare is deposited, and 
has glass side only visible to the driver. 
The October report shows opeiation of 
313,415 miles, 60,226 round trips, carrying 
1,591,890 passengeis ; 5 cent fares. 

— The Oriental Metal Manufacturing Co., 
48 Congress Street, Bcstcn, commenced 
business October last, and has now leased 
the Atlantic works foundry at East Boston. 
This company makes a specialty of car 
journal bearings made from new process of 
hardened copper. It has orders for 184, 0CO 
pounds of metal, and is receiving orders 
for tons of metal in ingots from several 
roads that have been making tests. One 
test of street car journal bearing weighing 
33^ lbs., after running 17 months, showed 
loss in wear of one-half an ounce by 
weight. 

— The Baltimore Union Passenger Rail- 
way Co. has ordered its entire line equipped 
with the automatic fare collector. 

— The People's Passenger Railway Co., 
Philadelphia, has ordered its Morris Street 
branch equipped with Lewis & Fowler's 
improved 12-inch alarm passenger register. 



Cambridge R. R., Boston.— Mr. A. L. 
Richards has resigned as General Manager ; 
remains a director. Mr. W. W. Hapgood, 
resigns as Superintendent, to take charge 
of his ranch in Nebraska. Mr. E. M. Ban- 
croft, the new Superintendent, is a Har- 
vard graduate of 1879, a lawyer, and a 
member of the Massachusetts legislature. 

South Brooklyn Centeal. — Mr. Wm. 
Richardson (President Atlantic Avenue 
Line), has purchased a controlling interest 
in the S. B. Price said to be $125 per 
share. (A few years ago it could have 
been bought for 30 cents.) 

St. Paul, Minn.— Mr. H. M. Littell has 
resigned as Superintendent of the St. Paul 
City Railway ; succeeded by Mr. Goodrich, 
Superintendent of the Minneapolis Co., 
assisted by Mr. Scott, of Minneapolis. 



Frauds on the Fare-box Cars. 

how to prevent them. 
Ed. Street Railway Journal: — 

A short time ago notices were prom- 
inently displayed in the Broadway stages 
to the effect that a reward of $50 would be 
paid for information which would secure 
the conviction of any person taking fares 
under the pretense of passing them to the 
box and keeping them. This notice served 
to call public attention to one of the ways 
in which the Omnibus Co. was being 
swindled ; but did no good otherwise ; as 
no person has ever been known to give the 
desired information and claim the prom- 
ised reward. It is fair to presume that 
this swindle is still going on. About a 
year ago a conspiracy was broken up on 
the Twenty-third Street line by the arrest 
and conviction of a number of persons en- 
gaged in defrauding the Company in the 
following manner : A confederate of the 
driver would seat himself in the forward 
end of the car and make himself useful by 
receiving fares to be passed into the box. 
About every third nickel, however, found 
its way into his pocket instead of the box, 
and the proceeds of his peculations were 
divided daily between himself and the 
driver. Public attention having been called 
to this system of fraud, it is not practiced 
so much as formerly, but has been super- 
seded to a certain extent by another method 
not so likely to attract attention, and more 
difficult to detect. 

The person who "works this racket" is 
not necessarily "in cahoot " with the driver. 
He may simply be a " shover of the queer " 
in a small way ; and being provided with a 
quantity of small counterfeit coin, takes 
his seat near the money box, when the car 
is likely to be crowded, and as the fares 
are passed to him, adioitly slips a counter- 
feit into the box and retains the genuine 
coin of the passenger. As the base coin 
cannot be detected until the box has been 
opened and the money counted in the 
office, the swindle is a pretty safe one, and 
the innocent passenger who has been at so 
much trouble to see that his fare was 
passed to the box, is set down by the man- 
agement as the perpetrator of the fraud. 

It seems to me that the most effectual 
way to prevent these frauds, and at the 
same time please the patrons of the money- 



January, 1885. J 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



55 



box cars, would be to adopt the system now 
in use in this city, by which each passenger 
may deposit his own fare and see it go into 
the box, no matter where he may be sitting 
or standing — Gentlemen managers of the 
fare-box cars, try and make things a little 
more pleasant for your passengers and you 
will find it to pay better than damning the 
public. Jno. H. Virgil. 

Baltimore, Md., Jan. 15. 

[We have taken the pains to get an illus- 
tration and description of this device, and 
present it on another page. — Eds.] 



Extent of the Cable Road System. 

Andrew S. Halliday, of San Francisco, 
who invented the system of cable railways 
in 1869, in a recent interview in the N. Y. 
Tribune, speaks as follows : " I invented 
my system in 1869, but the first cable street 
railway was not built and ready for use 
until September, 1873. The first bit of 
road was built in Clay Street, San Fran- 
cisco, which was forty-nine feet from 
house to house, and was full of gas and 
water mains. People laughed at me and 
were afraid to invest in the scheme, the 
grade of the street was one in five, pretty 
steep, and the fine was 2,800 feet long. 
The road soon became a success. It made 
money and carried passengers at a low 
rate. It was cleaner than a horse railroad. 
There were less delays upon it, and it was 
able to carry as many people as an almost 
continuous line of cars could carry. 

" Soon afterward a horse railway com- 
pany converted their line into a cable road 
and the shares of the company advanced 
in a short time from $22 to $102. A year 
later a cable road was built through Cali- 
fornia street. To-day there are thirty miles 
of single track cable roads in that city. 
More than half of this length of road has 
been converted'from horse railways. There 
are over twenty miles of cable road in 
Chicago, and they worked last winter 
without losing a day, even when the 
ground was frozen to a depth of two and 
a half feet. The streets are kept clean 
with far less trouble with a cable road 
than a horse railway. Duneedin, New 
Zealand, a city of 30,000 inhabitants, has 
two cable roads. A company in Melbourne 
has just obtained a franchise for sixty 
miles, and will put stock to the amount of 
£1,500.000 on the market. Sidney, New 
South "Wales, has adopted the system. The 
Premier of New South Wales visited San 
Francisco eighteen months ago to inspect 
it. Edinburgh, Scotland, has decided to 
adopt the system, and Birmingham and 
Manchester, England, are considering the 
advisability of following suit. Roads will 
shortly be built in Pachuca and Guana- 
juato, Mexico. 

"Seven millions of dollars have been 
spent in San Francisco in the construction 
of cable roads, and that sum is paying 
large interest. A well-equipped road will 
cost from $75,000 to $200,000 a mile. This 
includes power and equipment. I will go 
to London, England, to look after my in- 
terests. I have a short road there, which 
I built after a hard fight with the various 
carrying companies. From England I go 
to Australia." 



Electric Motors for the Elevated Rail- 
road. 

The following report on this subject is 
extracted in a somewhat condensed form 
from the Engineering and Mining Jour- 
nal : 

Prof. Moses G. Farmer has furnished to 
Mr. Cyrus W. Field an estimate of the cost 
of operating the Second Avenue Elevated 
Railroad of this city by electric motors, as 
compared with locomotives. 

The estimate is based on the following 
assumptions : 

A stationary plant can be erected near 
the middle of the line, consisting of one or 
more stationary steam-engines of the best 
type, capable of developing one horse-power 
by the combustion of 1% lbs. of coal per 
hour per horse-power, the coal costing $2.50 
per ton of 2,240 lbs. 

Each of the 20 locomotives in use on this 
line, at the busiest part of the day, indicates 
110 horse-power, with a consumption of 5 
lbs. of coal per hour per 1 H. P. , the coal 
costing $4 per ton of 2,240 lbs. 

The present steel rails weigh 70 lbs. per 
yard, and a similar central rail will be laid 
to convey the electric current. 

One mile of central rail will offer about 
^j of an ohm's resistance, and the aggre- 
gate internal resistance of the dynamos 
concerned in producing the current will 
not exceed -^ of an ohm. 

Sufficient current will be supplied from 
the central stations to both tracks to ener- 
gise at the same instant all of the 20 elec- 
tric locomotives, no matter on what part 
of the tracks these motors may be situ- 
ated. 

One horse-power is the equivalent of 746 
ampere volts, and 20 by 110 by 746=1,641,- 
200 ampere volts in the aggregate will 
reach these motors. 

The dynamos can convert 90 per cent, of 
the mechanical power applied to them 
into current electricity, and electric motors 
can convert 90 per cent, of the electricity 
that they receive into power used to draw 
the trains. 

The Second Avenue Railroad is 6% miles 
long. 

The following table is calculated on the 
above assumptions : 

. No. volts. , 

Indicated horse-power 500 1.000 2,000 

Locomotive 2,200 2,200 2,000 

Electric 3,369 2,879 2,757 

Pounds coal consumed per 
hour : 

Locomotive ." 11,000 11,000 11,000 

Electric 5,895 5,039 4,825 

Saving by electricity 5,905 5,961 6,175 

Cost of fuel per hour : 

L comotive $19.65 $19.65 $19.65 

Electric 6.58 5.62 5.38 

Saving $13.07 $14.03 $14.27 

This indicates that the lower and safer 
electro-motive force of 500 volts is only 
about 9 per cent, more expensive than 
2,000 volts, and about 7 per cent, more ex- 
pensive than 1.000 volts. 

+—+ 

Fare Collecting. 

Ed. Street Railway Journal:— 

You asked my opinion about Fare Col- 
lecting. I should prefer to give it about 
Turning in Fares. There's not much trouble 
about collecting them. The greenest man 



gets alive to the tricks of passengers, and 
takes a pride or satisfaction in not being 
"beaten" by the man with a newspaper, 
who holds his nickel in his hands for half 
an hour, and fobs it after he leaves the car. 
I would guarantee that any old hand would 
not miss collecting one fare in five hun- 
dred. In fact, I would like to bet that a 
sharp conductor would, out of five hun- 
dred passengers, collect five or six fares 
twice. 

I think that conductors should not be 
appointed on the recommendation of poli- 
ticians. That will save "leaks." Men 
with too large families should not he 
chosen. Those who h&\ e drifted around the 
country or the world, and have no family 
ties, have not as much incentive to turning 
in all the fares collected, as long residents 
of one locality. A man who drinks has 
his expenses raised and perhaps his sense . 
of honesty blunted, and is in more risk of 
"knocking down," (as it is called by many. 
I prefer to call it stealing). The bell-punch 
can be beaten, and is beaten. The register 
in full sight is somewhat better, but no- 
body is going to count forty-two passengers 
and see that forty-two fares are registered, 
at starting. 

The Slawson Box is a nuisance to pas- 
sengers, and can be dickered with so that 
the last lot of coins or tickets deposited can 
be abstracted. Then it offers a good field 
for counterfeits. In Philadelphia, a good 
many 3c. ferry tickets were put in for 6J^c. 
car tickets. 

I haven't seen a really good system yet ; 
and I don't know what would be a good 
one. 'Oscar. 



Ed. Street Railway Journal:— 

What do we think about Fare Collecting? 
AU sorts of things ; mostly unpleasant, 
and calculated to ruin our faith in human 
nature — particularly when on wheels. Per- 
haps the iron rails exert a magnetic influ- 
ence — but don't publish this, or some 
crank will be along wanting to re-metal 
our whole lines with copper or hard rub- 
ber ; or to insulate the track, or something 
like that. 

The bell punch is no good, by itself. Too 
easy to steal or counterfeit. These little 
private punches have earned a good deal of 
money for their owners or holders. The 
royalty on the legitimate ones is too high. 
We class the whole lot of tingling registers 
with the bell punch. Perhaps, a ringing 
dial-register suspended to the conductor's 
neck, could be better than the plain punch 
or ringing register, that does not show the 
number of fares collected. The clock-face 
register is all right enough after the car 
has started, to register an occasional 
jumper-on ; but it gives opportunities in 
starting. 

We tried the Slawson business, and found 
plenty of people paid all in pennies and 
the driver could'nt count them. Besides, 
there was always wrangling as to who had 
not paid his fare. 

We do not wish our company's name 
mentioned, at least on this occasion : but 
shall probably take a hand in the fare- 
collecting discussion later on, over our 
company's proper title and address. 



56 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[January, 1885. 



TH E; — 



Street Railway 

JOURNAL. 



MONTHLY, $1.00 PER YEAR. 



E. P. Harris General Manager. 

P. G. Monroe General Western Manager. 

Robert Grimshaw, M. E Editor in Cbief . 

G. B. Heckbl, Associate Editor- 

American Railway Publishing Co. 

32 LIBERTY ST., NEW YORK, 

8 LAKESIDE BUILDING, CHICAGO. 
S. L. K. Monroe, Sec'y and Treas. 



BRANCH OFFICES! 

Eastern District, 8 Exchange Place, Boston,Mass. 
H. M. Swetland, Manager. 

South-Eastern District, 419 Walnut St., Phila- 
delphia, Pa. G. B. Heckel, Manager. 

Southern District, 68 Alabama St., Atlanta, Ga. 
E. V. Cavell, Manager. 

South-Western District, 504 Temple Building, 
Sc. Louis, Mo. W. E. Rose, Manager. 



Comments of Our Kicker. 

— Buffalo east side cars contain clocks. 
They are posted on a circular board which 
bears the advertisement of an enterprising 
jeweler. I don't know whether he pays 
the compnny for his ad., or the company 
pays him for the clock, nor if so, how 
much. 

— In Syracuse the mysterious wisdom of 
a Board of Aldermen is manifested by 
keeping all the four or five lines of street 
roads about a block from the centre of the 
town, so that go what way you will you 
must walk a block or two to get a car 
to continue your journey in the same 
direction. I suspect this is a scheme to 
make people stop in town. 

— No, I don't suppose the cold trains ou 
the Sixth Avenue Elevated Road can be 
accounted for on the ground that the com- 
pany has an interest in the sale of cough 
remedies, which are kept by the news 
stands on the line. 

— At the supper table the other night, 
our little girl said : "Mamma, when I was 
down town to-day a very old lady got on 
the car, and when the car started, it nearly 
jerked her down. Shouldn't you think the 
conductor would let old folks get sat down 
before he starts the car ? " 

— The Central City Railroad, Syracuse, 
has no check of any sort on its conductors. 

— The Tribune thinks certain New York 
street railroads make money by a question- 
able system of collecting two fares from the 
passengers who get into the wrong line of 
cars by mistake. I wonder if the Tribune 
has any idea of the persistency manifested 
by a certain class of women in taking the 
wrong street, the wrong direction on the 
street, and the wrong car every time when 
it is possible ? 

— The Fulton Avenue Line, Brooklyn, 
has some cars — I think one of them is No. 
49, on the night line— which "teeter" 
enough to make a sensitive person sea-sick. 

— The night line cars on some lines are a 
disgrace to the community. Some of the 



horses are so old, weak, poor and pitiful, 
and so covered with sores and blemishes, 
that the companies would not dare send 
them out in day time, lest the Society for 
the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals should 
get after them. 

— How many horses do we see with 
galled shoulders, owing to the use of im- 
perfectly fitting collars ? 

— Why is it that women are so discour- 
teous to those of their own sex ? I scarcely 
ever make a trip that I do not see a woman 
sitting cat-a-corner and taking up room for 
two, while some other woman is standing — 
perhaps carrying a baby, or with her arms 
full of packages. 

— The Brooklyn City Road has a stringent 
regulation against carrying bundles and 
other articles in the cars. This is particu- 
larly to the effect that such articles must be 
carried in the hand or lap, and not put 
upon the seat or floor. It is generally 
carried out by conductors serving a notice 
upon mild-mannered people, and letting 
cheeky or tough-looking customers go un- 
notified. 

— Wyckoff Street, Brooklyn, has had its 
name changed to St. Mark's Place, from 
Third Avenue upwards. It just happens 
that if a stranger is seeking a house above 
Third Avenue, and has got the address St. 
Mark's Place, the Third Avenue Line con- 
ductor always calls out Wyckoff Street, 
and by an equally unfortunate fatality, if 
the address has been given Wyckoff Street, 
the conductor calls out St. Mark's Place. 
As the cars pass both St. Mark's Place and 
Wyckoff Street, at this crossing, conductors 
should call both names. The other even- 
ing, a would-be obliging conductor got the 
names mixed," and amused the passengers 
by calling out. " Walkoff." 

— The two double tracks at the inter- 
section of Tompkins Avenue and Halsey 
Street, Brooklyn, are so much below grade 
that duiing a heavy rain passengers getting 
out there, have to wade through from one 
to three small brooks, according to which 
side of the street they live on. 

— The meanest man in the world has 
been found by Mr. Small, formerly Manag- 
ing Director of the London Tramway Com- 
pany, and the inventor of the bell-punch, 
the automatic fare collector, etc. This 
meanest man is not, thank God, in this 
country, but in London ; and he steals and 
sells the car horses' food. 

— In some cities the spaces between the 
window sash and the car framing are used 
as umbrella racks by standing passengers. 
Once in a while some one gets his face 
wiped by a wet " Gamp." 

— I hear " curses loud and deep " against 
the "latest wrinkle" of putting car stoves 
under the seats. 

— Brooklyn conductors have a deservedly 
high reputation for patience, politeness 
and obliging dispositions. 

— The lost property office of the Brooklyn 
City Passenger Railroad Company is man- 
aged with exceptional satisfaction to the 
traveling public. 

— I should like to see added to the pro- 
hibitory notices in cars, an embargo against 



passengers enveloped in dripping water- 
proofs and rubber coats, sitting down along 
side of clean, dry passengers, and on clean, 
dry seats. 

— Passengers should consider that every 
time they stop a car unnecessarily, they 
are straining the horses and perhaps mak- 
ing fellow-passengers miss their boats or 
trains. 

— Delays from patent coal carts are a 
specialty on the Sansom Street Line, Phila- 
delphia. 

— Philadelphia has a larger proportion of 
her car conductors appointed through poli- 
ticians than any other city. 

— The arrangement, or lack of arrange- 
ment, at the starting point at Fulton Ferry, 
Brooklyn, is confusing to passengers and 
dangerous to pedestrians. 

— Has the driver of a bobtail car a right 
to make four passengers who have paid 
their fare miss their train, because of a 
difference of opinion between a fifth pas- 
senger and himself as to the latter's fare ? 

— There is too much swearing in the cars 
t f certain lines I could name. If it is not 
stopped by next month I shall give the 
name of the line, and the numbers of the 
cars in the Kicker's Column. 



Resistance to Traction on Tramways. 

Editor Street Railway Journal : 

Mr. Jos. S. Paxton, on page 27 of the 
Street Railway Journal, quotes a paper 
of mine and asks, "Will you or any of 
your correspondents be kind enough to ex- 
plain the cause of the increased resistance 
on the steel track over iron track, viz., 4.1 
iron and 7.1 times steel." If your readers 
will peruse the quoted article carefully, 
they will notice that I found the average 
force required to keep the caid car in mo- 
tion on the worn iron rail to be 32.8 lbs. 
per ton, while on the steel rail it was 15.6 
lbs. per ton. The average force exerted to 
start on the old track was 134.6 lbs. per 
ton ; on the new steel track, 116.5 lbs. per 
ton. A little consideration would have 
convinced Mr. Paxton that these results 
should have been expected. The resistance 
of the iron rail, worn with low joints, etc., 
was 32.3 lbs. per ton, as against 15.6 lbs. 
per ton on the new track with perfect 
joints, or more than double. This proves 
by practical experiment the loss street 
railway companies suffer in working poor 
tracks with bad joints. As your December 
number contained an article from my pen 
on the question of joints, I will simply re- 
fer to it. Now, the power exerted to start 
the same car on the iron track was found 
to be 134.6 lbs. per ton. On the new steel, 
116.5 lbs. per ton. The resistance on the 
old iron track was, therefore. 16 per cent, 
greater than upon the new track. Dividing 
134.6 116.5 

= 4.1 and = 7.1. 

32.3 15.6 

This means that whereas the actual force 
exerted per ton to keep the car in motion 
was really doubled on the old iron track over 
that force on the new track, yet it was only 
4.1 times the force required to be exerted to 
keep the car in motion, while the good 
track, although it required less power to 



January, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



start, required so much less to keep the 
car in motion, that it was 7.1 times the 
force exerted in starting. In other words, 
the better the track, the greater the per- 
centage is the power required to start in 
proportion to the power exerted in main- 
taining the car in motion. I trust the 
above will explain the matter and answer 
Mr. P. He is mistaken, when he quotes 
me as saying the absolute resistance on the 
new steel rail was greater than upon the 
worn iron rail, for it was 50 per cent, less 
in maintaining the car's motion. 

Augustine W. Wright. 
Chicago, 111. 



Accidents on Cable Railways. 

The best constructed cable railways are 
liable to accident. These accidents, how- 
ever, are usually slight, confined generally 
to breakage of cable, or ineffective work- 
ing of the grip or the brake, imposing de- 
lays varying from half an hour to a couple 
of horns. 

Accidents to individuals have been, as a 
rule, limited to the loss of a hand or a 
crushed foot, now and then, but on the 
whole there are less accidents from the 
cable railways than from the steam tram- 
ways. 

A short time ago a very serious accident 
occurred on the Highgate cable road, Lon- 
don. The car was on a steep grade, and 
the grip failing to clutch the cable, not- 
withstanding the brake was shut down 
hard, the car ran down the hill into the 
car waiting at the bottom of the grade, 
completely demolishing both cars and in- 
juring four people. The occupants of the 
waiting car perceiving their danger, having 
alighted, only those in the runaway car 
were injured. 

Cases of this kind are of very rare occur- 
rence, and although accidents to the brake 
or grip are not by any means uncommon, 
they do not usually result in more serious 
inconvenience than the failure to stop and 
start when desired. Rotciv. 



Heating' Cars. 



" I am heartily in favor of anything that 
will tend to make the temperature in the 
street cars agreeable so long as it will not 
become a nuisance in itself," said Mr. C. B. 
Holmes, President of the South Side Rail- 
way Company, to areporter for the Tribune. 

"What is the real difficulty?" he was 
asked. 

" Why, to get some sort of an apparatus 
that will heat the cars evenly, and not 
make it so warm for any one person or 
half a dozen that they are thrown into a 
sweat while the others are half frozen. 
There are many persons who ride on the 
cars who do not care to have them heated 
at all, but I would very much like to see 
them heated." 

" What is the objection to stoves ?" 

"They do not distribute the heat suffi- 
ciently, and then there seems to be no way 
to get rid of the gas and flying cinders. 
I have talked with people from Minne- 
apolis, New York, Brooklyn, and Cincin- 
nati, where stoves have been tried, and I 
find that the people are dissatisfied with 



them, and have been informed by the 
officers that they are sorry they adopted 
them, and that they would be glad to dis- 
pose of them if they could get back their 
investment. One man told me that during 
a visit to Minneapolis he rode on one of the 
cars, and that when the door was open for 
another passenger he was so completely 
covered with fine white ashes he looked like 
a miller, and that at the same time the air 
was charged with a suffocating odor of 
burning coal. In these cars, as in all others 
where stoves are now used, the stoves are 
placed in the end and take up the room of 
one passenger. All those who are seated 
near it are overheated, and those furthest 
off are about as cold as if there was no 
fire in the car at all. From what 1 have 
heard of the plan I consider it a failure. 
Other kinds of stoves have been suggested , 
but as yet none of them have proved satis- 
factory." 

"Then you consider that there is at 
present no practical means of heating 
cars?" said the reporter. 

" O, no ; not that. We are experimenting 
all the while and hope to find some means 
of satisfying the demand. The cars cer- 
tainly ought to be heated, and they will be 
if the proper thing can be found to create 
the heat. We have tried four or five differ- 
ent inventions, but there seemed to be 
some objection to all." 

"What seems to have been the best of 
these?" 

"It was a stove under the floor of the 
car, but it did not work as we thought it 
would, and proved a failure. It was lo- 
cated under the floor in the centre of the 
car. The stove was nearly flat and it was 
not necessary to raise the floor to make 
room for it." 

" How about gas and oil stoves? " 
"We have tried both with ill success. 
The trouble with them is that they emit an 
objectionable odor, especially if much heat 
is required." 

" Do you not think it is possible to pro- 
vide something which will take off so 
much of the chill in extremely cold weather 
that the danger of freezing one's nose and 
ears in a street car may be avoided ? Could 
you not increase the temperature in ex- 
tremely cold weather to something like 20" 
above zero ? " 

" O, we expect to do better than that. 
That would be too cold. We are trying 
everything, and I have no doubt we will 
soon discover something that will meet all 
the requirements." 

" Is it likely to be a gas or oil stove ? " 
" I can't say yet. The gas we tried was 
generated from a mixture of oil and water 
placed in a tank. It heated tolerably well 
at times, but the odor was strong and dis- 
gusting. We are constantly examining 
new inventions, and it is only a question of 
time when the demand will be met, on the 
cable road at least." 

Superintendent Lake of the West Side 
line, when approached on the subject last 
evening, said : " I have nothing to say con- 
cerning the matter. I have my own opinion 
about it and will not express it." Upon a 
suggestion that he might be said to be in 
favor of heating the cars, he replied that 
he had expressed his views, and that it was 
not worth while to exchange words on the 
subject. — Chicago Tribune. 



Appreciation. 

Pubs. Street Railway Journal :— 

I have received the first number of your 
publication, r nd think it is just what Street 
Railway Companies have been in need of 
for some time. You can put my name 
down with the many others which, no 
doubt, you will receive. Any officer con- 
nected with any Street Railway Co. , after 
reading your Journal, who does not sub- 
scribe for it at least one year, is not doing 
justice to his profession. 

George W. Graeter, 
Sec'y and Supt. Vincennes Citizens S.R'y Co. , 
Vincennes, Ind., Dec. 24, 1884. 



Kerns. 

The capital stock of the Greenpoint (L. I.) 
and Lorimer Street Railroad Company, 
which has filed its articles of incorporation, 
is placed at $120,000. The proposed road is 
to run through Broadway to Fifth Street, to 
Division Avenue, to Lee Avenue, to Gwin- 
nett Street, to Broadway, to Lorimer Street, 
to Van Cott Avenue, to Manhattan, to 
Meserole, to Franklin Street, to Greenpoint 
Avenue, and thence to the Tenth and 
Twenty-third Street Ferries. 

The South Bend (Ind.) and Mishawaka 
Street Railway Company, which has a cap- 
ital of $100,000, has filed articles of incor- 
poration. The directors of the company 
are Edward B. Dikeman, Perley H. Brown, 
Jeremiah W. Boynton, J. H. Knight and 
John Lyons. 

Brocton and North Easton, Mass., are 
to be connected with a street railway six 
and a half miles long. 

Two new street railways are reported in 
Texas ; one in Fort Worth and one in 
Brenham. 

A steeet railway is about to be con- 
structed in Montgomery, Ala. 

Davenport, Iowa.— At a "canal and 
street car " meeting, Hon J. H. Murphy is 
quoted by the Gazette : 

"The Hennepin canal subject was then 
taken up, and Congressman Murphy was 
called upon to make a statement of its 
status. He began by saying that while in 
Congress he had three objects in view — 
first, the Hennepin canal ; second, the 
horse cars across the bridge ; third, a new 
bridge across the Mississippi." 

Edinburgh, Scotland. — The construc- 
tion of the first street cable tramway in 
Scotland is about to be begun on the north 
side of Edinburgh. 

The Minneapolis Street Railroad is hav- 
ing built by the John Stephenson Co. and 
Brownell & Wight thirty 16-foot cars, to 
be equipped with Small's automatic fare 
collector. The company now has the col- 
lector on twenty cars. 

The Third Avenue R. R. Co. (N. Y.) has 
just closed a contract with Andrews & 
Clooney to furnish and lay the curves, 
switches and castings connected with the 
cable road depot to be built at Tenth 
Avenue and 125th Street. 



58 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[January, 1885. 



— Richard Vose, New York, reports a 
large number of orders on his books for 
springs to be filled during the next 30 
days. 

— The Harlem Bridge, Morrisania and 
Fordham Ry. is building new car stables at 
170th Street, where its offices are now 
located. 

— Andrews & Clooney (N. Y.) report 
among other orders a number for wheels 
from South America, some 75 sets for John 
Stephenson Co., also a number for J. G. 
Brill & Co. and J. M. Jones' Sons. They 
have just completed some elevating sheaves 
for the Kansas City Cable Railway. 

— The Third Avenue Railroad Co. has 
work on road bed nearly completed on 
about three miles of double track line 
on 10th Avenue, and about 1,600 feet on 
125th Street. This experimental line of 
cable road is to run from the Harlem to the 
Hudson on 125th Street and from 125th 
Street north to the end of Tenth Avenue, 
which is above 225th Street. It is probable 
that cars will be running on a large portion 



of the line by the first of April. If this 
trial of the cable system is satisfactory to 
the company and popular with the public, 
cable power will doubtless soon supersede 
horses on the old line of the company. 

— President Lyon, of the Third Avenue 
Co. , has spared neither pains nor expense 
in building cars for the new cable line of 
the company. The most noticeable features 
of the cars are a very high clear story, 
which carries the centre lamp well up out 
of the way and gives a very nice roomy 
appearance ; the platforms are provided 
with two gates, only one on each being 
allowed to be opened, thus compelling pas- 
sengers to get on and off the car on side 
nearest the walk ; a woven wire screen on 
sides and wooden frame at ends prevent 
persons from slipping under the car ; doors 
are hung from the top ; six windows on 
a side. 

— Superintendent Robertson, of the Third 
Avenue Co., N. Y., has designed and built 
an open car having two rows of reversible 
cane seats similar to an ordinary smoking 
car. The sides are closed, compelling 



passengers to get on and off only at the end 
of car. It is probable that their new Tenth 
Avenue cable line will have a large summer 
traffic, and the company seems bound to 
deserve it. 

— The Second Avenue R. R. Co. is com- 
pleting its double track line from 59th 
Street to Harlem River. Forty super-gear, 
ventilated ceiling cars are building for the 
new line by the John Stephenson Co. The 
large stables on Second Avenue will be 
extended (185 X 201 feet, 3 storey) to First 
Avenue. 

— The Paterson (N. J.) and Pasaic Rail- 
way has been extended some three quarters 
of a mile during the past season. 

— The Paterson (N. J.) City Railway 
Co. has added five new cars built by Jones, 
Schenectady, and will in the spring extend 
its track about five miles. 

Pratt & Letchworth, Buffalo, have re- 
cently filled orders for their Street Railway 
Hames for the Brooklyn City, and the 
Dry Dock, East Broadway & Battery rail- 
ways. 



POWER. 

A practical Journal devoted entirely to the Genera- 
tion and Transmission of Power. Specimen Copies Free. 

AMERICAN RAILWAY PUB. CO., 

NEW YOKE AND CHICAGO. 



Section JVo. 17 
46 los, per Yard 



STEELSTREET RAILS. 

The Pittsburgh Bessemer Stool Co,, Limited, 

48 Fifth Ave., Pittsburgh, PA. 



STREET RAILWAY WHEELS AND TURNOUTS. 

Graded Stable Gutter with Straight or Curved Cover, 




Descent % in. per foot. Pieces 5 feet lengths. Short pieces furnished to suit 
any length. Spouts to connect with Sewer, &c. 

BOWLER & CO., Cleveland Ohio. 

ESTABLISHED 1847 

A. WHITNEY & SON'S 

CAR WHEEL WORKS, 

PHILADELPHIA, PENN. 

CAST CHILLED WHEELS, 

AXLES AND BOXES 

FOR EVERY KIND OF SERVICE. 

Street Railway Wheels of all Sizes, 



THE STREET RAILWAY LUBRICANT 



Will last FOUR TIMES AS LONG, and is CHEAPER and MORE ECONOM- 
ICAL than Oil. Samples free on application. 

HENRY F. ROHBOCK, 

109 WOOD ST., PITTSBURGH, PA. 

Used by Pittsburgh Transverse Railway Co. 



P. W. DEVOE <& CO. 

(Established 1 852), 

PULTON ST., cor of WILLIAM, NEW YORK, 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

COHCH and CAR COLORS 

GROUND IN JAPAN. 

For these colors we received the highest award, the fio'd Medal, at the National 
Exposition of Railway Appliances in Chicago, last year. 

SPECIAL SHADES MADE TO ORDER. 

We furnish special body colors to Pennsylvania R.R., New York Central 
New York & New Haven, Lehigh Valley, New Jersey Central and other large 

Railroads. 

FINE VARNISHES AND JAPANS 

FOR COACHES AND CARS, 

Wood Fillers, Wood Surfacers, Wood Stains, Hard Oil Pinish. 

Manufacturers of FINE BRUSHES for painting, varnishing, striping, etc. 

ARTISTS' M ATERI &.LS. 

Tube Colors, Artists' Brushes, Drawing Paper. 

ENGINEERS' GOODS. 

Mathematical Instrum nts. Theodolites, Transits, Cross Section Papers. 

Illustrated Catalogues of 250 pages and 800 Illustrations on request. 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

WHITE LEAD, COLORS IN OIL, DIST£M°ER COLORS, PURE REIDY 
MIXED PAINTS. 

COFFIN, DEI Si CO., 170 Randolph Street, CHICAGO. 



January, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



59 



WARNECK & TOFFLER, 

Manufacturers and Patentees of the 

TOFFLER ROLLING WOOD MAT, 

AND ALL OTHER KINDS IN USE. 

211 East 22d Street, (Near 3d Avenue.) New York. 



ADAPTED AND IN USE FOR 



RAILROAD <fe STREET CARS, STEAMBOATS, HOTELS, SALOONS, 
STORES, HALLWAYS, WATER CLOSETS, Etc., Etc. 



VERY LOW PRICES. 



SEND FOR CIRCULAR. 



HAMES, ALL KINDS. 




Street Railway, 

CONCORDS, 

COMMOInT, 

as desired, 

Manufacturers op 

ALL STYLES 

Saddlery Hardware. 

Send for Catalogue. 

Pratt & Letchworth, 

BUFFALO, 

N. Y. 




STREET RAILWAY CONCORD HAMES. 



CHAMPLAIN 

Forged Horse Nails 

MANUFACTURED BY THE 

NATIONAL HORSE NAIL CO., 

VEKGENNES, VT. 

Hot Forged and Cold Hammered, Pointed, made 
of best Norway Iron, and warranted. Used on 
principal Street Car Lines in the United States. 
Special Patterns for Perkins', Burden's, Good- 
enough & Brydon's Horse Shoes. Samples and 
prices on application. 

DUEEIE & McCAETY, Agents, 

9 Chambers St., New York. 

EUROPEAN COLIC CURE. 




A speedy and sure cure for Colic -has saved hundreds of horses where all 
other remedies have failed. Horse need not be run or trotted around to start 
the wind. Let him stand or lie down as he feels inc ined and he will be ready 
for work almost immediately after recovery. A cure guaranteed in ninety-nine 
cases in a hundred. Endorsed by the leading street railway companies of the 
country, some of whch we append. 



Decatur, III., Oct. 2, 1884. 
Messrs. Jones & Roach, Chicago, 111. 

I have used your Colic Cure for my 
horses and mules on my street car 
lines and found it the best and surest 
medicine I have ever ut-ed. I have not 
lost a horse since I commenced its use. 
It gives relief in a short time after it is 
taken. I can cheerfully recommend it 
as a sure relief if given in time. I keep 
it constantly on hand. 

Truly yours, 

FRANKLIN PRIEST. 
President Decatur Street R. R. 



Messrs. Jones & Roach: 

Gentlemen : I cheerfully recom- 
mend your European Colic Cure for 
horses as be : ng the best that I have 
ever used. When once introduced no 
horse owner can well afford to be with- 



out it. I hope you will meet with the 
success your cure deserves. 
Truly yours, 

VALENTINE BLATZ, 
Per H. Lieb, Manager. 



Office of North Hudson County 1 

Railway Co. > 

Hoboken, N. J., Oct. 4. 1884. ) 

Gentlemen: It gives me pleasure 
to say that I can heartily recommend 
your European Colic Cure to all horse 
ownTs, from a personal knowledge of 
its curative qualities. I have used it in 
our stables, containing about six hun- 
dred horses, and have always found it 
to be beneficial. Yours very truly, 
ALBERT SAILLET, 

Foreman and Veterinary Surgeon 
for the North Hudson County Ry. Co. 



Sample Bottles Furnished Street Railway Companies Gra'is. 
For further information, prices, etc., address 

JONES & ROACH, 259 Fremont Street, Chicago. 



A. AYRES, 

Manufacturer and Patentee. 



LLLLLILLLLLLI L LITTTTTfl 




Send me full size section of rails to 
be used at points A, B, C, D, E, G. 



No. 625 TENTH AVENUE, 

NEW YORK. 







60 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[January, 1885. 



DAY'S IMPROVED 

STREET RAILWAY TRACK CLEANERS. 

Thepe Track 
Cleaners need no 
extended state- 
ment of their 
great superiority 
o^er all others 
invented. The 
fact of over two 
thousand pairs 
beinpr now in use, 
is sufficient evi- 
dence of their 
necessity and 
utility. Are adap- 
table to all kinds 
of rails and styles 
of cars. To se- 
cure thft largest 
benefit they 
should be at- 
tached to every car in use. 

For new catalogue and price list, address, 




AUGUSTUS DAY, 



74 STATE STREET, 

DETROIT, Mich., U. S. A. 



THE ' 



BELLE CITY FEED GUTTER 




IS THE 

Strongest , Most Durable, 

and on the the whole 
it is the 

IBEST FEED CUTTER 

IN THE WORLD. 

For Street-Car Barns it 
is no equal. Write for 
eference, Circular, &c, to 

TBS SELL! HIT IITB CO., 

RACINE, WIS., U.S. A. 



EMPHATIC! 

New York, Jan. 1st, 1885. 
FOR 60 DAYS ONLY, from above date, we hereby offer to 
Railway Companies a Trade 

DISCOUNT OF 15 PER CENT. 

from our Regular Price, 90 cts. (NET) per Running Foot. 
Awaiting your further favors, we remain, 

Very respectfully yours, 

14 COOPER UNION, N. T. EUREKA ROLLING FLOOR GO. 



PERKIN'S TOE CALK 




The old style end prong Calks often cause shoes to break, as the 
prong is driven into the crease. Perkins' new Calk obviates this. 
They are cheaper than any others, and warranted to weld and 
harden. Special pattern for Street Railroad work. Samples and 
price on application. 

DURRIE & McCARTY, Agents, 

97 Chambers St., New York. 



PENNSYLVANIA 
STEEL COMPANY, 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Steel Rails 



Of T patterns, weighing from 16 to 76 lbs. per yard. 
CENTRE BEARING Street Patterns, 42 to 60 lbs. per 
yard, TRAM Street Patterns 45 to 47 lbs. per yard, 
and Street Patterns for STEAM ROADS 



WORKS AT 

STEELTON, DAUPHIN CO., PENN. 



NEW YORK OFFICE, - 60 Broadway. 

Philadelphia Office, 208 South Fourth St. 



PATENT JOINT FASTENING. 

The accompanying cut shows 
I a cross section through joint. 
* J? A is the rail, B the joint chair, 
C the stringer, D the patent 
screw fastening, E the nut, F a 
slot in chair allowing rails to 
contract and expand. The chair 
cannot settle and the rail ends 
are held level with each other, 
preventing the many evils of 
ordinary construction. 

For Further Particulars Address 

AUCUSTIN W. WRIGHT, 

NORTH-CHICAGO CITY RAILROAD, 

CHICAGO, ILL. 




January, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



61 



J- G. BRILL & CO., 



Builders of 



RAILWAY 



AND 



TRAMWAY 



CARS 



ta#^ of all kinds. 




O-A-ZBHiE AID ID IRE SS -IBPIXjIL PHILADELPHIA. 



62 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[January, 1885. 



G. W.Scoggan, H.L.Martin, J.P.Hudson, M. F. Tlumson, II. J. Scoggan. 

SGOGGAN, HUDSON & CO., 

LOUISVILLE, J^L^T., 

Wholesale Dealers in 




Having furnished Horses and Mules to the Street Railway- 
Companies of Louisville, Ky., Minneapolis and St. Paul, 
Minn., New Orleans, La., Pittsburgh and Philadelphia, Pa. 
Richmond, Va., Atlanta, Ga., Chattanooga, Tenn., and a 
large number of other towns in the United States, we are 
thoroughly acquainted with what is wanted, and can fill 
orders promptly, as we always have 

FROM 400 TO 600 

HORSES AN D MULES ON HAND. 

OFFICE AND YARDS : 

Cor. 1 6th and Main Streets, 



PLUMBAGO BEARINGS. 



p 

L 
U 
M 
B 
A 
G 




-POR- 



Cable Roads. 

Warranted to Eun Cool, without Oil, 
Grease or other lubricant. 

4,000 IN NEW YORK. 

2,600 IN KANSAS CITY. 



J. J. RYAN & CO., 



62 & 64 W. Monroe St., CHICAGO. 



B 
E 
A 
R 
I 

N 
G 
S 



PLUMBAGO BEARINGS. 



Established 1832. 



Incorporated 1882. 



VALENTINE & COMPANY, 



Manufacturers of High Grade 



Coach and Car Varnishes and 



Colors. 



NEW YORK, 

2^5 Broad"way. 

BRANCH HOUSES: 



CHICAGO, 
68 Lake Street. 



BOSTON, 
153 Milk Street. 



PAKIS, 



91 Champs Elysees. 



TRADE 



MARK. 



VA L R E Nii n ES 

"THE STANDARD FOR QUALITY." 

The Gold Medal 



WAS AWARDED TO 



Valentine's Varnishes 




A Partial List of Awards Heretofore Given Valentine's 
Varnishes: 

International Exposition, Philadelphia. ... - 1876 

Bronze Medal and Diploma. 
Exposition Universelle, Paris, France, ... - 1878 

Silver Medal. 
Melbourne International Exposition. Melbourne, Aus., - 1880 

Silver Medal and First Order op Merit. 
Adelaide Exposition, Adelaide, So. Aus., - 1881 

Silver Medal and First Degree op Merit. 
American Institute, of the City of New York, - - 1859-1870 

Silver Medal and Diploma. 
Maryland Institute for the Protection of Mechanic Arts, - 1873 

Silver Medal. 
Massachusetts Charitable Mechanics' Association, Boston, 1860 

Silver Medal and Diploma. 
Mechanics' and Agricultural Fair Association of the State of 

Louisiana, ..--....- 1873 

Diploma. 
Agricultural Society of New So. Wales, .... 1877 

Bronze Medal. 

Mechanics' Institute, San Francisco, California, - - 1877 

Silver Medal. 



January, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



63 



LAKE & McDEVITT'S 



For Horse Railways, Omnibus Lines, Etc. 




The Advantages 



ROPE TRACE 

are its ready application 
to Horse-Car service, or to 
any other purpose where 
cheap harness is required. 
It only costs about half as 
much as leather traces, 
while at the same time 
one set of R' >pe Tugs will 
(when used on horse cars) 
take the place of three or 
more sets of leather 
traces, as the Tugs remain 
attached to the car all 
day, no matter how many 
changes of stock are 
made. The lelief horses 
having hoo s attached t > 
their hames, all that is 
necessary is to unhook the 
tugs from the working 
team back in the fresh 
horses, hook on the tugs, 
and the change is made. 
Railroad men will at once 
perceive their adaptabil- 
ity and economy from the 
above facts. They will 
also last longer than leath- 
er traces, and r. quire but 
very little care. From 
their durability and cheap- 
ness they are also espec- 
ially adapted for all kinds 
of larm use and heavy 
teaming, as farmers, etc., 
can easily repair them , 



Patent No. 171,383, Uccciiiber 31, 1875. 



In use on the Chicago West. Div. R'y.; Louisville City R'y Co.; Milwaukee City R'y; Transverse R'y Co., Pittsburg, Pa.; Citizens Stree'. R'y Co., Pittsburg, Pa.; 
Pittsburg and Birmingham, Pittsburg, Pa.; Central Citv R'y, Peoria, III.; Grand Rapids R'y; Minneapolis St. R'y Co.; St. Paul City R'y; Houston City R'y, Texas; 
Superior Street R'y, Cleveland, O ; CincimUi City R'y Co.; Fifth Wird S ,reet R'y, Syracuse ; Detroit City R'y.; Ft. Wayne and Eim wood St. R's , Detroit, Mich.; 
Galveston City R'y; Springfield City R'y, Springfield, 111. ; Toledo St. R'y, Toledo, O. ; Adams St. R'y, Toledo, O. ; Atlanta Street R'y, and others, in all on about IOC 
Street R'ys in United States and Canada, and a large number of other prominent Street R'y Companies throughout the Country. Kg 5 ™ Send for descriptive Circu- 
lar containing testimonials, prices, etc., to 

LAKE & McDEVITT, 161 South Robey Street, Chicago, 111. 

CLARK'S PATENT POWER GROOMI NG MACHINE, 




TO STREET RAILWAY COMPANIES AND OTHER STOCK OWNERS. 

This machine for grooming may be driven by any known power, and can readily be placed for use in any stable or out-l>uild ng. It can be operated by an ordin- 
ary groomsman; its work is perfect; its action simple and effective. Siock owners will readily realize the importance of the machine. The perfection and rai idity 
of its work, and the benefits derived by its use, commend it to those interested in the care and use of all classes of thoroughbred and work stock. The most vicious 
animal readily submits to its use. Machine Grooming is found to be less expensive than hand grooming, saving in food and medicines, and materially increasing 
the value of the animal. 

The Curry Comb and Hand Process Superseded! Economy of Labor! Perfection of Work ! 

mmr Three Hundred Head of Stock Thoroughly Croomed with Each Machine every Ten Hours. 

This Grooming Machine is in daily use in some of the largest Street Railway Companies' stables, and has always given perfect satisfaction. Among those using 
itaretheCity R'y Co., Chicago, HI.; Detroit City R'y Co., Detroit, Mich.; Central City R'y, Peoria, III. ; M. W. Dunham, Wayne, 111 ; West Division Street R'y Co. 
Chicago, 111.; Lindell Street R'y Co., St. Louis, Mo. ; Pleasant Valley R'y Co., Allegheny City, Pa.; Marshall, Field & Co., Chicago, 111.; Leroy Payn, Chicago, 111.-, 
Saginaw City R'y, Saginaw, Mich. ; Pittsburg and Birmingham R'y Co., Pittsburg, Pi.; and a number of others who have given testimonials as to the perfect work- 
ing of the machine. K^"° For prices, circular and other information apply to 

161 SOUTH ROBEY STREET, CHICAGO, ILL. 



64 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[January, 1885. 



j. w. FOWLER, 

President. 



DAN'L F. LEWIS, 

Treasurer. 



LEWIS <fc FOWLER M'F'G CO 




BROOKLYN, N. Y. 



PATENTEES AND MANUFACTUBERS OF 



IMPROVED 



33 



"ALARM 

Passenger Register P 

STATIONARY 

OB 

PORTABLE. 




SOLE AGENTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF 



"SMALL'S PATENT AUTOMATIC FARE COLLECTOR" 



FOI8 



FAI2E 




C^LES 



ALSO 



"RANDALL'S" PATENT CAR AXLE AND ROX. 



Sectional View. 




Front View. 



End View. 



W 

M 
EH 

m 
P 
P 




O 

M 
EH 

o 

M 

M 
EH 




January, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



65 



RAILWAY REGISTER MANUF'G CO 



THE MONITOR REGISTER. 




[manufacturers and owners op the 

Latest Designs, Improvements and Inven- 
tions in Registers, Indicators, Classi- 
fiers and Punches, for the Re- 
cording of Fares Collected 
on Street and Steam 
Railroads. 

This Company owns over 100 Patents, embracing all 
the Valuable Features of Fare Registers, In- 
dicators, etc., and was awarded three 
Medals at the Chicago Exposi- 
tion of Railway Appli- 
ances. 




THE ALARM REGISTERING PUNCH 



CHESTERMAN REGISTER. 

II 




BEADLE & COURTNEY, 

Railway Register Manufacturing Co., 

1193 BROADWAY, NEW YORK, 

Branch Office : 426 "WALNUT STEEET, Philadelphia, Pa., 
FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE. 



66 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[January, 1885. 



DEMOREST'S INFALLIBLE 

DUPLEX REGISTER 

Combines Simplicity, Efficiency and Absolute 
Accuracy. 

As each trip and each fare, when rung, is duplexed on an interior sheet that 
cannot be tampered with, the conductor is his own detective, collusion or fraud 
being Impossible. 

As an illustration of a practical and unanimous opinion, we present the 
following : 

Cleveland, Ohio : 

I have gone through a thorough examination and trial of tte Lewis & 
Fowltr's and other Stationary Registers, and have been using in the past the 
Hornum or Punch Company's Register. After looking o^er the matter thor- 
oughly, I am satisfied that the Half Trips on the Paptr Dial is the right 
principle, and have, therefore, adopted the remorest Duplex Register. 

TOM. L. JOHNSON. 

New York : 

The Demorest Duplex Register is an improvement on the one we are using, 
and is the best I have ever seen. 

J. W. FOSHAY. 

Des Moines, Iowa : 

The Duplex Registers we are usiDg on our cars are giving us entire satisfac" 
tior, and can cheerfully recommend them to do all you claim for them. 

M. P. TURNER. 

We will place any number of our Duplex Registers (with or without the 
Fare-box, according to the kind of car) upon trial for any time desired, at 
a very slight cost. Our terms of purchase are quite reasonable. A trial is 
solicited. Address the proprietor, 

W. JE2T1THTCS DEMOREST, 
15 EAST 14th STREET, 



R. M. ROSE, Manager. 



NEW YORK CITY. 



Fare Boses and Change Receptacles 



MADE BY 



WALES MANUFACTURING CO., 

76 and 78 East "Water Street, 




SYRACUSE, N. Y. 

Our Street Car 
Fare Boxes, for Sim- 
plicity of Construc- 
tion, Cheapness and 
Practicability are Su- 
perior to Anything of 
Like Character in the 
Market. 

I^W Descriptive and 
Illustrated Circulars 
an application. 



Front View. No. 3. 





Back View. No. 3. 



F. H. ANDREWS. 



F.T. LERNED, GEN'L ACT. 



B. A. CLOONEY. 



OFFICE : 

545 West 33d St, 

NEW YORK. 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

ELLIPTIC, SPIRAL, 
VOLUTE, CAR and 
ENGINE 

SPRINGS 

OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 

CAR WHEELS, AXLES, 

BRAKE SHOES, 
PEDESTALS, BOXES, 

BRASS BEARINGS 



ANDREWS & CL00NE7, 

WORKS: 

535 to 551 West U Street 




AND 



to 



L 



Street Railway Turn-Table. 
SEND FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE. 



NEW YORK. 

AND CASTINGS 

of all Descriptions where great Strength 
is Required. Also 

SWEEPERS, 

SNOW PLOWS, 
TURN TABLES, 
TRACK WORK, 
AUTOMATIC SWITCHES, 

Etc. 

Steel Grove Rails and Machinery. 



January, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



67 





13 Barcla3r Street, . ZLTeTxr "ETorik:, 

MANUFACTURER OF 

Graduated Street Car Springs, 

r,ttbb^s:r, gone. 

Patented, April 15th, 1879. 



ADAPTED TO THE 

STEPHENSON, 
BEMIS, 
RANDALL, 
HIGKLEY, 
BRILL, 
JONES, 
BALTIMORE, 

fUBBK 

ALL OTHER BOXES. JfHjl» 

Ipfiiiiflll llll^ 




No. 0, for 10-ft. Light Oars, 
^gagm^, No, 1, for 10-ft, Cars. 
! No. 2, for 12-ft. Cars. 



Spf No. 3, for 14-ft. Cars. 



'j 



No. 4, for 16-ft. Cars. 



mmm 




mm 




^EST.SCN^' 




No. 5, for 16-ft. Cars. 

(Single Pedestal.) 



No. 1, Cushion, for 16-ft. 
Cars. 

No. 2, Cushion, for 12 and 
14-ft. Cars. 




STEEL CONE CITY CAR SPRING. 



Patented April 15, 1879— August 5, 1884. 



The unprecedented popularity of the 

"VOSE GRADUATED RUBBER CONE SPRING" 

for Horse Cars has induced the inventor to bring this 
class of Springs as near perfection as possible, and after a 
series of experiments and tests now presents for favor what 
he claims to be the MOST PERFECT SPRING FOR 
HORSE CARS ever offered. It is exceptionally Soft and 
Easy with the Empty Car or with the Greatest Load, It 
is believed to be the Most Durable, being constructed 
upon a principle that seems to insure that the Spring must 
Actually Wear Out. The very Finest Quality of Crucible 
Cast Steel will always be used in these Springs. 




68 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[January, 1885. 



JOHH STEPHENSON COMPANY 



LIMITED), 



TRAMWAY CARS 




LIGHT, ELEGANT, DURABLE. 



Every Description. 



Best Materials. 



Minimum Prices. 



ORDERS QUICKLY FILLED. CAREFDL ATTENTION TO SHIPMENTS. 



All Climates 



OCT 2 1890 





Vol. I. 



j NEW YORK 
\ 32 Liberty Street 



•1 



FEBRUARY, 1885. 



I CHICAGO : I x T , 

I 8 Lakeside Building, J JN O. 4r. 



The Longstreet Rail. 

The cut shows an isometric view of a 
track laid with a new variety of rail, par- 
taking somewhat of the English "bull- 
head " type.* The web is quite thin. The 
head, which takes the compression strains 
under load, the wear of the flanges and of 
other wheels, and the lateral thrust of turn- 
ing out , is comparatively heavy. The lower 
member, which takes the tensile strains due 
to the load, is rather lighter than we would 
make it, but that is probably a mere matter 
of opinion. Tie rods prevent track spread- 
ing. The lower edge of the rail rests in cast 
iron chairs, supported by concrete blocks. 
Some of this track is getting severely tested 
in the tracks of the Union Railroad, Provi- 

* D. P. Longstreet, Providence, R. I. 



dence, R. I., and we shall probably, at some 
later period, give a memorandum of its per- 
formance. 



Doubtful Coin. 

Ed. Street Railway Journal :— 

Your "Kicker" queries who should be 
the judge of whether or not a worn or 
battered coin is legal tender — the conductor 
or the passenger. I fail to see that the 
conductor has any right to work off a 
doubtful coin in change on the passenger 
any more than on the receiver in making 
returns ; nor that the passenger has any 
right to insist that the conductor shall 
take a piece that the latter deems suspicious 
or no longer a legal tender. Mutual con- 
cession must govern these things, but the 



conductor, as representing the company, is 
more responsible than the passenger, and 
should be given the balance of power. 

Fip. 
Philadelphia, Feb. 12. 

Thank you Kindly. 

The following pleasant notice from the 
New York Day Star, is accepted in the 
kindly spirit which prompted it : 
' ' The Street Railway Journal. Monthly. 

American Railway Company, 32 Liberty 

Street, N. Y. $1 per annum. 

This is a new and novel publication, de- 
voted mainly but not exclusively to the 
topics suggested by its title. For all who 
are in any way interested in the practical 
affairs of street railways it appears to be a 
valuable publication." 




THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[February, 1885. 




American Street Railway Association. 

Officers, 185J4-5. 

President— Calvin A. Richards, President Metro- 
politan Railroad Co., Boston, Mass. 

First Vice president.— Julius S. Walsh, President 
Citizens' Railway Co., St Louis, Mo. 

Second Vic-president. — Henry M. Watson. Presi- 
dent the Buffalo Street Railway Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Third Vice-president,— Edward Lusher, Secretary 
and Treasurer the Montreal City Passenger Rail- 
way Co., Montreal, Canada. 

Secretary and Treasurer. —William J. Richardson, 
Secretary the Atlantic Avenue Railway Co., Brook- 
lyn. N. Y. 

Executive Committee.— President, Vice-presidents 
and William H. Hazzard. President Brooklyn City 
Railroad Co.. Brooklyn. N.Y ; James K. Lake. Super- 
intendent Chicago West-Division Railway. Clrcago, 
111. ; Charles J. Harrah, President the People's Pas- 
senger Railway Co., Philadelphia. Pa.; William 
White, President Dry Dock, East B. & B. R R. Co.. 
New York. N. Y.; B. Du Pont. President Central 
Passenger Railroad Co., Louisville, Ky. 



The Convention Report. — (Continued.) 

TRAMWAYS ASSOCIATION OF GREAT BRITAIN 
AND IRELAND. 

In reply thereto, quite a number of let- 
ters were received favorable to the project 
and a cordial invitation was received from 
J. C. Robinson, Esq., the Chairman of the 
Tramways Association of Great Britain 
and Ireland, inviting delegates to be pres- 
ent at the June meeting in London. Mem- 
bers of the Association were apprised of 
this invitation by letter, under date of 
April 28th. 

A Journal of Public Street Traffic, en- 
titled " Tramways,'' and published in Lon- 
don monthly, prints in its March number, 
the following : 

' ' We have been favored with a com- 
munication from Mr. W. J. Richardson, 
Secretary of the American Street Eailway 
Association, an association young in years 
but promising, from the liberal support 
accorded to it, and the energy with which 
it is directed, a career of considerable pros- 
perity and marked usefulness. Mr. Rich- 
ardson states that the preliminary proceed- 
ings, in connection with the formation of 
the Tramways Association of Great Britain 
and Ireland, have been watched across the 
Atlantic with much interest, and he sug- 
gests an exchange of information and ex- 
perience likely to be beneficial." 

One result of th° correspondence, per- 
haps, was to enable the managers of, and 
others connected with street railways, or 
tramways, as the roads are called abroad, 
the better to organize their Association, 
the name of which indeed was changed 
from the Tram ways Institute to the Tram- 
ways Association. 

It was formed, however, on a different 
basis from our own, in that individuals and 
not companies are the members, costing 
each person an annual subscription of one 
guinea. Members are those who control or 
manage tramways. Associate members 
are provided for and are defined as " those 



interested in the development of tramway 
enterprise." This, as will be seen, opens a 
wide door, admitting supply-dealers, news- 
paper men, inventors and whoever may, 
for one reason or another, have his own 
personal or business " axe to grind." 

Your Committee takes occasion to con- 
gratulate the members of this Association 
that the essential principle of its organiza- 
tion is the membership of companies — not 
individuals. In the strictest sense, ours is 
a Street Railway Association, the interests 
of whose members — the companies — are 
paramount to all personal considerations Of 
the delegates representing the companies. 
We see in our sister Association across the 
water, elements of embarrassment, which, 
sooner or later, may manifest themselves 
to annoy — the natural outcome of the char- 
acter of the membership. Personal advan- 
tage in such an association will almost 
inevitably take precedence of consideration 
over the companies themselves. 

The following circular-letter was next 
sent to all the roads in America. 

legal opinions. . 

Office of the 

American Street Railway Ass'n, 

Brooklyn, N. Y,, March 12, 1884. 

Dear Sir: — Shortly after the organiza- 
tion of this Association, a circular-letter 
was sent to all the railroad companies in 
America, which, to a certain extent, out- 
lined the work of the Association. Atten- 
tion was called to the desire that we should 
be able to attain a very important advan- 
tage for the advancement of our interests, 
in the collation of facts and decisions re- 
garding suits against street railway com- 
panies, either for injuries to persons or 
property, or in relation to patents. It was 
considered that this information would be 
of great value to members. It can only be 
properly gathered by the hearty co-oper- 
ation of all the companies. 

Until now it has not been feasible to 
undertake this work. In this mail is sent 
the first Opinion, issued in the line referred 
to, and which is pent for the purpose of 
ascertaining whether this feature of the 
Association work will be duly appeciated 
by railroad men. It is proposed to issue 
these decisions monthly. It seeins to us 
that the advantage of having Opinions on 
such matters of vital importance to rail- 
road companies, namely, law suits, pub- 
lished in advance of the law records, will 
be of great value to us : and we, therefore, 
solicit Opinions, especially of cases on ap- 
peal to the higher courts, and trust the 
railroad community will readily co-operate 
by promptly forwarding decisions as they 
may be received. Yours truly, 

W. J. Richardson, 

Secretary. 

This work of the Association has been 
very fully appreciated, and, probably, to 
it, more than to any other single feature of 
its work, is due the large increase in mem- 
bership during the year. The companies 
recognize the fact that one of these Opin- 
ions may, sometime or another, easily save 
them thousands of dollars ; and that, there- 
fore, if for no other reason, they cannot 
afford to do without information that costs 
them so little to obtain. 



Since the first Opinion was published in 
March, one has been issued monthly, in- 
cluding one already sent in October, and 
covering, in all, fifty-six octavo pages. 
Their titles and dates of issue are as fol- 
lows : 

March— William H. Wood against De- 
troit City Railway Co , of Detroit, Mich. 
' April— Edward S. Banks against High- 
land Street Railway of Boston, Mass. 

May — Pittsburgh, Oakland and East Lib- 
erty Pas's. Lty. Co., of Pittsburgh, Pa., 
against James Donaldson. 

June— Janies W. Lauderbach against 
People's Pass. Ry. Co., of Phila., Pa. 

July — Albert Heckrott against The Buf- 
falo St. R. R. Co., of Buffalo, N. Y. 

August — William Sutherland against The 
Jersey City and Bergen R. R. Co., of Jer- 
sey City. N. J. 

September — John Parker and the Mon- 
treal Brewing Co. against the Montreal 
City Pass. Ry. Co.. of Montreal, Can. 

October — Lena Werner against the Citi- 
zens' Railway Co., of St. Louis, Mo. 

In regard to the Opinion published in 
May, concerning the blocking of cars by 
vehicles while loading, we would state 
that the Board of Presidents of Philadel- 
phia considered it so important, that they 
have had it published in handy pamphlet 
form, suitable for distribution. A copy is 
promptly served on any one, and with 
salutary effect, who thus interferes with a 
compauy in that city in the unobstructed 
running of its cars. 

Neat magazine covers are now being made 
for the purpose of filing the Opinions, and 
one will be forwarded to each member 
with the next publication. Your Com- 
mittee sincerely hope that, as cases arise 
and are determined either for or against 
the companies, that their managers will 
interest themselves for the general good, 
by forwarding the decisions promptly for 
publication. A case decided against a 
company may oftentimes be as helpful as 
the publication of one in its favor. The 
completest knowledge obtainable of street 
railroad law is desired by us all. 

While on this subject, the Committee 
takes the opportunity to recommend you 
to cultivate the settlement of all cases that 
can be settled reasonably, and, of course, 
honorably ; to resist "strikes" of every 
character, but to treat with especial favor 
any applicant who has received a bona fide 
injury, who comes to you without first 
having gone to see a lawyer. 

taxation and license. 

The following circular-letter was like- 
wise sent to all roads : 

Office of the ) 

American Street Railway Ass'n, v 

Brooklyn, N. Y., March 12, 1884. ) 

Dear Sir : — Toward the close of last year, 
a circular-letter was issued, requesting in- 
formation as to what were the conditions 
of taxation and license relating to all the 
street railroads in all the States of the 
Union and Canada. Answers were re- 
ceived from a great many roads, but in a 
more or less unsatisfactory way ; so much 
so, that it was quite impossible to compile 
in a proper manner the information thus 
obtained, and submit the same for general 
circulation. 



February, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



71 



The compilation and issue of the Report 
of the Second Annual Meeting has inter- 
vened since the issue of the letter, to pre- 
vent sending out a circular, to which uni- 
form answers might be received. Here- 
with please find a comprehensive blank ; 
and, so far as possible, will you fill out an 
answer to each question, omitting none, 
that the compilation may be perfect and 
complete, and return the same, -without de- 
lay, to me. 

As you are doubtless aware, a committee 
on the subject of " Taxation and License," 
has been appointed, headed by a lawyer, 
President of a member of the Association, 
who is to prepare the Report of the Com- 
mittee to be presented at the regular meet- 
ing in October next. It is desired that re- 
plies be received from every railroad in the 
country, that an exhaustive report on the 
subject may be presented. All companies 
participating will be gladly furnished with 
a copy of the facts gathered. 

Yours truly, 

W. J. Richardson, 
Secretary. 

Replies were received from eighty-three 
companies. The facts therein set forth have 
been compiled, and the information thus 
obtained should be of great value to those 
companies especially, whose burden of tax- 
ation is insufferable. 

In order to assist the Chairman of the 
Committee in the preparation of his in- 
valuable report on the removal of snow 
and ice, especially as regards the use of 
salt, the following circular-letter was sent 
by the President to all American roads : 

removal op snow and ice. 

Office of the 

American Street Railway Ass'n, 

Brooklyn, N. Y., July 25, 1884. 

To the President or Superintendent, 

Dear Sir: — As the President of the 
American Street Railway Association, at 
the request of the Chairman of the Com- 
mittee on ' ' Track-cleaning and Removal 
of Snow and Ice ; is Salt Necessary ? If so, 
is its use Detrimental to the Public Health ; 
and Especially, is it Injurious to Horses ?" 
I deem it advisable to address, not only to 
the companies that are members, but to all 
the street railways of America, this circu- 
lar letter. 

Por the purpose of aiding the Committee 
in the preparation of the report, questions 
are herewith respectfully submitted, and 
it is earnestly desired that full and definite 
answers will be made thereto, and this 
sheet returned to the Secretary of the 
Association, at above address, as soon as 
possible. Yours truly, 

Wm. H. Hazzard, 
President. 
Replies thereto were received from 
eighty-eight companies ; and the report 
which has been prepared by a physician 
will very satisfactorily determine the 
question as to the effect on the public 
health of the use of salt for the removal of 
snow and ice from the tracks. 

miscellaneous items. 

Finally, notices were sent to all the 
American companies, apprising them of 
this meeting. 



The duplicate sets of rules for the gov- 
ernment of employees, received from fifty- 
five different companies, since increased 
by two, and which were noticed in the 
Secretary's report last year, have both been 
doing full duty during the year, in circu- 
lating from one company to another. 

As the papers of the Association were 
accumulating rapidly, and a safe place 
was required for the protection of tbe per- 
manent books from fire and loss other- 
wise, the cost of a safe was shared equally 
by this and the Street Railway Association 
of the State of New York, costing each 
$37.50. 

In looking back over tbe work of, and 
the advance made by the Association dur- 
ing the year, we are much pleased ; the 
very considerable increase in membership 
being exceedingly gratifying. 

We might add that every request for in- 
formation made at the office of the Asso- 
ciation, whether by a member or not, has 
been answered, and the information freely 
given. 

I OBITUARY. 

We desire, in closing, to express our ap- 
preciation of the loss the Association has 
sustained in the death of our late friend 
and associate, L. Brayton, President of the 
Union Railroad Company of Providence. 
We shall miss his wise counsel and genial 
presence at our meetings. 

We also record the death of Horace B. 
Whitney, the late President of the Harlem 
Bridge, Morrisania and Fordham Railway 
Company of New York City. Since the 
organization of this Association, Mr. 
Whitney had been an invalid, and was, 
therefore, prevented from meeting with us. 
He had, nevertheless, a lively interest, in 
the welfare and success of the Association. 
We will be placed under lasting obligations 
at this meeting for the complete report pre- 
pared on a very important subject by the 
brother of our deceased friend, a director 
in the Company over which his brother 
faithfully presided. 

We mourn the loss of our esteemed 
friend. 



Respectfully submitted, 

(Signed), Wm. H. Hazzard, ") 
' Jas. A. Lake, 
G. B. Kerper, 
D. F. Longstreet, 
H. H. Littell, 
Jno. G. Holmes, 
Julius E. Rugg, 
P. C. Maffitt and 
Jacob Sharp. 



.Executive 
' Committee. 



Mr. Wood worth, of Rochester, moved 
the adoption of the report of the Executive 
Committee. 

Mr. Thurston said : I rise for the purpose 
of inquiring what it is that we are to adopt, 
whether there is any recommendation in 
the report that needs our adoption ? We 
can receive the report, and order it spread 
upon the minutes and printed. If there 
are any recommendations requiring action, 
and which are to be adopted, then we 
should adopt the recommendations. 

Mr. Woodworth said : I merely made the 
motion as indicating that the report meets 
the approval of this meeting. 

The motion was carried. 



Minutes of Meetings of Executive 
Committee. 
Minutes of Special Meeting of the Executive 
Committee, held at the Grand Pacific 
Hotel, Chicago, Wednesday, October 10, 
1883, at 9.40 o'clock, A. M. 

There were present the President and 
Messrs. Hazzard, Cleminshaw, Walsh, Kel- 
per, Longstreet and the Secretary. 

The Secretary presented the following 
estimate of the receipts and expenses of 
the Association for the ensuing year: 

receipts. 

Annual dues of sixty Companies, at $15 8900.00 

Admission fees to twenty Companies, at $25.. 500.00 
Balan-.-e, cash in bank Ho. 1 3 

Total 81,593.13 

EXPENSES. 
Salary of Secretary and Treasurer, including 

clerk hire $1,000.00 

Reporting and printing proceedings of an- 
nual meeting i-Si.(K) 

Sundry printing 150.00 

Postage 80.00 

Incidental expenses, inc tiding stationery.. 15.00 

Total 1,470.00 

Adjourned. 
Minutes of Special Meeting of the Executive 

Committee, held at the Grand Pacific 

Hotel, Chicago, Thursday, October 11, 

1883, at 8.45 o'clock, A. M. 

There were present the President and 
Messrs. Littell. Rugg, Sharp. Longstreet, 
Kerper and the Secretary. 

On motion of Mr. Rugg, it was resolved 
that the Secretary be and he is hereby 
directed to state immediately preceding 
the reports of Committees, in the printed 
report of the minutes of the meeting, that 
the Association assumes no responsibility 
for, or endorses, the reports presented by 
the Committees, and that k the reports are 
published for the purpose of affording 
whatever information they may contain. 

The report of the Committee on Track 
Construction having been referred to the 
Executive Committee, on motion of Mr. 
Longstreet, the report was ordered to be 
printed in full in the minutes. 

Adjourned. 
Minutes of Special meeting of the Executive^ 

Committee, held at the Fifth Avenue 

Hotel, Neio York City, Wednesday, Oc- 
tober 15, 1884, at 9 o'clock, A. M. 

There were present the President and 
Messrs. Lake, Longstreet, Rugg, Littell, 
Kerper, Cleminshaw, Holmes and the 
Secretary. 

The minutes of Special Meetings, held in 
Chicago, October 9th, 10th and 11th, 1883, 
were read and approved. 

The proposed report of the Executive 
Committee was read. 

On motion of Mr. Longstreet, the re- 
port was adopted. 

A letter to the Committee from the 
American Railroad Journal, proposing that 
it be recognized as the official organ of the 
Association, was read. 

Mr. Kerper moved that as there are 
several, and will, probably, be more rail- 
road papers that devote more or less space 
to street railway interests, that the Com- 
mittee recommend to the Association that 
it does not consider it advisable to endorse 
any paper as its official organ, for the rea- 
son that such action would, at least, seem 



72 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Febexjaet, 1885. 



to be invidious, and will certainly tend to 
deter other papers from the consideration 
of the interests of street railways, while 
the possible advantage to be gained by the 
action proposed would be more than offset 
by the evident disadvantage resulting 
therefrom. 

The motion was unanimously adopted. 

The question of the admission of any 
other person than the representative of a 
street railway to the meeting was discussed. 
The Secretary stated that in consequence of 
the expression of judgment on the part of 
members of the Committee, no notice had 
been sent to anyone except the representa- 
tives of street railways in America. It was 
further stated that the American Railroad 
Journal and the American Journal of Rail- 
way Appliances (whose business is the ad- 
vancement of railroad interests), had pro- 
posed to be represented at the meeting, and 
had agreed that they would publish only 
those parts of the proceedings that would 
be approved by the Committee. It was the 
judgment of the Committee that these 
papers should be allowed representation on 
the basis proposed. 

As to supply-men, inventors and others, 
it was the Committee"s judgment that they 
should be admitted if there be sufficient 
room ; but that they be allowed no part in 
the discussion, unless by unanimous con- 
sent. 

The report of the Treasurer was presented, 
and, on motion, the President was au- 
thorized to certify to its approval on behalf 
of the Committee. 

On motion, adjourned. 
Minutes of Special Meeting of the Executive 

Committee, held at the Fifth Avenue 

Hotel, N. Y., Friday, October 17, 1884, at 

2 o'clock, P.M. 

There were present the President, Mr. 
"Walsh and the Secretary. 

The following list of Committees was de- 
cided upon for the next annual meeting: 

Repairs of Track. 

Progress of Electricity as a Motive Power. 

Progress of the Cable System of Motive 
Power. 

Ventilation, Lighting and Care of Cars. 

Taxation and License. 

Diseases Common to Car Horses and their 
Treatment. 

Rules Governing Conductors and Drivers. 

Adjourned. 

W. J. Richardson, 

Secretary. 

The report of the Treasurer was read, 
showing a balance of $1,933.13 in bank. 
(To be continued.) 



The Car Driver's Lament. 

It's not so pleasant as it may seem, 

To act all day as charioteer 
Of a bumping car with a spavined team, 
In weather wet and weather clear : 
To turn the brake ; 
The lines to jog ; 
With cold to quake, 
Or choke with fog, 
Or swelter and sweat 'neath the "raging 
Dog ! " * 

* Poetical license ($1,0C0 per annum) for Sirius, or 
the "Dog-Star." 



Ah, well for the happy crowd inside — 
The host of fortunate passenjares — 
Lulled half to sleep by the rocking ride, 
Till life forgets its car king cares : 
I turn the brake ; 
The lines I jog ; 
With cold I quake, 
Or choke with fog, 
Or swelter and sweat 'neath the "raging 
Dog ! " 

Ah, well for the lucky conductare, 
Who stretches his legs and "feels his 
oats ; " 
Who smiles on the ladies young and fair, 
And bows to the " nobs " in their broad- 
cloth coats : 
I turn the brake : 
The lines I jog ; 
With cold I quake, 
Or choke with fog, 
Or swelter and sweat 'neath the ' ' raging 
Dog ! " 

The homeliest never looks at me ; 
On wealth and style I must turn my 
back ; 
And for "knocking down" an occasional 
« V" 
I've never a chance, and the " Con.' 
won't " whack : " 
I turn the brake ; 
The lines I jog ; 
With cold I quake, 
Or choke with fog, 
Or swelter and sweat 'neath the "raging 
Dog ! " 

Some day, in a happier clime than this, 
I may wear with pride th' official cap : 
So I drive, and dream of that day of bliss, 
When I shall "drop" on to a downy 
" snap : " 
Still I turn the brake ; 

The lines I jog ; 
With cold I quake, 
Or choke with fog, 
Or swelter and sweat 'neath the "raging 
Dog ! " 

Jehu. 



Record of a Remarkable Horse. 

Editors Street Railway Jo cjrnal : — 

Permit me, on behalf of Mr. J. D. Han- 
aur, Foreman of the Larrabee Street stable, 
North Chicago City Railway, Chicago, 111., 
to present you with the accompanying 
photograph of "Old Crooked Tail," a re- 
markable horse ! 

On March 15th, 1863, Mr. F. Mar wood, a 
farmer of Cook County, Illinois, brought to 
Chicago a five year old gelding, and sold 
him to the North Chicago City Railway. 
The animal was at once put to work in 
drawing the company's cars, and continued 
in regular service until a recent date. He 
is now an "extra," and makes one regular 
trip of 6£ miles daily, with other trips, as 
required. So far as I can ascertain, he has 
" never lost a day" from any cause during 
this long-continued service ! Our horses 
work seven days in the week, and Mr. F. 
P. Roach, of our office, calculates that this 
horse has during 8,545 days since he en- 
tered our service, traveled 17,090 round 
trips, or 102,540 miles, as a minimum, dur- 
ing the twenty-one years, five months past. 



Age has not dimmed his eye ! His head is 
as erect and he is as full of fire as many a 
colt ! He is to-day sound in every respect, 
and without blemish — a bright bay, with 
black mane and tail, white face, sixteen 
hands high, weighing about 1,100 pounds. 

When you consider, Messrs. Editors, 
that the average railroad life of street car 
horses is from three to four years, when 
they give out and have to be placed in 
other service, the performance of this re- 
markable horse stands forth in unequaled 
prominence, and I question if his record 
has ever been excelled among the many 
thousands of our equine assistants, who 
day by day, under the summer's broiling 
sun, or in the winter's biting cold, in times 
of rain or times of draught, do their part 
in the efforts of the street railways to pro- 
vide the daily transportation, upon the 
regularity of which innumerable multi- 
tudes of the human race depend. 

In an address to young men, Prof. Huxley 
said : ' ' No life is wasted unless it ends in 
sloth, dishonesty or cowardice. No success 
is worthy of the name unless it is won by 
honest industry. * * *" This old horse has 
done his duty well, and, measured by the 
above rule, has achieved success. If there 
be a future resting place, where good horses 
go, he shall have his reward ! 

If any of your subscribers know of an- 
other street car horse anywhere who can 
beat this record, let them " trot him out." 
Respectfully, 
Augustine W. Wright. 



Boston Street Railways in 1884. 

The comparative statement of the several 
street railways of Boston for the year end- 
ing Sept. 30th, 1884, shows the average 
receipts per mile run have been as follows : 

Middlesex Railroad 34 96-100 cents. 

Cambridge Railroad 27 61-100 " 

Lynn and Boston Railroad. 32 64-100 " 

South Boston Railroad 32 25-100 " 

Metropolitan Railroad 28 95-100 " 

Highland Railroad 31 5-100 " 

Charles River Railroad ... . 22 54-100 " 

The average expenses per mile run have 
been as follows : 

Middlesex Railroad 26 48-100 cents. 

Cambridge Railroad 23 21-100 " 

Lynn and Boston Railroad. 28 29-1C0 " 
South Boston Railroad. ... 26 55-100 " 
Metropolitan Railroad .... 23 44-100 " 

Highland Railroad 25 39-100 " 

Charles River Railroad 21 58-100 " 

The average number of passengers per 
round trip has been as follows : 

Middlesex Railroad 45 

Cambridge Railroad 42 

Lynn and Boston Railroad 50 

South Boston Railroad 40 

Metropolitan Railroad 38 

Highland Railroad 43 

Charles River Railroad 33 



— Car horses wear out sooner than omni- 
bus horses — for although the brakes save 
the former from the severe strain in stop- 
ping this is outweighed by the severe strain 
they undergo in starting the cars, which 
are so much heavier than the omnibuses. 



February, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



73 



The Refined Mnle. 

Editors Street Railway Journal: — 

In your December number, page 33, 
under the beading of '• Coming Articles," 
you promise, among other things, an article 
On "The Refined Habits of the Louisville 
Street Railway Mule." The few remarks 
that Supt. Littell, of Louisville, made at 
the late meeting of the Street Railway 
Association, a bout the drainage of stable and 
the reference to the mules, etc., set those 
present to thinking, and afforded them a 
good deal of amusement, which was evi- 
denced by nearly every one at the banquet, 
who had anything to say, going for our 
genial frienu in a pleasant way. 

Now, as all have had their fun out of this 
matter, I greatly hope you will prepare 
your article, not from what was said about 
Louisville mules alone, but in\ estigate the 
matter and get some information on the 
gubject. Mr. Littell stated nothing but 
facts; und if what is done in the South was 
put into practice in the hot, close, badly 
ventilated barns in New York, Boston, 
Cincinnati and other places, there would 
be less disease, better health and fewer 
blind animals. 

The subject is not one to be ridiculed, 
but is of great importance and worthy of 
sober thought, and if you will think over 
the matter, personally examine some of 
the New York Railway Co.'s bains and in- 
hale the strong fumes of ammonia impreg- 
nating the entire building (including the 
hayandgiain), you will, IthinK, prepare an 
article on tnis subject that will lay the 
foundation for doing more good to the horse 
and mule than has been done by Bergh. 

Philequus. 
Cincinnati, January 20. 

[Some years ago, when our occupation 
took us into fire engine houses, we "hap- 
pened into" an engine house in the 
outskirts of the city of Newark, New 
Jersey, and there learned that the horse 
could be taught cleanliness, decency and 
punctuality, as readily as the average 
numan being could. The engine house was 
one of those in which the horses stand in 
the same room that serves for engine house 
and for sitting-room for the men ; and the 
latter, not relishing the perfumes of Araby 
the blest, which were wafted from the 
stalls, and no more relishing the necessity 
of frequent polishing of bright work, caused 
by the emanations, got the idea that if a cat 
or a dog could learn neatness of habit and 
acquire regularity of excretive functions, 
the horse — particularly the '"fire-horse'' — 
could get up to a civilized and sweetly- 
smelling plane. So the first time that a 
horse commenced to violate the, to him, un- 
known proprieties, whether his intended 
offering at the altar of carelessness was 
solid or a libation — he was soundly pad- 
dled with a "cob "made of %-inch board 
neatly ornamented, as to its business end, 
with inch auger-holes. He was then led 
into the yard and left a moment. The in- 
stinct which led him to save himself trouble 
gradually faded away in the dawning light 
of that reason which associated former 
habits with new, vigorous, and decidedly 
unpleasant sensations. Under a patient 
tutelage which acted at once upon his rea- 



soning powers and upon his sensory nerves, 
the noble brute gradually learned to exer- 
cise his reasoning powers— and control his 
sphincter muscles. Thus punctuality and 
propriety, delicacy and discipline joined 
hands; and there was joy in Newark — but 
no free ammonia in that engine-house. 
When we were there — in 1873 or 1874 — the 
horses got their noon signals by electricity 
from head-quarters, a mile or so away; — 
their halters were released by the same cur- 
rent that caused the gODg to strike— they 
left the clean stalls, excused themselves for 
a moment, and came back thanking their 
stars they were not as other nags were. In 
our wanderings we us^d to recount that 
triumph of matter, in the shape of a per- 
forated board, over mind as developed in 
the brain of the Newark fire-horse: but we 
found that we were gaining an unenvi- 
able reputation as a disseminator of fairy 
stories, and we laid the history upon the 
dusty side of oblivion's topmost shelf. We 
never thought for corroboration and vin- 
dication out of the Blue Grass district. We 
little dreamed that in that land of beautiful 
women (and such whiskey !), and in the re- 
viled person of a street-car mule, there was 
a silent force at work, raising that long- 
eared and hard-kicking animal to the level 
of the fire-engine horse, already embalmed 
in verse, — but no longer steeped in uric 
floods. We knew that the mule had quick 
perception — and a hair trigger on each hind 
leg — but in most hopeful moments we never 
thought that the blanket of the Newark 
horse was to descend upon his hybrid shoul- 
ders, and that his ample ears were to be the 
twin banners of education and elegance, in 
the brute kingdom. 

In this matter we are heartily with Mr. 
Littell and with our correspondent, and 
commend the good sense and humanitarian 
spirit which has led to making a car-stable 
mure of a barn and less of a pest-hoase and 
general nuisance.] 



The Texas Mule. 

We are very pleased to be enabled to present 
the ensuing communication from Mr. Bel- 
knap, who is, probably, more competent 
than any one else to speak on this interest- 
ing subject. Mr. Belknap in his accom- 
panying personal note says, that he is in 
constant receipt of inquiries upon the sub- 
ject from companies in the North. This 
article is calculated to forestall many in- 
quiries: 

San Antonio, Feb. 8th, 1885. 
Eds. Street Railway Journal: — 

I notice in the several Journals already 
received, a great amount of information 
about horses as a motive power, etc. It 
has occurred to me as being singular that 
no one has mentioned our Texan-Mexican 
mule in this connection. We that have 
handled them are willing to assert that 
there is no animal better adapted to street 
car service than they are. They are got 
from our native mares (Mexican or Texas 
raised) by American jacks. Their average 
height is from 13 to 14J£ hands. A 14-hand 
mule is the best working size— he is close 
coupled, sound, compact and solid — weighs 
about 800 lbs., and is fully as strong as a 
horse of 15 hands, weighing from 300 to 400 



lbs. more. One of these mules will, with- 
out distress, easily handle a car of 12 or 14 
feet length, containing 60 passengers up a 
grade, and on a level track will strike a 
trot equal to seven or eight miles an hour 
on a Macadamized road and maintain it. 

Their hoofs and legs are a marvel, never 
developing disease in either. With an ex- 
perience of seven years' use of them, have 
had no complaints in this respect. They 
are seldom sick or off their feed. With 125 
head in our stables we have not had a case 
of hoof or leg sickness. They can do 
twenty (20) miles work each day through- 
out the year, without shrinking or showing 
any ill effects. We don't know what a 
hospital department is. In seven years we 
have lost fourteen (14) animals from all 
causes — 8 from accidental causes — 6 from 
effects of Pink-eye or Epizootic. We have 
never sold one of these animals without 
bringing in more money than we paid for 
him. We buy them after passing three 
years of age and break them ourselves, a 
very simple process when understood. We 
consider them good for ten years, after 
which time if they grow fat and lazy, they 
bring good prices for farm and other uses. 
Have never seen but one mule that balked. 
We know they will pull, and pull till 
exhausted. 

We select our mules in an unbroken stat 
from herds passing, payingfrom $75 to $100 
each. In two weeks' time we have them in 
good fix to take their daily work, beginning 
easy and gradually increasing. We make no 
hesitation in giving them twenty miles a 
day if compelled to do so, but as a rule 
confine it to eighteen miles. 

Their feed averages per day, ten pounds 
of grain (oats), and ten to twelve pounds of 
hay. Our mules have none of the sluggish- 
ness of the Kentucky mules; in fact, one of 
our mules' work would kill either a Ken- 
tucky or Missouri mule within a year. 

They require little care — give them oppor- 
tunity to roll twice a week, and they clean 
and rest themselves better than through 
any other process. 

For pluck, endurance, strength, speed, 
agility and health, they astonish every one 
not acquainted with their usefulness. We 
have many mules in our stables that have 
done seven (7) years' work. We intend to 
work them right along, till we see signs of 
failing, in order to arrive at an accurate es- 
timate of length of time they will last in 
the service. From present appearances we 
believe them good for ten (10) years. 

We think if a proper test were given 
these animals in the North, that in a short 
time their advantages would assert them- 
selves, and the horse problem be solved to 
better advantage than through any other 
process. Yours sincerely, 

San Antonio Street Railway Co., 
H. Belknap, President. 



In Explanation. 

Owing to great press of matter we have 
been compelled to defer to our next issue, 
the publication of several interesting arti- 
cles and illustrations : Among others a 
description of the Pryor interchangeable 
horse-shoe, and an illustrated plan of car 
end framing by Mr. W. M. Gabrielson, late 
of the South Side (Chicago) Railway. 



74 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[February, 1885. 



— TH E 



Street Railway 

JOURNAL. 



MONTHLY, $1,00 PER YEAR. 



E/ P. Harris General Manager. 

P. G. Monroe General Western Manager. 

Robert Grimshaw, M. E Editor in Chief. 

G. B. Heckel, Associate Editor. 



American Railway PublishingCo. 

32 LIBERTY ST., NEW YOBK. 

8 LAKESIDE BUILDING, CHICAGO. 
S. L. K. Monroe, Sec'y and Treas. 



BRANCH OFFICES: 

Eastern District, 8 Exchange Place, Boston,Mass. 
H. M. Swetland, Manager. 

Soutli-Eastern District, 419 Walndt St., Phila- 
delphia, Pa. G. B. Heckel, Manager. 

Southern District, 68 Alabama St., Atlanta, Ga. 
E. V. Cavell, Manager. 

South-Western District, 504 Temple Building, 
St. Louis, Mo. W. Rose, Manager. 



Special Notice. 

Street Railway officials and others inter- 
ested, who have not yet subscribed for the 
Street Railway Journal, should do so at 
once, so as to receive the back numbers. An 
index will be printed at the end of the year, 
embracing the first twelve numbers — consti- 
tuting a most valuable fund of information. 
The price (only One Dollar) should place 
it in the hands of every practical street rail- 
way man in the country. 



What is Needed. 

Two things are needed to make the 
Street Railway Journal what it should 
be : (1), news notes and items of interest 
from the roads, and (2), more subscribers. 

In sending news and items, don't stop 
to put them in shape for the printer (we 
can do that), but send in the points. 

Every subscriber received will help to 
make the paper more valuable to all, as 
every dollar thus received will be expended 
in engravings and valuable articles for the 
reader. 



" Manifold " Editorials. 

We frequently have sent to us circular 
descriptions, written out, to accompany 
voluntary sendings of engravings which 
are furnished to several technical and 
trade papers. 

We beg most respectfully to say, that un- 
der no circumstances will we knowingly ac- 
cept for publication any matter which has 
been sent, or will be sent, to any other jour- 
nal. If we accept it, the manuscript and 
copyright are ours, and if used by any other 
journal before we used it, we should act 
just as though the contemporary had got 
hold of and published matter which we had 
bought and paid for, before we had a 
chance to use it. If we published the mat- 
ter first, we should expect that every other 
journal which used it, should credit it to 



us, as we scrupulously do every one of the 
articles which we reproduce from other 
papers. 

In being thus particular we are merely 
living up to our idea of what a good tech- 
nical journal should be, and are looking 
after the interests both of subscribers and 
of advertisers. Our subscribers pay us for 
new and interesting matter. Our adver- 
tisers pay us to carry their advertisements 
to a large number of subscribers who will 
read the paper. 

So we notify the public that all manu- 
script matter sent us for publication will 
be considered as intended for us only, un- 
less the contrary is stated thereon by the 
sender. 



Commissioner O'Donnell and the Street 
Railway Companies. 

The accountant of the Railroad Commis- 
sioners of the State of New York has re- 
cently analyzed the yearly reports of several 
New York street railways, at the instance 
of Mr. Commissioner John J. O'Donnell, 
who has authorized the publication of the 
same, as a sort of minority report. 

The animus of this action by Mr. O'Don- 
nell is in pursuance of the proposition by 
him — which it is understood, however, is 
not favored by the other commissioners — in 
favor of recommending legislative action to 
enforce such a reduction of fares upon cer- 
tain roads as shall cut down their yearly 
dividends to ten per cent, upon their orig- 
inal cost. 

It may serve to enhance the popularity 
of this gentleman with his ' 'patriotic" consti- 
tuents as an "Anti-Monopolist" candidate, 
thus to strike at the street railway compa- 
nies, but we can see no reasonable ground 
for apprehension on the part of the latter. 

Surely no candid mind can make any 
deductions from his array of facts and fig- 
ures, upon which to base a plausible pre- 
text for asking such legislative interference 
with the railway companies as he sug- 
gests. 

None of the exceptionally prosperous 
companies pay over fourteen per cent, in 
annual dividend ; the majority pay but 
very small dividends, while many others 
pay nothing at all (as, for instance, the 
Second Avenue Railway of New York City, 
which for eighteen years paid no dividend 
whatever). 

By Mr. O'Donneli's own showing, the 
most prosperous company he cites cannot 
reduce its fares one cent, and yield a ten 
per cent, yearly dividend, after paying 
expenses. 

Stockholders in street railway companies 
embrace all classes, many of them relying 
on their dividends for support. Enterprise 
and wise management are as essential to 
success in the street railway business as in 
any other, and we can see no fairness in 
legislative enactments which discriminate 
against such companies because they are 
successful. 

We hope and believe that further move- 
ment in this direction will be thought in- 
expedient by the Board of Railroad Com- 
missioners, and that Mr. O'Donneli's sug- 
gestions will be speedily pigeon-holed and 
forgotten. G. 



Cheap Fares. 

Apropos of the contemplated reduction 
of fares by the New York Railway Commis- 
sion, Mr. Richardson, President of the At- 
lantic Avenue Line, Brooklyn, claims that 
it is actually cheaper to pay five cents for a 
six-mile ride in one of his cars, than to pay 
the shoemaker — to say nothing of the sav- 
ings of time, strength and energy. He also 
avers that street car riding is the cheapest 
commodity in the market. 



Independent Wheels. 

With the coming year, the JOURNAL OF 
Railway Appliances intends to continue 
its discussions and criticisms on what it 
considers faulty methods and structures in 
rail-roading. Perhaps the most vicious 
and discreditable' thing that retards railway 
progress and reduces railway dividends is 
the rigid axle. 

If you were to go to Thibet, or Abyssinia, 
and see a half naked native making or using 
a two-wheeled cart, having both wheels 
fast to the axle, you would either laugh at 
him, or try to teach him better. 

If that same savage were to carry out 
your practical hintas to the advantages of 
independent wheels on single-axle vehicles, 
and were to study the reason, and then 
come over here and see one of our trucks 
hawing two and even three parallel axles, 
incapable of radiating, and each having 
" rigid " wheels, he would probably think 
that we had called attention to the mote in 
his mechanical eye, without knowing or 
caring for the beam in our own. 

Just how many millions of rigid axles 
are grunting out criticisms upon our lack 
of knowledge or our indifference to com- 
mon sense in this matter, we cannot say, 
not having the figures at hand. But there 
are enough rigid wheels skidding and 
enough more slipping, while you read 
these lines, to make a good fortune if you 
had a dollar apiece for them. 

Independent wheels haul easier on 
curves, ride smoother, take less lubricant, 
are easier on brasses, and give better 
mileage than " rigid " wheels. 

We do not say that a perfect independent 
car wheel has been either tried or invented. 
We do not think that it has. We do know 
that th e saving in fuel, lubricant, bearing 
metal, wheels and rails, and the increase 
in passenger traffic, due to increased com- 
fort and quiet, would make it pay any 
railroad to discard every rigid wheel to- 
day in use, and replace it with a good inde- 
pendent wheel. 

This is not written in any private in- 
terest, nor with any particular independent 
wheel in view. It is simply to call attention 
to a cold fact. 



Failing ol Vaimsh. 



There are many subjects in connection 
with car painting, on which car painters 
need considerable enlightenment; as for in- 
stance, the questions of cracking, peeling, 
and perishing. There is not so much 
trouble in assigning the causes of these 
three modes of disappearance of varnish; 
they are sun, rain, cold, air, and friction; 
and there is not much chance for lessening 
the causes themselves; but knowledge, skill 
and experience may enable the lessening of 
the effects, and it is to the interest of all 
varnish makers and varnish users that 
knowledge of all the means by which the 
effects can be lessened, shall be dissemi- 
nated, and notes compared. 

We should be glad to hear from practical 
men on this subject, more particularly as 
to " powdering" caused by the evaporation 
of water from the surface of the varnish, 
resulting in the gum separating from the 
varnish. 



Febeuaby, 1885. j 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



75 



Beating the Conductor. 

A sharp Milwaukee Avenue (Chicago) 
street car conductor has been unburdening 
his soul to a local reporter on the subject of 
"beats." 

He estimates the company's Joss through 
this means, as about 10;/. " Every one," 
said he, "is bent on beating us, especially 
the women, some of 'em will come into 
a car with four or five children whom they 
scatter around promiscuously among the 
other passengers, and when I go in to 
collect the fares the mother, who has 
been looking out the window, starts up 
surprised, and after keeping me waiting 
about five minutes will pull out five cents 
and declare that she has no children with 
her except ' my little 2-year-old Johnny 
here.' 

" A man is always nervous when he plays 
one of those tricks, and I can spot him 
every time. He'll always keep a quarter or 
a half-dollar in his hand, too, so that he can 
crawl out by saying he forgot the children. 
When a man gets on and I can't spot him 
as soon as I go in for fares, I walk along the 
car slowly and look hard at all of 'em. The 
average man will weaken at this and reach 
for his ticket or nickel. But with the 
tough customers this scheme don't work as 
well. When they are on board I go out 
and speak to the driver. He looks around 
hard at the passengers and I look at the 
same time, and then nod to him as if I had 
spotted the man. It makes him so fidgety 
and red that I can spot him then. But 
nothing of that kind affects a woman. One 
of 'em will look daggers at a man, who may 
have two children and a lap full of bundles 
with him, if he don't get up and give her 
his seat in the car, but when she gets on a 
crowded seat she won't even pull in her 
skirts to make room for a tired shop-girl or 
tired mother who holds to a strap with one 
arm and has a fretful child in the other." 



Car Starters to the Front, 

The Dutch Society for the Promotion of 
Local Rail and Tramways offers a prize of 
300 guilders for the best means of reducing 
and diminishing the pull and strain upon 
the horses in bringing the tram-cars into 
motion and to their normal speed, either 
by utilizing and turning to account the 
force wasted by frequent application of 
the brakes, or by any other contrivance 
answering the same purpose. The ap- 
paratus must be so constructed as to allow 
of its being used in both directions, when 
the car is in motion. Clear and distinct 
duplicate drawings or models — the latter 
are preferred — must be sent in franco 
on or before July 1st, 1885, to the Secretary 
of the Society, Balistraat 2b, the Hague, 
and must be provided with a mark or 
symbol. The name and address of the 
sender must be enclosed in a sealed letter, 
with the same indications on it for identifi- 
cation. The letters containing the name 
or names of the sender or senders of these 
plans will be opened by the directors of the 
Society, and the projector or projectors 
will be requested to produce at their own 
expense and cost their apparatus, in such 



statistics as to the number of passengers 
a manner as to allow of its being applied 
to one of the tram-cars of the Amsterdam 
Omnibus Company, before April 1st, 1886. 
After each apparatus has been in use and 
practically tried on such a car for one month, 
the jury will make its award, which must 
be published before August 1st, 1886. The 
apparatus will remain the property of the 
inventors, who are at perfect liberty, if 
they choose, to take out patents for them. 
The managers of the Society may come to 
an agre sment with the inventor of the prize 
apparatus as to the compensation to be 
granted, should the apparatus be used on 
the lines of members of the society. The 
drawings and models to which no prizes 
have been awarded will be kept secret, and 
forwarded to the addresses given by the 
senders. 



Bob Tail Cars. 



We take the following from the N. Y. 
Tribune : 

'■ ' A Brooklyn Judge has decided that the 
'bob-tail' car must be provided with a 
conductor. The Common Council, some 
time ago, passed an ordinance to that effect, 
but it has never been enforced. One of the 
companies that indulges in ' bob-tails ' 
made a test case, and the Court holds that 
the ordinance is valid. The public will 
view this result with diverse feelings. 
There is no denying that from some points 
of view the ' bob-tail ' is a nuisance ; but 
at the same time a ' bob-tail ' car is much 
better than no car at all. If the companies 
have to employ conductors as well as 
drivers, it is inevitable that they will run 
fewer cars and at longer intervals. Con- 
sequently, while passengers will gain in 
safety and convenience, they will lose in 
waiting on street corners. The use of the 
one-horse conductorless car is by no means 
general in Brooklyn ; they are used on but 
few roads, which run for longer or shorter 
distances through sparsely-settled neigh- 
borhoods." 

With all due respect to the decision 
above rendered, we cannot help thinking 
of a statement made by one of Dickens's 
characters, we forget whom — "the law is 
an ass." The average bob-tail car is a 
nuisance, but why is it more of a nuisance 
and why is it more in need of special legis- 
lation than a Broadway stage on this side 
of the river, or a Montague Street ' ' bus " on 
the Brooklyn side. 



Fare Collection. 



ATTENTION, INVENTORS ! 

The Dutch Society for the Promotion of 
Local Rail and Tramways publishes the 
offer of a prize for the best answer to the 
following requirements: — A good system 
for control of the passenger conveyance by 
tram. In judging of the answers, the fol- 
lowing points will be taken into considera- 
tion: (1) The system must be simple and 
not too costly in practice. (2) It must 
cause as little trouble as possible to the 
passengers and a minimum of delay. (3) 
Frauds on the part of the public and on the 
part of the guards must be reduced to a 



minimum. (4) It must afford complete 
conveyed and the distance traveled over 
by them. Existing systems may also com- 
pete. Specimens of the tickets and the 
other papers, etc., requisite for a due 
control must be sent in. The answers must 
be sent in not later than July 1st, 1885, free 
to the secretary of the above-mentioned 
Society, Balistraat, No. 2b, the Hague. The 
answers may be written in the Dutch, 
French, German, or English languages, 
sparing the half of each side of the leaf — 
folio — but not in the author's own handwrit- 
ing. The contributions may not be signed by 
the author himself, but must be identified 
by another name, by a proverb or some 
other symbol. The same symbol must 
appear on the sealed letter accompanying 
the answer, which letter must contain the 
name and address of the competitor. If 
no prize is awarded, the above-mentioned 
letter will be destroyed unopened six 
months after the jury has made its award ; 
the sender may demand the return of his 
answer on indicating the symbol used by 
him, and that within six months. The 
prize answer, as well as those not claimed 
within the above-mentioned limit of time, 
will remain the property of the Society. 
The answer accepted by the jury will re- 
ceive a prize of 300 guilders. If the jury 
consider that none of the prizes submitted 
to them are deserving of the prize, the 
Society may, if it thinks fit, divide the 300 
guilders among those who have sent in the 
best answers. 

There are enough devices in use and pre- 
pared in this country to warrant a large 
representation from America ; whether or 
not it will be made, deponent saith not, 
not knowing. It is our impression that no 
one device in use in this country completely 
fills the bill — but then the questions asked 
by the Dutch Society do not fill the bill, 
either. 



To Car Builders. 



Suppose each car builder lets us have a 
memorandum of each " kink" or improve- 
ment in car designs or construction, that 
he brings out, and we will give it publicity. 
The progressive designer and builder need 
never be afraid of giving points away to 
his rivals. They will nearly always sneer 
at them at first, before adopting them: and 
as the progressive builder starts ahead of 
the " moss-backs " and runs faster, he need 
have no fear of "getting left" in life's 

race. 

*-+-* 

— Passenger street cars were first used in 
cities in the United States as early as 1840. 
Their introduction was at first very bitterly 
opposed by the omnibus lines and by prop- 
erty holders as well as owners of vehicles 
who claimed that the rails tore off their 
wheels and obstructed general traffic. 

— The London horse car, which runs 
about 70 miles per day, usually requires 
ten horses each; thus each horse has 14 
miles of work; but to maintain this service 
11 horses are provided, to allow for occa- 
sional rest. But where the cars are light 
and the gradient very favorable horses are 
worked 16, 18, and even 20 miles a day. 



76 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[February, 1885. 



Car Keating' in Chicago. 

The following:, from our own corres- 
pondent, will be found interesting. In 
connection therewith, our correspondent 
notes as follows : 

"At the meeting of the Committee on 
Railwa3 7 s it was agreed that the ordinance 
introduced by Aid. Young should be re- 
ported upon favorably, which was done at 
the Council meeting on Monday evening. 
Aid. Young then moved a suspension of 
the rules, that the bill might be taken up. 
The motion was lost, and the bill deferred. 

The ordinance referred to, in substance, 
orders that from November to March the 
temperature of the Chicago city street cars 
shall be kept at a comfortable point." 

[The tabling of this ordinance has a very 
" jobby" and " lobby : ' look. — Eds.] 

On January 2d, a meeting of the Chicago 
City Council Committee was held, at which 
Mr. Winston read an ordinance about 
heating street cars. 

The chairman seeing Mr. C. B. Holmes, 
Superintendent of the Chicago City Rail- 
way Co., present, called upon him person- 
ally to know if he had anything to say 
touching the matter. 

Mr. Holmes spoke in substance as fol- 
lows : 

The Chicago City Railway Company is 
desirous of heating its cars if a satisfactory 
device can be found. If it could be done 
it would largely increase our revenue. I 
have here between 25 and 30 descriptions 
of an many different methods of heating 
cars. In 18751 commenced making experi- 
ments with a view of finding some means 
which would not be open to the objections 
which prevail and obtain against most 
heaters. On our outside lines running out 
in the town of Lake and Hyde Park we are 
now, and always have heated our cars with 
stoves placed in the middle. 

That answers the purpose reasonably 
well in that quarter, for it is an open 
prairie, and the car doors are opened but a 
very few times after the car leaves the 
terminus. The passengers ride from one 
end to the other as a rule, and it is com- 
paratively easy to keep the cars warm with 
an ordinary small stove. In the city, the 
cars are necessarily more crowded, and 
when the car arrives in that portion of the 
city where the buildings are three to seven 
stories, the wind swills down between the 
building and street intersections, and as the 
door has to be opened frequently, it causes 
a down current through the smoke-pipe, 
and the gas or the ashes from the stove 
penetrate all parts of the car. The gas from 
burning hard coal is not only obnoxious but 
poisonous. 

One of our first experiments in the way of 
heating was with a hot cannon ball. We heat- 
ed it to a white heat and placed it in an iron 
case with non-conducting material placed 
between, and the register at the top. There 
was no difficulty in heating the cars and of re- 
taining the heat for the time it took to make 
the round trip ; but the effect on the air in 
the car seemed to be to burn out the oxygen, 
and destroy the vitality of the air. It did not 
bring in fresh, warm air, but destroyed the 
virtue of the air that was in the car. 



We also tried heating cars by lime in a 
metal casing, and slacked as the car was 
passing along, and that gave out quite an 
amount of heat but it could not be regulat- 
ed. It gave out more than was necessary 
on a not very cold day, and a less amount 
on a cold day. We arranged at one time 
for the right to use a beater beneath the 
car, and the Board of Directors passed a 
resolution authorizing the heating of the 
cars, but after making patterns and trying 
some six or eight cars with the heater 
attached, it utterly failed and was aban- 
doned. We have tried heating cars with 
naptha, but the odor was so disagreeable 
that it was impossible to stay in the car 
with the heater in operation. 

We tried another heater that burned ker- 
osene oil, and attempted to burn it into gas 
at the point of combustion, but we found 
that there were fatal objections to that. 
The company of itself, and the parties who 
have brought us heaters, and which we have 
tried, have spent altogether between $2,500 
and $3,000 in experiments. 
We have watched with a good deal of 
1 interest the experiments made in New York 
J and Brooklyn with a heater composed of 
j pipes with chemicals into which steam 
is injected at the end of the route. The 
experiment so far as carried was three 
years ago quite unsatisfactory. Last winter 
it failed to give satisfaction, but this winter 
improvements have been made on it and 
better results obtained ; but on a very cold 
day, when heat is needed the most, it fails 
to accomplish the object. To describe every 
one of the large number of experiments that 
have been made would consume hours. 
The company which I represent is now ex- 
perimenting with some recently invented 
devices, with which we hope succeed in pro- 
ducing the desired result. The stove in- 
vented by Mr. Herr, and which he urges 
the companies to use, contains many 
desirable features, but is still open to the 
same objections which obtain agiinst all 
stoves — namely, the filling of the car with 
gas at times, and the inability to regulate 
it to the extent that is necessary; and in 
making one part of the car too warm and 
the rest of the car not warm enough, mak- 
ing it very unpleasant to those near the 
stove, and not giving the desired benefit to 
those further away. At one time the North 
Chicago Railway Company had all its cars 
heated with stoves, but was obliged, under 
the pressure of public sentiment, to take 
them out, as they proved so objectionable. 
The Committee then called upon Mr. 
Lake, Superintendent of the Chicago West 
Division Railway Company, who corrobo- 
rated what had been said by the previous 
speaker, and stated that his company was 
perfectly willing to adopt any device which 
should be proved to be of real benefit in the 
case. There were so many objections exist- 
ing against anything he had yet seen, that 
he had been waiting, and still was waiting 
for something to be invented which would 
meet the case. 

The Committee then voted to adjourn for 
two weeks to see what result, if any, should 
be attained by further experiments. 

[In commenting upon Mr. Holmes's 
remarks concerning the hot cannon ball, 
we wish to enter our most decided pro- 



test against +he assertion that a red-hot 
cannon ball, or a white-hot cannon ball, or 
or any other red-hot or white-hot man of 
iron, ' ' burns out the oxygen and destroys 
the vitality of the air." For oxygen to be 
burned out of the air, necessitates that the 
iron be changed into oxide Of iron, or iron 
rust ; and such rusting or oxidizing of a 
pound of iron would consume many days, 
and use up very few pounds of oxygen. A 
coal stove does use up the oxygen of the 
air, and in this respect would be much 
worse than the hot ball. But for all that, 
the air thus vitiated in the stove should be 
passed out and up the chimney ; the car^ 
bonic acid and carbonic oxide formed by 
the oxidation of the carbon in the coal, not 
returning into the car. If there is proper 
draft up the chimney, there must be a 
hundred cubic feet of fresh air drawn into 
the car for every hundred cubic feet 
vitiated and passed up the chimney ; so 
that where the chimney draws up and can- 
not draw down, a stove is a purifier of the 
air and a ventilating device in the car. But 
a hot cannon ball destroys less oxygen than 
a stove of the same degree of temperature. 
If proper px-ovision was made for adding 
moisture to the air when it was heated, 
there would be much less discomfort from 
hot stoves or hot cannon balls. 

As regards the down drafts backing up 
on the stove : — that cou'd be prevented by 
proper swiveling cowles upon the tops of 
the stove pipes. A street car, particularly 
if running, is no harder to get up a draft 
in, than many a shanty wedged up against 
the side of a tall factory building. 

As to the question of heat or no heat 
for street cars ; while heating may be of 
doubtful expediency in some places, we can 
testify from agonizing experience, to the 
fearful necessity for increased comfort in the 
street cars of Chicago, during cold weather. 
Some years since we lived in Chicago, fa r 
up towards Lincoln Park, and later, on the 
West Side, out towards Western Avenue. 
Coming in or going out, on cold days, was 
positive torture, and every business man 
living in the outskirts (and the residence 
portions of Chicago are nearly all in the 
outskirts), would bless the street railway 
companies for the accession of comfort and 
abatement of peril from pneumonia, which 
could be attained by heating their cars. — 

Eds.] 

■* ■ «■ 

Electric Railways. 

Dr. N. Adams, of St. Louis, in a paper 
before the Engineers' Club of that city, 
presented the claims of electric transmis- 
sion as a motive power for railways. The 
motive power does not need to be hauled 
over the road. [This advantage is shared 
by the cable system.] The efficiency claimed 
is 60 to 65 per cent ; and it was stated that 
the Chicago Cable Railway gave only 19 
percent, below the results of most unfavor- 
able electric experiments. Dr. A. proposed 
to use small wheels and put the armature 
of the " dynamo " on one of the main axles 

of the car. 

■»■ *- 

— Among engineers and others qualified 
to judge, there seems to be a tacit under- 
standing that some other method of trac- 
tion will soon supplant that of horses, and 
that the cost of such service may be reduced 
at least half from its present rate. 



February, 1885. J 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



it 



Comments. 

— Some day, the festive parlor match and 
the joyous salt hay will cement their mar- 
riage, and there will be roast passenger to 
grace the wedding board. 

— There are two people (whether a pair of 
lovers or a married couple we are unable 
to say) who make passengers on the Third 
Avenue Line, Brooklyn, sick at their 
stomachs, and drive them out of the car to 
take ref age on the hind platform, where 
they would sooner face the cold blasts of 
Boreas, than the warm sighs of the other 
fellow. A considerate conductor would 
turn down the lights, instead of permitting 
the fond dalliances to be made a public 
show. Some day our esteemed friend, A. 
Comstock, Esq., will lun the conductor in 
for keeping a disorderly house. 

— Is your line one of those on which one 
can estimate the distance traveled by the 
number of back teeth knocked out';' A 
molar to the mile is the average on some 
lines. 

— The woman who sits cat-a-cornered 
and lets a mother with a babe in her arms 
stand, may almost give place to the dudine 
who accepts your seat, and then when there 
is a vacancy made alongside of her, beckons 
her dudelet to take the seat. Swine take 
care of a swain, it seemeth. 

— There are, on some lines, plenty of ham 
pering regulations as to carrying packages, 
etc., and these very same lines will let pas- 
sengers accumulate reservoirs of tobacco- 
juice, phlegm, and other nastmesses be- 
tween the bars of the wood-mats. 

— J have taken considerable time and 
trouble to analyze the atmosphere of one 
of our east and west (Philadelphia) lines, 
and send you the result for comparison: 

PARTS. 

Cyano- Hydrate of Old Rye 8.6 

Nitrogen-Dioxide or Laughing Gas ... 17.3 
Amido-dichlorophenolanide of Erin. . .371.0 

Trithionate of Conductor 9.4 

Hyposulphide of Old Cushions 3.1 

Artho-Nitroprophylate of ' ' Venerable 

Hay" 109.4 

Sulpho-Hydride of Stale Tobacco Juice 78.7 

Hydro-Carbonate of " Tough" 231.1 

Oxygen and Nitrogen Traces. 

Carbo Bisulphide of Mule 176.3 

Total 1000.0 

— We know a conductor who glares at 
the audacious passenger who dares to hand 
him five cents all in coppers. 



Fare Collection. 

Ed. Street Railway Journal: — 

We have tried almost all the methods 
offered to get all the fares in, and think 
that while the Slawson Box is in many ways 
unpopular and unsatisfactory, it pays be- 
cause it does away with the expense of the 
conductor's wages and stealings. W. 

North-west. 
[We have several more letters on the sub- 
ject, and hope to give them in our next 
issue. Eds. 



Personal. 

— Leander C. Brown, son of Superin- 
tendent J. E. Brown, of the Troy & Lans- 
singburg Railroad, has been appointed I 
Assistant Superintendent of that road. 

— D. W. Pugh, of the John Stephenson 
Co., has gone to the New Orleans Expo- 
sition. John Thackaberry, Superintendent 
of the same company, has returned from 
the Exposition. 

— H. C. Simpson, Secretary of the Lewis 
& Fowler Manufacturing Co., is about 
starting on a Western trip, which has been 
deferred for some weeks. 

— Col. W. S. G. Baker, Superintendent 
Baltimore Car Wheel Works, is, we hear, 
at work on a new car box and bearing. 

— J. G. Brill & Co., who were shut down 
some days recently, have started up again, 
"with" (as one of the firm expressed it) 
" considerably more work, and abetter out- 
look than when we stopped." 

— Michael Feigel, of the Feigel Car 
Works (the son in the late firm of M. Feigel 
& Son), is dead. He had lately returned from 
an extended trip west for his health, re- 
turning via New Orleans. 

— Jos. G. Spear, of Minneapolis, and 
Thomas Lowry, of Pittsburg, and their 
wives, are in New Orleans. 

— D. J. Miller, Chief Engineer of the 
Tenth Avenue (N. Y.) Cable Road, is about 
to build another cable road in Sydney, 
Australia. 

— Abram Lent Smith has resigned the 
Superintendency of the Dry Dock, East 
Broadway & Battery R.R., to accept the 
position of General Manager and Superin- 
tendent of the 42d Street, Manhattanville 
& St. Nicholas Avenue R.R. 



Notes. 

— The Jones Car Works, West Troy, are 
building ten cars for the Rochester City 
(N. Y.,) & Brighton R. R.; 16 for the 
Detroit (Mich.,) Ry. Co., and five for the 
Charles River Railway Co., of Boston, all 
of which are equipped with Lewis & 
Fowler's Randall gear. 

— W. P. Craig, of New York, is to build a 
road at Saratoga, N. Y., as soon as the 
weather permits. 

— The Railway Register Mfg. Co., Buf- 
falo, has recently sent 50 of their portable 
machines, or " Beer Punches," to the Mel- 
bourne Omnibus & Tramway Co., of Mel- 
bourne, Australia. 

— -Andrews and Clooney have just filled 
a large order for wheels for the Botanical 
Garden Railway Co., of Rio Janeiro, and 
also a large order for Buenos Ayres. 

— Jessup&Co., dealers in railroad spikes, 
have secured an order for furnishing all 
the materials, rails included, for a new 
road in this vicinity, at prices said to be 
lower than could be obtained from first 
hands. 

— M. M. White & Co., of New York, have 
recently placed their switches on the fol- 
lowing roads : Brooklyn City; Atlantic 
Avenue (Brooklyn); Brooklyn Cross-town; 
Broadway (N. Y.) and Seventh Avenue : 



Dry Dock, 42d Street, Manhattanville and 
St. Nicholas Avenue; Union (Providence), 
Highland Street (Boston); Orange and New- 
ark, N. J. ; Hartford and Weathersfield , be- 
sides various others. 

— At the works of the John Stevenson 
Co., N. Y. , we notice in process of construc- 
tion nicely fitted cars for theNorlh Chicago 
road, the new First Avenue hue (N. Y.), 
canopy cars for South America, and various 
other orders. 

— The Lewis & Fowler Mfg. Co. has 
closed the contract for equi pping the Charles 
River road iu Boston, with the new L. & F. 
portable register. 

— The Grand Street and Newtown road, 
Brooklyn, will add five new cars, to be 
built by J. G. Brill & Co., Philadelphia. 

— The Buffalo Street Railway, Henry M. 
Watson, President, is adding a number of 
new cars, built by Brill — Bemis box and Vose 
spring. Under the excellent management 
of Col. Watson, this road has shown marked 
improvement during the past few years. 
New timbers and rails have been put in, the 
equipment improved in eveiy way, and the 
financial results brought to a condition 
which should be gratifying to the stock- 
holders and the management. 

— John Stephenson, speaking on the sub- 
ject of car heating and ventilation, expresses 
the opinion that the Nelson heater and per- 
forated ceiling give the most satisfactory 
results among all things yet devised for the 
purposes. The heater mentioned consists of 
a stove under the seat, opening outside the 
car, the stove-pipe running alongunder the 
seat to the corner of the car, thence up. A 
mirror or other tasteful finish may be so 
arranged as to conceal the pipe. 

— The Third Avenue R.R. (N. Y.). having 
tried various systems of heating, has come 
back to ordinary stoves, and its new cable 
cars are fitted in this way. 

— The Third Avenue R.R. Co.'s Tenth 
Avenue cable line will be capable of mov- 
ing thirty to forty thousand people daily. 

— Two new street railroads are about to 
be built at Chattanooga, Tenn. E. V. C. 

— A dispatch dated Kansas City, Jan. 
10, says that negotiations are practically 
completed for the purchase of a controlling 
interest in the street railway system of that 
city. The purchaser will, it is reported, as- 
sociate with himself in the enterprise a num- 
ber of capitalists and leading business men 
of the city. 

— At the annual meeting of the stock- 
holders of the Chicago City Railway, on 
Jan. 11, the following directors were elected: 
Samuel W. Allerton, S. B. Cobb, Daniel A. 
Jones, E. M. Phelps, O. K. Pearson, C. S. 
Hutchison and C. B. Holmes. The direc- 
tors are considering the question of heating 
the cars. 

This reminds us of the story of the 
1 Arkansaw Traveler." 

"Why don't you fix your roof ? " said he 
to the squatter, " it leaks." 

" "Cause," replied the squatter, " when it 
rains, it's too wet to fix it, an' when it's 
cl'ar it don' need no fixin'." 

By the time the directors reach a conclu- 
sion there will be no need of car heating. 



78 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[February, 1885. 



— Stephenson's patent passenger tele- 
phone signal, with which many cars are 
now being fitted, is a device for attracting 
the attention of the conductor. It consists 
of a metallic air chamber in each end of 
the car, from which the air is forced through 
a whistle by a piston to which is attached a 
cord extending along the side of the car 
behind the passenger. 

— The Worcester, Mass. , Street Eailway 
Co. has its road and cars in first-class con- 
dition, and is operating 5-J miles, 11 cars, 
90 horses, 40 men, conductors on all cars. 
They are at present building two open cars 
and are repairing others. New cars will be 
fitted with the Bemis journal box. Their 
stock is in fine condition owing to good 
care and the fact that only four to five 
hours' work a day is required of each 
horse. 

— Jerome Wheelock, of Worcester, Mass. , 
manufacturer of steam engines, is building 
a pair 30 x 60 ft. , to furnish 1 300 horse po vver 
for the Chicago cable street railway. 

East River Bridge Teavel : — Mr. C. C. 
Martin, Chief Engineer and Superintendent, 
has examined and declared against a pro- 
posed method of increasing the car accom- 
modation, by a different plan of handling 
and switching. He says the only feasible 
method, and one by which the capacity can 
be doubled, is by increasing the trains to 
four cars each. This will be possible only 
when more switching room is obtained at 
the New York terminus. The rolling stock 
now on hand is ample for this increased 
service. One and a half minutes is as close 
as safety will permit trains to be run, as it 
requires one minute to unload the cars. 

St. Louis Cable Road : — Col. M. A. 
Downing has let the contract for 39 cars, 
including 15 grip-cars, and 24 coaches. The 
contract for the conduit has been let ; it 
includes 1,900 tons of metal. 

— The Brocton, Mass., and Stoughton 
people are talking strongly of a street rail- 
way to connect the two places. 



— The Portland, Me., Street Railway Co. is 
overhauling its plant and is placing the road 
and equipment in first-class condition. The 
track (7$ miles) is being laid with new rails on 
5x8 Juniper ties. And they have completed 
a new brick stable 84x124, two stories. 
Ten new Brill cars have been added to the 
equipment, and all cars on out-of-town 
lines are fitted with heaters in the centre, 
surrounded by wire netting and a half 
circle of galvanized iron next the seat, 
which saves room. The equipment consists 
of 27 cars, 148 horses, 60 men, with con- 
ductors on all cars; six cent fares. 

— The Merrimac Valley Horse Railway 
of Lawrence has a system of alternating 
conductors by which each conductor makes 
a trip on each line once in three days. The 
line comprises 6 miles of track, 20 cars, 67 
horses, employing 26 men, carrying an 
average of 1,500 people a day. 

— In 1860 George Francis Train obtained 
permission to lay experimental tramways 
in London. The opposition to them was 
very fierce. The rails were unfortunately 
constructed and the lines were unsuccess- 
ful. They were condemned by the authori- 
ties and the tracks were removed in 1S61. 
The introduction of the new system in 
England was thus deferred until, in 1869, 
Parliament sanctioned the first Metropoli- 
tan lines which have since been so exten- 
sively multiplied and extended. 

— It was in the early days of tramways 
in Europe that George Francis Train 
obtained audience of the Emperor Louis 
Napoleon in order to secure his consent to 
their introduction in Paris. Mr. Train 
stated that they would enhance the ease 
and shorten the time of getting about the 
city and descanted upon their convenience 
to the citizens. "But we don't want any 
such new-fangled Yankee Notions," replied 
the Emperor; " let Paris remain as she is — 
the city of beauty and fashion and pleasure. " 

— In England and France the principle 
has become firmly established that the 



National Government alone shall have 
power to grant concessions for street rail- 
ways. In Germany and Italy, the granting 
of such concessions is left to the local 
authorities. 

— In London it has. been found more 
economical— apart from merely humane 
considerations, to work the horses for mod- 
erate distances only. The great London 
General Omnibus Company, by careful 
selection of its horses and proper treatment 
has raised the work life of its animals from 
3| to 5 years. 

— S. M. Carpenter, Fulton Foundry, 
Cleveland, O., recently shipped to the Citi- 
zens Street Railway Co., of Wheeling, W. 
Va., one of his patent turntables; this being 
the fourth order from the same source. 

— Andrews & Clooney have been award- 
ed a medal of superiority by the American 
Institute, for wheels, springs and castings. 
They have an exhibit at New Orleans. 



The Covert Mfg. O., of West Troy, N. Y., has 
added to its business the manufacture of »hains of 
all sizes and styles. 

Mr.Goodman, of the Eureka Folding Mat Company, 
is quite cheerful over late large orders for his goods, 
which he attributes to the fact that street railways 
have been comparatively little affected by the ' ' hard 
times;" that the times are improving, and especially 
to the fact that he has made known the value and 
excellence of hi< wares through the advertising col- 
umns of the Street Railway Journal. 

The Ajax Metal Co., Philadelphia, Pa., reports 
recent sales to several prominent railways, among 
others, the N.Y..W. S. & B.; the N.Y.C. & H. R • the 
n. & G. T. ; the C. T., St. L. & C. and the C. H. V. & T. 
It has been adopted as the standard for axle and 
driver boxes on the N. Y. C. & H R. R.R.. and tha 
N. Y., W. S. & B. Railwav. The company reports 
business improving, and testifies to the statement by 
handing in cards for each of this Company's, three 
publications — the. Journal op Railway Appliances, 
Power, and the Street Railway Journal. 

G. B. H. 

The Wheeler Reflector Co.. of Boston, is now in 
its new quartern, 18 and 20 Washington Street, where 
it has extra facilities for the manufacture of their 
system of reflectors. 

L. O. Crocker, of East Braintree, Mass., manu- 
facturer of conductor's railway ticket punches, 
among other work, is furnishing the Atchison, 
Topeka and Santa F£, Union Pacific. Delaware. 
Lackawana and Western, Old Colony, Boston and 
Maine. Maine Central, Irtercolonial and other com- 
panies. 



POWER. 

A practical Journal devoted entirely to the Genera- 
tion and Transmission of Power. Specimen Copies Free. 

AMERICAN RAILWAY PUB. CO., 

NEW YORK AND CHICAGO. 



An interest in a Valuable Invention now in successful operation. Indispen- 
sable to Cable Roads. Principals only. Address, 

N. C. T., STREET KA1LWAV JOURNAL, 

8 Lakeside Building, Chicago, III. 



Section No. 17 
46 lbs. per Yard 



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SPECIAL, PATTERNS FOR STKEET CABS. 

Also manufacturers of General House and Office Furniture of the Most ap 

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February, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



79 



A situation with some Street Ra ilway Company by a gentleman who has been 
brought up in the business, and has had experience in its every department. Ts 
now Superintendent of 25 miles Of Street Railway, and desires to make a change 
March 1st. Satisfactory reasons given for leaving present position, and best of 
reference given, including present employers. Address, 
SUPERINTENDENT, 
Care of the STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL, New York. 

STREET RAILWAY WHEELS AND TURNOUTS. 

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SHIELDS & BROWN, 



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91 LIBERTY ST., 



CHICAGO. 
HEW YORK. 



DAY'S IMPKOYED 

STREET RAILWAY TRACK CLEANERS 

Thepe T rack 
Cleaners need no 
.extended state- 
ment of their 
great superiority 
over all others 
invented. The 
fact of over two 
thousand pairs 
being now in use, 
is sufficient evi- 
dence of their 
necessity and 
utility. Are adap- 
table to all kinds 
of rails and styles 
of cars. To se- 
cure the largest 
benefit they 
should be at- 
tached to every car in use. 

For new catalogue and price list, address, 




F. W. DEVOE <Sc CO. 



(Established 1 852), 



AUGUSTUS DAY, 

74 STATE STREET, 



DETROIT, Mich., U. S. A. 



PULTON ST., cor of WILLIAM, NEW YORK, 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



ESTABLISHED 1847 

A. WHITNEY & SONS 

CAR WHEEL WORKS, 

PHILADELPHIA, PENN. 

CAST CHILLED WHEELS, 

AXLES AITS BOXES 

FOR EVERY KIND OP SERVICE. 

Street Railway Wheels of all Sizes. 



COACH and CAR COLORS 

GROUND IN" JAPAN". 

For thess colors we received the highest award, the Uold Medal, at the Nationa 
Exposition of Railway Appliances in Chicago, last year. 

SPECIAL SHADES MADE TO ORDER. 

We furnish special body colors to Pennsylvania R.R., New York Central 
New York & Ne .v Haven, Lehigh Valley, New Jersey Central and other large 

Railroads. 

FINE VARNISHES AND JAPANS 

FOR ©©&©BBa AND CARS, 

"Wood Fillers, Wood Surfacers, Wood Stains, Hard Oil Finish. 

Manufacturers of FINE BRUSHES for painting, varnishing, striping, etc. 

ARTISTS' MATERI 4.LS. 

Tube Colors, Artists' Brushes, DrawinglPaper. 

ENGINEERS' GOODS. 

Mathematical Instruments, Theodolites, Transits, Cross Section Papers. 

Illustrated Catalogues of 250 pa?es and 800 Illustrations on request. 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

WHITE LEAD, COLORS IN OIL, DISTEMPER COLORS, PURE READY 

MIXED PAINTS. 

n, DEI l % 175 Randolph M, DHL 



80 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[February, 1885. 



~W2*£. 



OZR-A-IGi-, 



Street Railway Builder and dealer in Railway Supplies. 

OtD KOADS KE-LAID, GKADING, PAVING, &c. 

Special attention given to laying Switches, Curves, Turnouts, Connections and 

Turn-tables ; also Building Tracks for Excavation, Grading, 

Mining and Factories. 

Office, 95 LIBERTY STREET, - NEW YOKE. 

THE STREET RAILWAY LUBRICANT 



Will last FOUR TIMES AS LONG, and is CHEAPER and MOBE ECONOM- 
ICAL than Oil. Samples free on application. 

HENRY F. ROHBOCK, 

109 WOOD ST., PITTSBURGH, PA. 

Used by Pittsburgh Transverse Railway Co. 

rpTTrp 

BELLE CITY FEED GUTTER 

IS THE 

Strongest, Most Durable, 

and on the whole 
it is the 

BEST FEED CUTTER 

IN THE WORLD. 

For Street-car Barns it 
lias no equal. Write for 
Reference, Circular, &c, to 

THE BELLE HIT KT'ff CO., 

RACINE, WIS., U.S. A. 




EUROPEAN COLIC CURE. 




A speedy and sure cure for Colic -has saved hundreds of horses where alt 
other remedies have failed. Horse need not be run or trotted around to start 
the wind. Let him stand or lie down as he feels inc ined and he will be ready 
for work almost immediately after recovery. A cure guaranteed in ninety-nine 
cases in a hundred. Endorsed by the leading street railway companies of the 
country, some of which we append. 



Decatur, III., Oct. 2, 1884. 
Messrs. Jones & Roach, Chicago, 111. 

I have used your Colic Cure for my 
horses and mules on my street car 
lines and found it the best and surtst 
medicine I have ever uted. I have not 
lost a horse since I commenced its use. 
It gives relief in a short time after it is 
taken. I can cheerfully recommend it 
as a sure relief if given in time. I keep 
it constantly on hand. 

Truly yours, 
FRANKLIN PRIEST. 
President Decatur Street R. R. 



Messrs. Jones & Roach: 

Gentlemen : I cheerfully recom- 
mend your European Colic Cure for 
horses as being the best that I have 
ever used. When once introduced no 
horse owner can well afford to be with- 



out it. I hope you will meet with the 
success your cure deserves. 
Truly yours, 

VALENTINE BLATZ, 
Per H. Lieb, Manager. 



Office of North Hudson County ) 

Railway Co. I 

Hoboeen, N. J., Oct. 4. 1884. j 

Gentlemen: It gives me pleasure 
to say that I can heartily recommend 
your European Colic Cure to all horse 
owners, from a personal knowledge of 
its curative qualities. I have used it in 
our stables, containing about six hun- 
dred horses, and have always found it 
to be beneficial. Yours very truly. 
ALBERT SAILLET, 

Foreman and Veterinary Surgeon- 
for the North Hudson County Ry. Co. 



Sample Bottles Furnished Street Railway Companies Gra'is. 
For further information, prices, etc., address 

JONES & ROACH, 259 Fremont Street, Chicago. 




Street Railway, / I 



CONCORDS, 



C O 2v£ILv£0 2sT 



M 



as desired, 



Manufacturers of 



-A-XjXj STYLES 



Saddlery Hardware. 

Send tor Catalogue. 

\Pratt & Letchworth, 

BUFFALO, 

N". Y. 




STREET RAILWAY CONCORD HAMES. 



^7-EIQIlT'S 



PATENT JOINT FASTENING. 



The accompanying cut shows 
a cross section through joint. 
* A is the rail, B the joint chair, 
C the stringer, D the patent 
screw fastening, E the nut, F a 
slot in chair allowing rails to 
contract and expand. The chair 
cannot settle and the rail ends 
are held level with each other, 
preventing the many evils of 
ordinary construction. 

For Further Particulars Address 




AUGUSTIN W. WRIGHT, 

NORTH-CHICAGO CITY RAILROAD, 

CHICAGO, ILL. 



February, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



81 



J. C. BRILL & CO., 



Builders of 



RAILWAY 



— AND 



TRAMWAY 



CARS 



g§ii of all kinds. 




a^IBLE ^IDIDIEaiE! 



-BZESIXjXj I=HIX J -^E)E3L.I=I3:i^^. 



82 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[February, 1885. 



THE STANDISH FOOT-POWER HAMMER 

Is specially adapted to 'making light forgings, 
for welding in dies having impres=ions cut to the 
shape of the work required. They are superior 
to power hammers, as the hammer is under as 
perfect control as the Smith's hand hammer, 
and are used in the carriage business for weld- 
ing Dashes, Shifting Rails, Top Props, shaping 
and forming ALL SMALL WORK equal to drop 
forging, and are in use by the principal manu- 
facturers of the United States. Send for circu- 
lars. Address. 

The Capital City Machine Works, 




COLUMBUS, O. 



Patented July 10, 1883. 



-A.. ATEES, 
Manufacturer and Patentee. 

Send me full size section of rails to be used at points A, B, C, D, E, G. 
No. 625 TENTH AVENUE, NEW YORK. 




Steel Groove Curves bent to suit 
any radius ; Channel Plates, all 
kinds ; Knees all sizes ; Pedestals 
and Boxes, all kinds ; Brake Shoes; 
Ayres' Patent Automatic Switches, 
Plain Switches, Frogs and Cast 
Rails for curves, and all kinds of 
castings. 




PLUMBAGO BEARINGS. 



p 

L 
U 
M 
B 
A 
G 




•FOR- 



Cable Roads. 

■»« ♦■«»■ 

Warranted to Bun Cool, without Oil, 
Grease or other lubricant, 

4,000 IN NEW YORK. 

2,000 IN KANSAS CITY. 



J. J. RYAN & CO., 

62 & 64 W. Monroe St., CHICAGO, 



B 
E 
A 
R 
I 

N 
G 
S 



PLUMBAGO BEARINGS 



M. M. White & Co., 

531 WEST 33d STREET, 

NEW YORK. 



Pennington's Grooming Machine, 




OWNERS AND BUILDERS OF 
H. DOUGLASS' 

Patent Automatic Switch 

FOR STREET RAILROADS. 




The brush is caused to revolve by gear wheels actuated by a flexible shaft. 
Both hands free to handle brush. Swings and turns in any direction. Direc- 
tion of motion quickly changed. The cheapest and best Grooming Machine yet 
invented. Motion supplied by hand, steam or animal power. Eights to use or 
manufacture. For full particulars and rates apply to 

ELLIS PENNINGTON, 

204 Walnut Place, - Philadelphia, Pa. 



February, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



83 



LAKE & McDEVITT'S 



For Horse Railways, Omnibus Lines, Etc. 




The Advantages 



ROPE TRACE 

are its ready application 
to Horse-Car service, or to 
any other purpose where 
cheap harness is required. 
It only costs about half as 
much as leather traces, 
while at the same time 
one set of Rope Tugs will 
(when used on horse cars) 
take the place of three or 
more sets of leather 
traces, as the Tugs remain 
attached to the car all 
day, no matter how many 
changes of stock are 
made. The relief horses 
having hood's attached to 
their hames, all that is 
necessary is to unhook the 
tugs from the working 
team back in the fresh 
horses, hook on the tugs, 
and the change is made. 
Railroad men will at once 
perceive their adaptabil- 
ity and economy from the 
above facts. They will 
also last longer than leath- 
er traces, and require but 
very little care. From 
their durability and cheap- 
ness they are also espec- 
ially adapted for all kinds 
of farm use and heavy 
teaming, as farmers, etc., 
can easily repair them. 



Patent No. Ul,9S'i, December 21, 1875. 



In use on the Chicago West. Div. R'y. ; Louisville City R'y Co. ; Milwaukee City R'y ; Transverse R'y Co., Pittsburg, Pa. ; Citizens Street R'y Co., Pittsburg, Pa • 
Pittsburg and Birmingham, Pittsburg, Pa.; Central City R'y, Peoria, III.; Grand Rapids R'y; Minneapolis St. R'y Co. ; St. Paul City R'y; Houston City R'y, Texas; 
Superior Street R'y, Cleveland, O. ; Cincinniti City R'y Co. ; Fifth Ward Street R'y, Syracuse : Detroit City R'y. ; Ft. Wayne and Elm wood St. R'v, Detroit, Mich • 
Galveston City R'y; Springfield City R'y, Springfield, 111. ; Toledo St. R'y, Toledo, O. ; Adams St. R'y, Toledo, O. ; Atlanta Street R'y, and others, in all on about IOC 
Street R'ys in United States and Canada, and a large number of other prominent Street R'y Companies throughout the Country. 8^= Send for descriptive Circu- 
lar containing testimonials, prices, etc., to 

LAKE & McDEVITT, 161 South Robey Street, Chicag-o, 111. 



CLARK'S PATENT POWER GROOMING MACHINE, 

SINGLE OB IDOT7BLE. 




TO STREET RAILWAY COMPANIES AND OTHER STOCK OWNERS. 

This machine for grooming may be driven by any known power, and can readily be placed for use in any stable or out-building. It can be operated by an ordin- 
ary groomsman; its work is perfect; its action simple and effective. Stock owners will readily realize the importance of the machine. The perfection and rapidity 
of its work, and the benefits derived by its use, commend it to those interested in the care and use of all classes of thoroughbred and work stock. The most vicious 
animal readily submits to its use. Machine Grooming is found to be less expensive than hand grooming, saving in fool and medicines, and materially increasing 
the value of the animal. 

The Curry Comb and Hand Process Superseded ! Economy of Labor ! Perfection of Work ! 

Three Hundred Head of Stock Thoroughly Croomed with Each Machine every Ten Hours. 

This Grooming Machine is in daily use in some of the largest Street Railway Companies' stables, and has always given perfect satisfaction. Among those using 
it are the City R'y Co., Chicago, 111.; Detroit City R'y Co., Detroit, Mich. ; Central City R'y, Peoria, 111.; M. W. Dunham, Wayne, 111 ; West Division Street R'y Co., 
Chicago, 111.; Lindell Street R'y Co., St. Louis, Mo.; Pleasant Valley R'y Co., Allegheny City, Pa.; Marshall, Field & Co., Chicago, 111.; Leroy Payn Chicago, HU; 
Saginaw City R'y, Saginaw, Mich. ; Pittsburg and Birmingham R'y Co., Pittsburg, Pi.; and a number of others who have given testimonials as to the perfect work- 
ing of the machine. tSff~ For prices, circular and other information apply to 

161 SOUTH ROBEY STREET, CHICAGO, ILL. 



84 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[February, 1885. 



J, w. FOWLER, 

President. 



DAN'L F. LEWIS. 



Treasurer, 



LEWIS <fc FOWLER M'F'G CO 



BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

PATENTEES AND MANUFACTTJBEBS OF 

IMPROVED 

"ALARM" 

Passenger Register, 

STATIONARY 
PORTABLE. 

SOLE AGENTS AND MANUFACTURERS OP 



"SMALL'S PATENT AUTOMATIC FARE COLLECTOR" 





OE 



-A- IB 




5 os: 



CiLES. 



ALSO 



"RANDALL'S" PATENT CAR AXLE AND ROX. 



Sectional View. 
£1 




Front View, 



End View. 



En 
W 



EH 




o 

M 

Eh 
O 

M 

M 
EH 

<! 




February, 1885. J 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



85 



RAILWAY REGISTER MANUF'G CO 



THE MONITOR REGISTER. 




MANUFACTURERS AND OWNERS OF THE 

Latest Designs, Improvements and Inven- 
tions in Registers, Indicators, Classi- 
fiers and Punches, for the Re- 
cording of Fares Collected 
on Street and Steam 
Railroads. 

This Company owns over ioo Patents, embracing all 
the Valuable Features of Fare Registers, In- 
dicators, etc., and was awarded three 
Medals at the Chicago Exposi- 
tion of Railway Appli- 
ances. 




CHESTERMAN 



THE ALARM REGISTERING PUNCH 



REGISTER 




BEADLE & COURTNEY, 

G-EHEEAL AOE1TTS 

Railway Register Manufacturing Co., 

1193 BROADWAY, NEW YORK, 

Branch Office : 426 "WALNUT STREET, Philadelphia, Pa., 
FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOCUE. 



86 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[February, 1885. 



PENNSYLVANIA 

STEEL COMPANY 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Steel Rails 



Of T patterns, weighing' from 16 to 76 lbs. per yard. 
CENTBE BEAKING Street Patterns, 42 to 60 lts.[per 
yard, TEAM Street Patterrs 45 to 47 Its. per yard, 
and Street Patten s for SIE^M EO.ADS 



WORKS AT 

STE ELTON, DAUPHIN CO., PENN. 



NEW YORK OFFICE, - 60 Broadway. 

Philadelphia Office, 208 South Fourth St. 



Fare Boxes and Change Resepiacles 



MADE BY 



WALES MANUFACTURING CO., 

76 and 78 East Water Street, 
SYRACUSE, N. Y. 




Our Street Car 
Fare Boxes, for Sim- 
plicity of Construc- 
tion, Cheapness and 
Practicability are Su- 
perior to Anything of 
Like Character in the 
Market. 

$^° Descriptive and 
Illustrated Circulars 
an application . 



Front View. No. 3. 





Back View. No. 3. 



F. H. ANDREWS. 



F, T. LERNED, CEN'L ACT. 



B. A. CLOONEY. 



ANDREWS & CLOONEY, 



OFFICE: 

545 West 33d St, 

NEW YORK. 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

ELLIPTIC, SPIRAL, 
VOLUTE, CAR and 
ENGINE 

SPRINGS 

OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 

CAR WHEELS, AXLES, 

BRAKE SHOES, 
PEDESTALS, BOXES, 

BRASS BEARINGS 



section on W%. 7ine~-B | 1 1 






t 




Street Kail-way Turn-Table. 
SEND FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE. 



WORKS!: 

to 551 

to III Wist 34th fat 

NEW YORK. 

AND CASTINGS 

of all Descriptions where great Strength 
is Required. Also 

SWEEPEKS, 

SNOW PLOWS, 
TUEN TABLES, 
TEACK WOEK, 
AUTOMATIC SWITCHES, 

Etc. 
Steel Grove Rails and Machinery. 



February, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



87 





13 Barclay Street, - iNTe^^r Toife, 

PATENTEE AND MANUFACTURER OF 

Graduated Street Car Springs. 



Patented, April loth, 1879. 



ADAPTED TO THE 




-AND 



ALL OTHER BOXES. 



No. 0, for 10-ft. Light Oars. 
No. 1, for 10-ft. Cars. 
No. 2, for 12-ft. Cars. 
No. 3, for 14-ft. Cars. 
No. 4, for 16-ft. Cars. 
No. 5, for 16-ft. Cars. 

(Single Pedestal.) 

No. 1, Cushion, for 16-ft. 
Cars. 

No. 2, Cushion, for 12 and 
14-ft. Cars. 




STEEL CONE CITY CAR SPRING. 



Patented April 15, 1879— August 5, 1884. 



The unprecedented popularity of the 

"VOSE GRADUATED RUBBER GONE SPRING" 

for Horse Cars has induced the inventor to bring this 
class of Springs as near perfection as possible, and after a 
series of experiments and tests now presents for favor what 
he claims to be the MOST PERFECT SPRING FOR 
HORSE CARS ever offered. It is exceptionally Soft and 
Easy with the Empty Car or with the Greatest Load. It 
is believed to be the Most Durable, being constructed 
upon a principle that seems to insure that the Spring must 
Actually Wear Out. The very Finest Quality of Crucible 
Cast Steel will always be used in these Springs. 




88 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[February, 1885. 



A 



JOHN STEPHENSON COMPANY 



(LIMITED), 



TRAMWAY CARS 




LIGHT, ELEGANT, DURABLE. 



Every Description. 



Best Materials. 



Minimum Prices. 



ORDERS QUICKLY FILLED. CAREFUL ATTENTION TO SHIPMENTS. 



All 



Suited. 




Vol. I. 



i NEW YORK: | 
! 32 liberty Street. (' 



MARCH, 1885. 



CHICAGO : | 

8 Lakeside Building, j 



No. 5. 



Hydraulic Turntable. 

The accompanying illustration shows an 
hydraulic turntable specially designed to 
meet the requirements of Mr. F. E. Duck- 
ham, the engineer of the Mill wall Dock Com- 
pany, * for lifting grain trucks and turning 
them simultaneously on to lines at right 
angles to the lower level of rails. There are 
some cases (as in Cleveland) where the de- 
vice might be applicable for lifting street 
cars from one level to another. 

At the Millwall Docks, where the chief 
grain trade of London is conducted, Mr. 
Duckham has introduced a system of stor- 
age in traveling railway 
bins, or covered trucks 
of some 20 tons capacity, 
enabling rapid discharge 
from ship to be made, 
combined with prompt 
deliveries of cargoes in 
large or small lots into 
carts, barges, or railway 
trucks as may be desired, 
at any part of the dock 
premises. Certain por- 
tions of the dock quay 
could not, however, be 
utilized for delivery into 
barges, owing to their 
position and elevation 
as compared with con- 
tiguous lines of rails, 
until the turntables 
which we now illustrate 
were designed and 
erected. 

The tables are twelve 
feet in diameter, and in 
addition to raising a 
full truck load of grain, 
weighing some twenty, 
two tons, are sufficiently 
strong to allow engines 
to run over them at full 
speed when fixed for the lower line of 
rails. It will be seen that a double worm 
or thread is cast on the lifting cylin- 
der, having a pitch of fourteen feet. 
A drum forming part of the moving por- 
tion is turned to fit the cylinder, and is pro- 
vided with internal steel rollers working in 
the grooves previously ref erred to on the 
cylinder. When the hydraulic pressure is 

* East Ferry Road Engineering Works Company, 
Limited, East Ferry Road, Millwall, E., London, 
England. 



admitted to the cylinder, the upward 
motion of the ram is combined with the 
rotary motion required by the friction of 
the rollers agamst the grooves. Separate 
turning cylinders are therefore unneces- 
sary. 

In conclusion, we may say that the Mill- 
wall Docks are well worth a visit, the 
company's whole system of discharge and de- 
livery of cargoes, especially of grain, being 
among the most successful and efficient in 
the world. Wherever hydraulic power can 
be used and cost of labor reduced, there 
you may be sure to find machinery suited 
to the work. 




to 23 of their cents * per kilometer \ (7.4d. 
per mile), composed of the following items : 

Their Cents. Our Cents. 

Driving engines 4.7 1.88 

Heating boilers 2.3 .92 

Coals 14.0 5.60 

Packing, lubricating, 

etc 2.0 0.80 

Total 23.0 9.20 

More recently the cost of haulage has 
been only 17 of their cents per kilo (5.24d. 
or 10.48 of our cents per mile), the price of 
coal being 21. per ton. The consumption of 
fuel was at first 6 kilogrammes per kilo- 
meter (21.3 lb. per mile), but recently it has 
fallen to two-thirds of 
that amount. Repairs 
of boilers and engines 
have cost two cents 
per kilometer, and have 
consisted chiefly in re- 
turning the wheel tires 
and renewing the felt on 
the boilers. 

* 5 of their cents equal two 
of ours. 
\% mile. 



Fireless Tramway Engines. 

The Batavia Steam Tramway Co. has 21 
of the Lamm-Francq fireless locomotives, 
and 5 stationary boilers (of which three are 
reserves). They work 12 hours per day, 
filling an engine every \y z minutes during 
these hours ; every ten minutes during 
other times. Pressure, 180 lbs. per sq. in.; 
trains, two to three cars ; track nearly level 
and nearly straight. 

The cost of haulage amounted last year 



The First Steam Tram- 
ways in London. 

A foreign exchange 
says: "The commodious 
new workshops and run- 
ning sheds of the North 
London Tramway Com- 
pany are now nearing 
completion, and the 
handsome steam motors 
for working the line con- 
tinue to arrive. An en- 
gine has been running re- 
cently with most satisfac- 
tory results. The horses 
passed on the road, 
although the line is a single one, took no no- 
tice of the machines, a result which may 
fairly be ascribed to the absolute absence of 
steam, vapor, or noise from the engine. 
The first-class workmanship put into these 
engines — which are the outcome of some 
ten or twelve years' constant experience 
in this class of work — necessarily makes 
them somewhat high in cost, but £100 
paid to the makers in this way is more 
than recouped by economy in maintenance 
and repairs alone every year they are 
running afterwards." 



90 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[March, 1885. 




American Street Railway Association. 

Officers, 1884-5. 

President. — Calvin A. Richards, President Metro- 
politan Railroad Co., Boston, Mass. 

First Vice-president.— Julius S. Walsh, President 
Citizens' Railway Co., St Louis, Mo. 

Second Vice-president. — Henry M. Watson. Presi- 
dent the Buffalo Street Railway Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Third Vice-president, — Edward Lusher, Secretary 
and Treasurer the Montreal City Passenger Rail- 
way Co., Montreal, Canada. 

Secretary and Treasurer.— William J. Richardson, 
Secretary the Atlantic Avenue Railway Co., Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. 

Executive Committee. — President, Vice-presidents 
and William H. Hazzard, President Brooklyn City 
Railroad Co.. Brooklyn, N.Y ; James K. Lake. Super- 
intendent Chicago West-Division Railway, Chicago, 
111.; Charles J. Harrah, President the People's Pas- 
senger Railway Co., Philadelphia, Pa.; William 
White, President Dry Dock, East B. & B. R. R. Co.. 
New York. N. Y.; B. Du Pont. President Central 
Passenger Railroad Co., Louisville, Ky. 



Discussion on Stables and Care of Horses. 

Continuing the report of the recent con- 
vention: — 

Mr. Littell, of Louisville, moved that the 
report of the Committee on "Stables and 
Care of Horses ' ; be accepted and spread on 
the minutes. 

Mr. Longstreet, of Providence : I would 
like to make some inquiries in reference to 
stable floors, where horses are kept over- 
head. Until recently, we have kept our 
horses on the ground floor. When this was 
done there was no trouble ; but we are now 
up in the air. What kind of a floor is best 
adapted for this purpose ? 

Mr. Sharp, of New York, did not know 
what is best, but has horses on the fourth 
floor, piled up three deep. He uses felt cov- 
ered with asphaltum between the planks. 
First an ordinary tongued and grooved 
floor, planed on one side ; then felt, and 
then the spruce plank on top. The felt is 
covered with asphaltum and is laid in 
while hot. 

The President said ; The best method that 
I know of, and I have had considerable ex- 
perience as a builder, is to lay the lower 
floors on the slant that you wish for your 
horses ; then lay the flooring and tar it 
over, covering it with tarred paper. Then 
take the next flooring, and, putting plenty 
of asphaltum on, shove it together while it 
is hot, so that the asphalt will come be- 
tween tbe joints. Put the slat floor above 
that. So far as the felt is concerned, and 
laying it in asphaltum, it can be used under 
the gangways. I would put down the 
lower floor first, then lay the paper in 
pitch. 

In reply to a question by Mr. Longstreet, 
the President said, the asphaltum used is 
precisely the same as they use for the best 
gravel roofing. The second flooring, or the 
middle flooring, where there are three, is 
the most important. 

Mr. Longstreet : What is better for the 
second flooring under the stalls than spruce ? 

Mr. Sharp : We use slats for the horses to 



stand upon ; spruce on the floor under 
that. 

The President said : Spruce will last a 
great many years where it is kept dry ; if 
wet and dry alternately, it will rot in three 
years. 

Mr. Longstreet remarked : This is, of 
course, a case where it will be wet and dry. 

The President : Spruce is better to cut ; 
it has not so many knots ; but pine will 
last longer, wet and dry, than spruce. 

Mr. Patrick said : I would, from my ex- 
perience, except to several items contained 
in the report. In the first place, the size of 
the stall is given as four feet. A five foot 
stall is about the smallest that will accom- 
modate a horse of 1,100 pounds comforta- 
bly. Secondly, an inch and a-half inclina- 
tion to the floor puts the horse higher in 
front than behind ; and, as a rule, he stands 
lower in front than behind when not work- 
ing, and the weight of the horse is about 
two-thirds on his front and one-third on his 
hind limbs. When we would floor a horse 
comfortably, we have the clay under his 
front feet about an inch and a-half lower 
than the floor on which his hind feet stand, 
so that he invariably stands up to his man- 
ger. We rarely find a horse backing away 
from his manger. A floor on which their 
front feet are higher than their hind feet, 
necessarily creates a tendency to backing 
out and shaping themselves to ease their 
front parts, and if they cannot find an 
easy position by reason of the halter, they 
shove their shoulders forward. Another 
part of the report — that which relates to 
putting on of a hot shoe— does not meet my 
approval. It has been my observation that 
the application of heat to the horny sub- 
stance of the hoof, immediately extracts the 
oil and makes it brittle. A hot shoe at the 
edge of the hoof will extend its influence 
for an inch, and until that grows down, the 
hoof is diseased and will crumble away. 
[Mr. Patrick illustrated by referring to the 
effect of heat on the human nail.] With 
reference to the feed ; we have found it de- 
sirable to give a horse as much variety as 
we could, feeding corn mixed with bran 
and cut hay. With these exceptions I feel 
disposed to accept the conclusion of the 
report. 

The President : What is meant by bran. 

Mr. Patrick : Our mills, grinding flour 
under the new process, take the hull from 
the wheat, leaving a small portion of gluten 
attached, which is all there is in it. 

The President said his company had come 
to the conclusion that there is not a pound 
of nutriment in a hundred bushels of new 
process bran or " shorts." 

Mr. Thurston, of Jersey City, said : The 
Jersey City and Bergen Railroad Company 
has seven different stables and is now build- 
ing a new stable for one hundred and fifty 
horses. The stalls are five feet at the wid- 
est and four feet at the narrowest part. In 
the new stable they are four feet three 
inches. They use simply partitions between 
the stalls, and consider yellow pine best for 
the purpose. Where horses have five feet 
space they can break the partition ; where- 
as, with less space they cannot get a pur- 
chase. When a horse is lying down and 
pressing against the two sides, he cannot 
break the partition as he can with five foot 



space. In Jersey City, land being cheaper 
than in New York, they stable horses on 
the ground floor. In the stable now build- 
ing, and in two already built, there is a 
steep, slanting roof, with a skylight run- 
ning through the centre, so all the windows 
desired may be opened. For the ground- 
work of the stable, wood flooring is entirely 
dispensed with. There is a system of wells 
with man-hole coverings at proper spaces, 
and the whole floor is graded, with a pitch 
of one and one-half inches towards the cen- 
tre, which is twenty-seven feet wide, nine 
feet for stalls on one side, nine feet for pas- 
sageway and nine feet for stalls on the 
other side. After the ground work is thor- 
oughly prepared it is overlaid with six 
inches of sand. Over this bricks are laid 
with Portland cement. On that is a coat- 
ing of two inches of a mixture of equal pro- 
portions of sharp sand and cement. Over 
that is the yellow pine flooring, with the 
strips of about half an inch space between, 
to provide for the urine of the horses, and 
so arranged that they can be taken out of 
each stall and the hose used to clean it thor- 
oughly. This water all flows to the central 
wells. From the roof all the rain water 
flows into different pipings, so as to scour 
out all these wells. It commences with six- 
inch piping and runs to twelve-inch piping, 
to the sewer. For the mangers they use 
two-inch slate, laid perfectly smooth the 
whole width of the stall. In summer the 
horse likes to put his nose down on the slate 
and cool it. It is sweet and easily kept 
clean, and free from rats. Whitewash is 
applied semi-annually. 

Mr. Holmes (Pittsburgh), wanted to know 
if they had any trouble with rheumatism 
among the horses in such stables. In such 
a stable Mr. Holmes had experienced this 
trouble. 

Mr. Thurston : We have had no trouble 
from rheumatism at all in our stables. I 
think the fault is attributable to something 
else. 

Mr. Robillard, of Montreal, said : Accord- 
ing to Mr. Patrick's ideas, the horse with 
his front feet a little lower than his hind 
feet is in a natural standing position, and 
in that way gets rest. There is no better 
judge of this than the horse. When not 
occupied, or feeding, or not lying down, he 
will back until he biings his hind feet three 
inches lower than the front. A horse will 
cut or rot the timber at the bottom of the 
stall to prepare this place. When it is 
necessary to have clay, or something else 
to soften the foot, it has to be done ; it is a 
bad idea to accustom a horse to it. Ten or 
twelve years ago, this plan was adopted by 
our road. After we commenced it, it had 
to be continued. When it was stopped, the 
horses became restless ; but gradually we 
got them reconciled to the change. They 
came in, and after cleaning and washing 
their feet, we then let them go on the clay. 
After some experience, it left no doubt 
that it was better to leave them alone ; 
cleaning the feet properly. We use cold 
water in proper seasons ; in frosty weather, 
we use straw or rags. The horses, as they 
corne in, in the summer, are brought out to 
the wash-tub, the legs cleaned, the shoul- 
ders bathed, and, if possible, their heads. 
Not one of our horses suffers under that ; 



March, 1885. j 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



91 



they have no sores about the neck. Out of 
four hundred and sixty, there is not a sore 
neck or sore foot. The remark of the 
Chairman of the Committee in his report, 
that no horse with flat feet should be 
bought, is perfectly correct. If you put 
such a horse on a hard road for some time, 
with a foot perfectly flat on the pavement, 
where frequent shoeing is necessary, every 
time a little of the foot becomes pared off, 
and he will soon be unfit for use. Horses 
should have their feet properly cleaned. 
In Montreal, we have the worst kind of 
roads— all Macadam — loose stones. Yet, 
the condition of our horse's feet is equal to 
those of any stable in the country. Our 
slope is too little — two inches in every nine 
feet, and the horse, finding he has not 
enough, will step back. I think this idea 
of putting the horse's forward feet in a 
lower place for the purpose of resting him, 
is a mistake. If you let a horse alone, he 
will extend his legs, not forward, but 
backward. This, undoubtedly, has been 
remarked in every stable. 

Mr. Patrick inquired : Did you ever see a 
horse out in the field ? For every one that 
stands with his hind legs lower, a thousand 
will stand with their forward legs lower 
than their hind. The horse moves back 
from his manger, when he is standing on 
the incline, simply because the stall floor is 
inclined. 

Mr. Littell, of Louisville, said : I differ 
from both of the gentlemen in regard to 
the horse stepping back to get his hind feet 
lower. I think it is to be attributed to the 
fact that in all of your stables, you have 
built the line of the stall floor a little higher 
than the gutter behind. If you will notice, 
instead of getting his hind feet lower than 
the floor, he stands up in that position and 
elevates his toe to get bis level, simply be- 
cause you put high heels on his shoes. If 
you will lower his heels, the horse will not 
back. If a horse backs and stands in that 
position, he does not stand below the floor, 
but gets his foot on the floor. If he digs a 
hole there, he will get his heel in the lower 
part of it. Our company has one thousand 
two hundred and sixteen head of mules. 
We drain our mules out in the yard, and so 
it should be in all stables. A stable satu- 
rated with ammonia is a fault of the man- 
ager. This idea is from New Orleans. In 
that city, the cars that go to Canal Street, 
stand there ; and if a mule attempts to 
urinate on the street, the driver prevents it 
by whipping him up, and won't allow him 
to do it until he gets to the barn. What is 
the use of having a stall in your barn ? We 
are building a stable with virtually no 
stalls. There is a space between the ani- 
mals' heads ; nine feet apart, we have 
posts that support the upper floor, and it is 
twenty-two feet across from post to post. 
We stand two animals between these posts. 
Between the posts and the manger, two 
and one-half feet, there is a partition of 
wrought iron to keep one mule from get- 
ting in another one's way. If we can stand 
two together, why not stand twenty-six 
together, with partitions a suitable distance 
apart ? We are investing seventeen thou- 
sand five hundred dollars in this barn, 
without any stalls. There is a partition be- 
tween every other animal : there is a par- 



tition just above the manger. The feed- 
box is two feet long and twelve inches 
deep. The bottom of the feed-box, where 
we put ground corn and oats, is eighteen 
inches wide. In a majority of the stables 
here, they are two feet and a half. We 
put the feed in dry — oats and corn, some- 
times whole corn, generally shelled, and we 
usually crack or grind it. We know what 
each mule is getting, having a measure 
which holds just so many pounds. Our 
stable floors are level and flat, and we have 
no trough running along there for the 
horses to get back on. 

Mr. Cleminshaw inquired : Do you have 
fresh drinking water running all the time 'i 

Mr. Littell replied : Mr. Johnson is the 
man to tell all about that. I learned almost 
all I know about watering horses from him. 
I was in Indianapolis four years ago ; Mr. 
Johnson took me into his barn ; I found 
there running water. I adopted his sys- 
tem ; changed it a little. In the barn we 
are building, we have a metal basin in the 
centre of the trough, so that two mules 
can drink from one basin ; it is supplied by 
pipes from a tank in the corner of the 
building ; the top is level with the top of 
these basins, and is supplied from the water 
works. When a horse drinks, a fresh sup- 
ply flows in. A horse can have all he 
wants. We do not lead him by the water. 

Mr. Wright, of Chicago, said : I ex- 
pressed my views very fully in the report 
last year. There is, however, a question I 
would like to ask. Can any one state how 
much ah- a horse requires? I have con- 
sulted half a dozen veterinary surgeons, 
and seven or eight physicians ; have ex- 
amined every book in the libraries of 
Chicago, that bears on the question. I 
have assumed that the horse breathes as 
much air as a man ; but that amount 
varies. One allowance is three to four 
cubic feet a minute ; another allows but 
one. The Committee's recommendation of 
stables twelve feet high, is rather small. I 
make ours sixteen feet. We have fresh air 
inlets to let in air in addition to the 
doors. We are laying stable floors on four 
inches of asphalt, which prevents all moist- 
ure, vermin, and rats burrowing through. 
It keeps the floor all water-tight and com- 
fortable. We put down two-inch pine 
flooring. The stalls have an inclination of 
two inches in nine feet. Our horses are 
shod without calks ; bearing taken upon 
the frog. We have very little, if any, 
trouble from horses backing out. Ninety- 
five out of a hundred remain in their stalls 
without backing out. 

Mr. Johnson, of Cleveland, said : Mr. 
Littell ref erred to the water-trough system. 
We adopted it five years ago. We dis- 
cussed the matter at length. We reasoned 
this way, that our animals drank a great 
deal of water. It was really their most 
important item. There is three times the 
amount of water consumed as feed. It is 
certain that he will be watered when he 
goes out and comes back, but there is no 
reliable watering after that. Some host- 
lers are very careless. I had seen very fre- 
quently a horse go to the trough and look 
as if he would drink a barrel of water. We 
built a stable, furnishing water to each 
stall. We have troughs holding half a 



gallon of water each. The animals will 
not take too much when hot. We have 
now nearly nine hundred head. It has 
since been adopted in Louisville and two or 
three other places, with no bad results. As 
a humane measure, they think it a good 
one. This Report corroborates our experi- 
ence. One of the gentlemen appears to 
think they will take too much. Where 
they can get it at all times, they do not 
drink too much. 

Mr. Edward Lusher, of Montreal, said : I 
must confess that I have heard one or two 
astonishing things here. I have never been 
aware that horses, coming in fresh from a 
journey and heated, might have without 
injury, any amount of water. Our experi- 
ence has been, that after horses have been 
brought in heated, the best thing is to let 
them rest half an hour. If you can give 
them as much water as you choose without 
doing them harm ; and that after a time 
they will not take more than is good for 
them, they are very different from all the 
other animals. It seems to me a dangerous 
experiment. They try it sometimes in spite 
of us, and the result is very bad. One gen- 
tleman says cut-feed is right. For years 
we have never given them anything but 
natural food. They do not swallow so 
rapidly when they have to chew. Some 
railways use cut-feed, and their horses look 
very well ; and the tendency of the whole 
discussion seems to be as to their longevity. 
* * * There is one interesting question ; 
the cost of veterinary surgeons and medical 
attendance to each company per horse. 
One company has cut-feed , and gives it to 
its horses whenever they want it. What 
the mortality of these horses is, compared 
with horses fed with whole feed at stated 
periods, would be interesting. Our com- 
pany gives whole feed at stated times only. 
We only lose as many as twelve, sometimes 
but two to four a year. Ten horses a year 
it will average, perhaps, out of four hun- 
dred and fifty. We are away up in the north- 
ern clime, and they have to do a great deal 
more work than the average car-horse. We 
have to run sleighs in the winter in order 
to keep the horses. We would be very glad 
to rent all the horses and cars out in the 
winter, and buy them again in the spring. 
The horses are used up more in the winter 
than they are in the summer, with our hills 
and bad condition of track, and in conse- 
quence of Macadamized roads. Our horses 
are all very hard worked, but I have not 
seen any better than ours. 

Mr. Humphrey, of Concord, said : I 
handled horses before I saw a horse rail- 
road. If you give water to a horse when he 
is hot, you are pretty sure so founder him. 
As regards watering horses, when running 
the cars or when in the stable, I am very 
careful not to let mine drink too much. 
When the horse is warm, it founders him, 
and stiffens him up to give him water. 
About feed. I am feeding three-quarters 
oats and one-quarter whole corn. I fed our 
horses on oats altogether at one time ; also 
on cracked corn and oats. We can get 
along pretty cheaply. I have not heard 
anything about how fast we can drive. I 
have been running a horse-railroad only 
three years, and keep my horses right up to 
the handle. They do splendidly, traveling 



92 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[March, 1885. 



fourteen or fifteen miles a day. Last spring 
we extended our road three miles further, 
giving them seven miles to run. I tried to 
put them through in an hour — we were 
running against a steam railroad ! The 
consequence was that I took the flesh off 
every horse I had. I got over that fancy, 
and have brought them down to five miles 
an hour, and they are picking up again 
nicely. 

Mr. Cleminshaw, of Troy, said : The re- 
port of Superintendent Brown covers lon- 
gevity. As to watering, it is a hobby up 
our way. If yoi will bear in mind what I 
shall say, you will go home and try our 
experiment, and never forget it. It is a 
humbug about a horse not drinking when 
he is warm. When I became connected 
with the Troy and Lansingburgh Road, I 
learned the habit of the Superintendent re- 
garding watering. I had been taught that 
a horse must never drink and never eat 
when he was warm. I asked him why he 
did it and looked into his theories. Ex- 
perience is worth more than all the theories 
ever generated. His report was written 
two years ago ; therefore, the sratistics, 
percentages, etc., should be dated back 
two years. Since Mr. Brown has been 
Superintendent, in winter or summer, it 
makes no difference which, as soon as the 
horse comes in from the car, his harness is 
taken off, and he is led to the trough and 
allowed to drink all he wants. When 
brought out from the stall, he is treated 
the same way. At stopping points, he is 
taken from car to watering-trough for all 
he wants. In the fourteen years that Mr. 
Brown has run the line — I will vouch for 
the last twelve years — we never have had a 
foundered horse, or one affected in any 
manner, shape or form in that way. His 
theory is that foundering comes from after 
giving a horse drink or food ; allowing him 
to stand in a draught, and taking cold. 
The report states the average life of a horse 
as about seven and one-half or eight years. 
We take the value of our horses, and base 
the calculation on that value of the horse ; 
because a horse worth one hundred dollars 
yesterday, may not be worth fifty dollars 
to-day. Our average for 1882, was, between 
seven and eight years. Last year it was 
less. Of course we are doing more busi- 
ness, and we put in more new horses. The 
new horses will wear out faster than the 
old ones. 

Mr. Robillard said : We have had horses 
that were foundered, and invariably it has 
been traced to their getting water from the 
tub when coming in from work hot. Horses 
have been foundered on the street, and it 
has been traced to the same source. I 
drive a first-class spirited horse, and coming 
home one night with him, not hotter than 
usual, I stopped on the way at a spout, 
about half a mile before getting to the 
stables. I gave him a drink, and that was 
the first he had had after leaving the 
stables. I let him run for about a mile 
after I started ; and in two or three min- 
utes we were in the stables, and the horse 
was stiff in very limb. He did not get in 
any draught. He got over it, and I never 
tried the experiment again. In the country, 
around our place, when they get home they 
let the horse go to the bucket ; from the 



age of two or three years they do that all 
the time. If you buy seven or eight year 
old horses, and try this, it will kill them. 

Mr. Cleminshaw replied : Every horse we 
get goes through the same process. 

Mr. Humphrey said : Has anybody in 
driving horses when warm and sweating, 
ever had a shower come upon them and 
founder them ? I got caught in just this 
way, and did not know what was the mat- 
ter. I put my horse up in the stall, and he 
showed it right off next day. He did not 
drink a drop of water that I know of. The 
veterinary asked me if I had been out in a 
shower? I replied that I had, when he 
said, that explains it. So I do not see why 
the horses on the horse- railroads do not get 
caught in the same way. 

Mr. Littell said : I would like to ask Mr. 
Robillard how long it was since his horse 
had drank, previous to the time he was 
driving ? 

Mr. Robillard replied : About three hours. 
If a horse is foundered through water, it 
will be apparent in an hour. 

Mr. Littell said : You can not keep a 
horse away from water, and then let him 
drink all he wants, without doing harm. 
Let him have all he wants right along. 
(To be continued.) 



Mr. Fuller on Cable Railways. 

Mr. Lawson N. Fuller was up before the 
Cable Bailway Commissioners (N. Y.), on 
Thursday morning (12th ult.), and is re- 
ported by the Telegram to have said : — " I 
represent nearly all the property owners 
on 155th Street. The elevated roads were 
built, notwithstanding the many and stren- 
uous objections urged at the time. Now 
they carry in a year 500,000,000 passengers 
— so many, in fact, that people are huddled 
together like sheep in a cattle train, and 
often are obliged to stand during the entire 
trip. We were told that the value of prop- 
erty along the route would be destroyed, 
yet it has increased more than $150,000,000. 
The first rides I took in public convey- 
ances in this city were in the Knicker- 
bocker stages. I had to hold on to a strap 
and stand up all the way down town, and 
I have been holding on to a strap ever since. 
The city is constantly and rapidly growing, 
and the facilities for travel are wholly in- 
adequate. I have seen the working of the 
cable road in Chicago, and it is in every 
respect admirable. I have counted eighty 
passengers in one car going fiom the Astor 
House to 155th Street. The lawyers appear- 
ing here in opposition to the proposed 
cable road are nearly all employed by the 
horse railroads. The grant of a surface 
road in Broadway should compel the com- 
pany to carry passengers from one end of 
the island to the other for five cents, and 
give transfers to all parts of the city. The 
Sharp people want the franchise for a road 
in Broadway, and only propose to carry 
passengers to Fifty-ninth Street. 



Mr. Relim on Car Heating. 

A local reporter recently interviewed Mr. 
Jacob Rehm, of the North Chicago Railway 
Co., with the following result : 

"When asked whether the north side 



railway cars were likely ever to be heated, 
Mr. Crawford said that was a question he 
did not wish to discuss. Jacob Rehm, who 
owns a controlling share of the stock of 
the corporation, was present, and he was 
asked to solve the problem. Mr. Rehm 
shook his head and did not want to talk. 
' Why don't folks insist on the omnibuses 
and other vehicles being heated?' he 
evasively asked. 

" ' There are fewer people who ride in 
omnibuses, and then for shorter distances,' 
answered the interviewed reporter. 

" 'Well, the majority of the people don't 
want the cars heated — wouldn't have them 
heated — and would be mad if they were 
heated,' insisted Mr. Rehm, waxing elo- 
quent. ' I've talked with them ' (meaning 
the people) ' and I know what they think 
about it. Nine out of ten people don't 
want them heated. They don't get cold 
riding the little distance to business in a 
street car, with heavy overcoats and warm 
rubbers.' 

" 'But,' timidly interposed the reporter, 
' when people are not able to clothe so 
"warmly, or when they are well clad and 
have a long ride of three or four miles, 
they do get cold. Isn't there some way of 
making it more comfortable to your pas- 
sengers in severely cold weather? You had 
stoves on your cars at one time.' 

" ' Yes ; but they were not practicable 
and we took them off. I haven't seen any 
way of heating street cars yet that is prac- 
ticable. They are trying something on the 
south side somewhere now, but it is no 
good. I've been watching these things.' 

" ' Do you know anything about the sys- 
tem used in heating the cars in Brooklyn ! ' 

" ' Oh, yes ; but it don't amount to any- 
thing. They pretend to heat them but 
don't have any fire in them once in ten 
days. It's only a certain unreasonable set 
that want to keep bothering us that ask to 
have the cars warmed. The next thing we 
know they will want us to put down a 
carpet for them to walk on from the doors 
of their houses to the car,' and having thus 
delivered himself, Mr. Rehm fell into a 
state of abstract reflection." 

[Mr. Rehm's reported statement, that 
the Brooklyn cars do not have any fire in 
them once in ten days, is erroneous. 
We ride in one or another of the Brooklyn 
lines twice every day, and have not yet 
struck a car in which there was no fire. J 



Regarding a Spring Car Motor. 

Eds. Street Railway Journal: — 

Inclosed you will find an article cut from 
the American E.R. Journal of February 
and March 1884, in regard to Automatic 
Spring Motor. Will you please let me 
know through the columns of your Jour- 
nal, what has become of it ? I was in hopes 
at one time, that it would be a success. 
Yours truly, 

Jas. O'Hern, Sec'y. 
Hannibal (Mo.) Street Railway Co. 

[In pursuance of our inquiries upon the 
subject, we saw Mr. J. Francis Bacon, of 
131 S. Fourth St., Philadelphia, formerly 
Secretary and still an active director of the 



March, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



93 



Philadelphia company referred to: ?'. e., the 
"Automatic Spring Motor Car & Carriage 
Co."] 

Mr. Bacon's reply is embodied in the fol- 
lowing communication from him: — 

Philadelphia, Feb. 19th, 1885. 
Eds. Street Railway Journal: — 

In answer to your inquiry concerning the 
Automatic Spring Motor, I will say, that 
the company is at present pushing the mat- 
ter as fast as possible. As with every new 
thing, difficulties have occurred which 
were not expected in the beginning, and 
obstacles arisen which required time and 
patience to overcome. At the present time 
nearly all the perplexities have been re- 
moved; the springs have been made and 
tested ; the large car (except the top or wood 
part) completed, and a final test will be 
made in a short time, just as soon as the 
machinery can be properly adjusted and 
the durability of the springs ascertained. 
The company has every reason to believe 
that it will be the success claimed; but past 
experience has taught us that a great deal 
of patience is requisite. The descriptions 
of the motor given in the articles handed 
me are in the main correct, and need no 
comment or enlargement on my part upon 
them. 

Hoping the above may be satisfactory to 
you, I remain 

Very respectfully yours, 

Francis Bacon. 

The description referred to is in substance 
as follows: — 

<< ***** _£_ car j s £, em g con- 
structed in Philadelphia which will contain 
eighty springs, eight seats of ten springs 
each. Each set will be inclosed in separate 
cylinders, and each will have its own gear- 
ing. The power of eighty springs is suffi- 
cient for a run of eight miles. The entire 
force will not be used at any time. That of 
one set of springs will be exhausted before 
that of another set is used, and each set 
will carry the car one mile. No difficulty 
is anticipated with regard to grades, the 
calculation being that a grade of six hun- 
dred feet to the mile can be covered with- 
out trouble. The grade question is met in 
this way; progress will be made od the level 
with one set of springs. Reaching a grade, 
should it become necessary, force will be 
augmented by working another lever, thus 
bringing into play another set of springs, 
and so on, to the use of as many as may be 
found necessary. The new car will have a 
front swing truck, lessening friction and 
enabling it to take short turns. It is like- 
wise anticipated that, by means of such 
truck, the car will be easily removable from 
the track in case of obstruction, and may be 
run around it. To stop the car, there will 
be provided a treadle to act upon a double- 
action band brake, locking both axles, and 
stopping the car within the space of six 
feet. 

" Some minor features of the invention are 
a governor which may be set to determine 
the maximuxn speed of the car, and an in- 
dicator that will show the amount of re- 
serve force left in each set of springs. It 
will be seen that the breakage of one spring 
would reduce the power of an eighty- 






springed car, only one-eightieth part, with 
the corresponding proportionate loss of 
speed. At the end of the route the broken 
spring would be repairable at a cost of five 
dollars, in two hours. 

< i * * * * * n (; more than two good 
stationary steam engines of fifteen totwenty 
horse-power will be necessary to any ordi- 
nary city railroad to wind the springs. The 
steam engines can be placed at both ends 
of the route, and when not in use for wind- 
ing, can run the company's repair shops. 
No new tracks, new switches or turn-tables, 
will be necessary, as the car can run back- 
wards or forwards." 

There are (or were) two other spring car 
motor companies in Philadelphia, work- 
ing in different ways, upon the same prob- 
lem. Eds.] 

+-*+■ 

Rapid Transit in Level Cities. 

Eds. Street Railway Journal : — 

A prominent Street Railway official of 
the city of Chicago claims to have solved 
this problem, and in the course of an in- 
terview with a representative of the 
Journal, disclosed his solution of the 
matter. The following ie a condensed re- 
port of his plan : 

"The track will be underground and in 
the centre of the street, using a double arch 
for a double track. This plan is considered 
by practical engineers beyond question or 
doubt, to be feasible, practical, and unob- 
jectionable, particularly as regards the 
Streets of Chicago. It is preferable to the 
elevated systems for many reasons. It does 
not interfere in anyway with the property 
holder ; it not being calculated to deterior- 
ate the value of property in any way. It 
is more accessible than the elevated system, 
requiring only about 18 inches more de- 
pression than the grade of the basements 
of buildings as they are now constructed, 
so that eleven ordinary steps would take 
the passenger from the present sidewalk to 
the train. The elevated system requires 
two to three times that number, is un- 
sightly, and in no small measure deterior- 
ates the value of property adjoining. With 
electricity as now perfected, the surround- 
ings would be as comfortable and pleasant 
as a parlor by gaslight, and the temperature 
would not be subject to the sudden and 
radical changes experienced on roads above 
ground. 

"For propelling power compressed air or 
electricity might be used, neither of these 
producing smoke or gas, and either of 
them making attainable a speed of 25 or 30 
miles per hour. 

"Trains could be moved without danger 
of collision, and the cost is within easy reach 
of those who may desire to become inter- 
ested, and not necessarily greater than the 
elevated system." 

The gentleman from whom the above 
was gleamed, is a man of great experience 
in his line, and has devoted considerable 
time and money to the solving of the 
problem of rapid transit id large cities. 
Plans of his underground system have 
been prepared, and it is now only a 
question of time when the underground 
system will drive the cable system to the 
wall, it not being subject to the many ob- 
jections and difficulties that operate to the 
detriment of the latter system. W. O. 



Another Remarkable Horse. 

Eds. Street Railway Journal :— 

Your issue for this month contains the 
"history of a remarkable horse," owned by 
one of the Chicago Street Railway Com- 
panies. 

I would give you the history of a horse 
owned by our company, which may prove 
interesting to some street railway men. 

In February, 1882, we purchased a horse 
aged 12 years, weight about 1,100 lbs., 
which had been trained for pacing on the 
track. He could pace fast, but was an in- 
curable bolter. This bad habit also spoiled 
him for road work, and after passing 
through the hands of several horsemen, 
who failed to break him of his bolting pro- 
pensities, he came to the street railway 
stables. 

After trying to control him with severe 
bits, the superintendent ordered him to be 
worked against two horses as the only pos- 
sible way of keeping him so he would do 
his work without alarming the passengers, 
or breaking his harness. 

Accordingly, from March 1st, 1882, be 
was worked 26 miles a day ; if he was let 
off with 15 miles a day for a few days, he 
would get so the drivers could not handle 
him. 

About once a month, some one would 
take a fancy to him and come to buy him 
for road work ; but one trial drive after 
him single, and he would invariably be 
brought back to the barn. 

When he died from a severe attack of 
colic, in September, 1884, he had a credit 
of 19,764 miles (nineteen thousand seven 
hundred and sixty-four.) 

Every driver in the employ of the com- 
pany rejoiced at his death, as even with 
the most severe bits, and constant work, he 
kept a driver very busy holding him on the 
track. 

Allow me to say that the Street Rail- 
way Journal is appreciated here, and that 
we look forward with impatience for each 
issue. It treats on matters that we under- 
stand and take an interest in. 

Yours respectfully, Wii Bond, 

Stable Foreman, 
St. C, M. & Thoroid St. Ry. Co. 

St. Catharine's, Out., Canada, Feb. 16th. 



The Chaplin Frictiouless Bearing. 

Eds. Street Railway Journal :— 

J. E. Rugg, Esq., Superintendent of 
Highland Street Railway, Boston, has 
given us permission to say that our bear- 
ings have run on the "Gov. Rice" car of 
his road, since spring of 1881, with perfect 
satisfaction. There was not one cent of 
repairs put on box or axle until August of 
1884, when the car was overhauled and 
painted, and our bearings repaired and 
put at work again and are now running. 
The "Gov. Rice" is a close car, and is run 
seven months in the year ; open car replac- 
ing it in the summer months. There is a 
very noticeable saving of draft, and the car 
takes curves with great ease. At the shop 
we were told it was the exception to have a 
box run as long without repairs. The boxes 
were put on by us as an experiment, and 
no attempt has ever been made to put them 
on the market. This road uses the Higley 
box, and we have been treated very cour- 
teously in the testing of ours, and thank 
you for your valued notice. 

Respectfully yours, 
E. P. Curtiss, Treas. and Mgr. 



94 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[March, 1885. 



THE 



Street Railway 

JOURNAL. 



MONTHLY, $1,00 PER YEAR. 

E. P. Harris General Manager. 

P. G. Monroe General Western Manager. 

Robert Grimshaw, M. E Editor in Chief . 

G. B. Heckel .Associate Editor. 



American Railway Publishing Co. 

32 LIBERTY ST„ NEW YORK. 

8 LAKESIDE BUILDING, CHICAGO. 
S. L. K. Monroe, Sec'y and Treas. 



BRANCH OFFICES: 

Eastern District, 8 Exchange Place, Boston,Mass. 
H. M. Swetland, Manager. 

South-Eastern District, 419 Walnut St., Phila- 
delphia, Pa. G. B. Heckel, Manager. 

Southern District, 68 Alabama St., Atlanta, Ga. 
E. V. Cavell, Manager. 

South-western District, 504 Temple Building, 
St. Louis, Mo. W. Rose, Manager. 



Special Notice. 

Street Railway officials and others inter- 
ested, who have not yet subscribed for the 
Street Railway Journal, should do so at 
once, so as to receive the back numbers. An 
index will be printed at the end of the year, 
embracing the first twelve numbers — consti- 
tuting a most valuable fund of information. 
The price (only One Dollar) should place 
it in the hands of every practical street rail- 
way man in the country. 

Car Wheels. 

Roundness of car wheels means ease of 
traction and economy of track, wheels and 
motive power. We know of but one city 
on this continent where really round wheels 
are used, and that is Chicago, where the 
wheels are ground. 

It is not enough that a wheel be round in 
the ordinary sense of car wheel roundness, 
which generally means that the tire or 
tread approximates a circle which is ap- 
proximately concentric with an axle which 
is approximately straight. The tire or 
tread must be absolutely circular in any 
plane at right angles with the axle ; the 
rim or felloe must be of equal thickness in 
all parts of any circumference ; the wheel 
must be truly centred and the axle must be 
perfectly straight, and its journals and 
wheel seats absolutely parallel and "in 
line." The material of the wheel must be 
free from local fissures, blow-holes (either 
opened or flattened) and strained places ; 
must be of equal density, hardness and 
toughness in all parts having similar shape, 
place and duty. 

Gradually, master car builders have taken 
up the questions of roundness and size of 
wheels, and incidentally have tried to pro- 
duce wheels which were bored concentric- 
ally with their tires. 

We believe that these lines are the first to 
point out another probable cause of rough 



running and short life of wheels, namely : 
non-parallism in and non-alignment of axle 
journals and wheel seats. 

If the journals and wheel seats are round 
and straight, but those on one end of the 
axle not parallel with those on the other 
end, naturally, the two wheels on that axle 
will not lie in parallel planes, but will be 
inclined to one another, and thus will re- 
sult a wabbling, which must of necessity 
cause rough riding and encourage sharp 
flanges. 

If the journals and wheel seats are round, 
straight and parallel, but not axially con- 
centric, that is, " in line," there must ensue 
rough riding and flat spots on the treads. 

Having pointed out the desiderata and 
essential f eatures of a proper car wheel and 
axle, and wherein the average product does 
not fulfill the requirements, it may be 
worth a few words, to point out how these 
desiderata are to be attained. 

As to roundness, we think that in these 
days no one will dispute the assertion that 
nothing was ever cast truly round. The 
lathe or special wheel turning mill has had 
to supplement the molder's work, and 
has produced results which passed for 
round until their non-circularity was ex- 
posed. No four jawed chuck was ever 
known to turn out truly round work, and 
we believe that no chuck having an even 
number of jaws can be made to turn 
anything round or anywhere near round, as 
modern machinists understand the word. 
We will go further and say, that no lathe 
ever turned anything which would pass for 
round in Pratt & Whitney's, or Brown & 
Sharpe's machine shops, and that there 
never was anything which was round , that 
was not ground so. 

The lathe gives but an approximation. 
But whether lathe or abrading disk is em- 
ployed to produce a car wheel from a cast 
ing, the process is one which is doubly 
wasteful; for the turning process is paying 
money out for the purpose of removing 
the best part of the wheel, the "precious 
metal". The conclusion which should 
naturally result from this reflection is, that 
we should try some method of producing 
wheels which are commerciall y, practically 
round and true in the tread. This may 
perhaps best be accomplished by preparing 
dies which have, by lathe and emery wheel, 
been rendered absolutely round, true, and 
to size, and then producing die-forgings 
therefrom, by the action of press or hammer 
on homogeneous metal "cheeses," either 
cast or forged. 

As to freedom from blow-holes (either 
distended or flattened, but in either case 
harmful), that may in certain measure be 
secured by improvements in melting and 
pouring ; but the probability is that absolute 
certainty in this respect will be difficult 
and costly to arrive at. Here again the 
pressing and hammering processes suggest 
themselves as valuable auxiliaries, for they 
are even more effective in improving the 
internal character of the mass than in 
battering the outline and surface. In the 
matter of equal thickness of rim or tread, 
pressing or hammering here again has the 
advantage over pouring. 

True concentricity of bore and tire may 
be got by the use of a proper boring mill, 



using a chuck having a prime number of 
jaws. 

The axle should have its wheel seats and 
journals turned on both ends at once ; and 
then the journal should be ground, with- 
out re-chucking the piece, the grinding 
being effected by a pair of wheels for each 
journal, hung in a swing frame so as to 
constitute a pair of calipers, as in grinding 
paper rolls. 

This latter proposition will be very 
promptly laughed at. If it were as laugh- 
able as the results by present methods, it 
would be very ridiculous. The saving in 
traction alone would pay for doubling the 
expense of fitting, in order to secure such 
good results : but properly managed, the 
system would come as cheaply as under 
the present method. 

We have a friend who curries his cows. 
He gets laughed at, too.: but the extra 
milk more than pays for curry-combs and 

labor. 

■» ■ » 

Heating the Chicago Cars. 

A correspondent of the Chicago Tribune 
writes to that paper as follows : 

" Noticing various articles in your paper 
treating upon the heating of street cars, 
I have become sufficiently iuterested to pro- 
cure some information on the subject from 
the Secretary of the Cream City Railway 
Company at Milwaukee, which company 
has its cars at a very comfortable tempera- 
ture at all times during the winter — never 
overheated and never cold. 

' ' The heater it uses is a small coal stove on 
the driver's platform, incased in sheet iron, 
the heat passing into the car through a ra- 
diator at the side of the door — hence no 
danger of scorching clothing, or of the hay 
or straw in the bottom of the car igniting. 

"The heaters complete and in place in the 
car cost about $95 each. The quantity of 
coal required will average a cost of from 
30 cents to 60 cents per car per day. 

" My apology in troubling you with this is 
the common interest I have with you in 
suffering street car patrons, who from ne- 
cessity contribute liberally to the treasury, 
and certainly deserve better from the cor- 
porations. J. A. Brown." 



Borrowing. 



"For such kind of borrowing as this, if it be not 
bettered by the borrower, among good authors is 
accounted Plagiare." — Icoruclastes. 

It has been a constant and justifiable 
source of pride to the publishers and editors 
of this journal, that its contents have been 
almost without an exception, however 
trifling, original; and that whenever special 
circumstances have called for the reproduc- 
tion of matter from other publications, the 
source has been scrupulously indicated. 

It has been an equal source of pride that 
most of those contemporaries which are not 
jealous of our well-earned influence and 
financial success have done us the honor to 
reproduce many of our articles, with due 
credit. 

Occasionally, however, we find an ex- 
change (or a contemporary, not an ex- 
change) using our ideas and information, 
clothed in other words ; and some even go 
to the length of copying our paragraphs 
and articles without giving us proper credit; 



March, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



95 



sometimes without even " beating the devil 
round the bush " by vaguely adding " Ex- 
change,'" which means so much and yet so 
little. 

Messieurs et chers confreres, you are, until 
further notice, welcome to our articles so 
long as you credit them. Otherwise, 
please keep the scissors away from them. 



Stable Ventilation Pays. 

Did it ever occur to those in power, that 
by permitting their stablesto be pest-houses 
and funk-magazines, they are losing money 
in several ways ? 

We have in mind now a set of stables, in 
a large city, and in a quarter thereof which 
would naturally be desirable for residences, 
on account of its high ground, and central 
location, its dry, firm soil, and the character 
of the property and improvements all 
around it. But within a radius of two 
blocks of these stable, each lightest wind 
conveys to the residents of the neighbor- 
hood, not 

" Sabean odours from the spicy shore 
Of Arabie the blest," 

but whiffs and wafts of ammonia and sul- 
phuretted hydrogen, and unmentionable 
and unanalyzable gases, varying only in 
their pungency and offensiveness, and in 
their relative unhealtbful effect. 

Asa consequence, "rents are down" in 
that neighborhood ; and the population is 
of a class which rides but little. In other 
words, the unventilated stables are the cen- 
tre of a town of five blocks in length and 
the same in width, which contribute but 
very slightly to the revenue of the road. 

Further, the health and eyesight of the 
horses is not improved by the lack of venti- 
lation. In fact, it can be shown that the 
strength and durability of the horses are 
lessened and the medicine bill increased by 
the lack of ventilation. 

In addition to this, the harness rots sooner 

in an unventilated stable than in one in 

which both man and beast can find '-the 

two noblest things, which are sweetness and 

light." 

* ■ » 

Steam on Street Railways. 

The Hon. R C. Parsons recently read be- 
fore the British institution of civil engineers 
a paper concerning the progress of steam 
locomotion on street railways. He asserted 
that very little success had attended efforts 
to introduce steam motors on the common 
highway, while special legislation in behalf 
of the streQo railway companies has led to 
comparati ve success in that direction. 

The British "Board of Trade" regula- 
tions have been amended so as to protect 
the public, without hampering the use of 
steam. A special type of engine, with ver- 
tical cylinders, carried well up above the 
axles and fitted with long connecting rods, 
coupled directly to the leading axles, has 
been applied to the street cars. ' 'All four 
wheels are connected by coupling rods, as 
in the locomotive, and the exhaust steam is 
concealed by various expedients. The sur- 
face condenser was considered more econ- 
omical than super-heating, to produce 
efficiency, and air condensers were thought 
practicable. Engine and passenger car 
were often combined — a method used in 



various American systems — in one of wbich 
(Rowan's) the engine can be removed and 
another substituted in a few minutes. 
Depreciation was allowed for at 10 ;/. De- 
preciation on the line alone was taken as 
3 %. The cost of operation was stated at 
2.28 pence per mile, while the total of all 
expenses was given at 9.33 pence per mile, 
and every penny per mile above this figure 
should give 2.2 % in dividends. The line in- 
tended for such steam traffic should be very 
substantially built, and large cars and mod- 
erate fares were advised." 

Mr. Shellshear described the street rail- 
ways of Sydney, New South Wales, all of 
which are worked by the ordinary railway 
system. The number of passengers carried 
in 1882, on twenty-two miles of road was 
15,269,100, or about 200,000 per mile ; and 
the earnings were over $40,000 per mile, or 
about 2%' per mile. The gauge is 4 feet 8-£ 
inches and the number of engines em- 
ployed 57, including several American 
(Baldwin) tank engines, which work more 
smoothly than English or home-made en- 
gines. The government is having other 
steam cars, on the American system, built 
at the Baldwin Locomotive Works. The 
result is believed to have demonstrated 
that horse-power must yield to mechanical 
traction. 



Keyed and Bolted Car Wheels. 

A rather novel method of fastening car 
wheels to the axles has been recently pat- 
ented * and satisfactorily tested on the D. 
L. & W. R'y. 

The method consists essentially of recess- 
ing the wheel bearing of the axle and pro- 
viding the inside of the wheel hub (or hole) 
with lugs corresponding in number and 
position to the grooves in the axle. Or 
simple keys may be substituted for the 
lugs. The wheel is secured to a collar or 
abutment on the axle, by means of bolts 
passing the abutment and the wheel hub, 
and secured by suitable nuts. 

It is claimed that this method of fasten- 
ing wheels decreases their liability to frac- 
ture, as the wheel is secured without the 
immense pressure (25 to 40 tons) required 
to force home the ordinary wheel ; a pres- 
sure that is claimed to frequently cause 
crystallization of the axle, which combined 
with the internal strain on the wheel hub, 
ultimately leads to fracture of the axle or 
wheel. 

On the authority of a letter from Mr. 
Walter Dawson, M. M. , countersigned by 
Mr. W. A. Halstead, Gen'l Supt., D. L. 
& W. R'y, we can say that wheels thus 
fastened gave a mileage of 15,000 miles 
without repair or apparent strain on the 
fastenings. 

The method appears to us eminently ap- 
plicable to street railway service. G. B. H. 

* Michael Jordan, Scranton, Pa. 



in the city, and the total number of pas- 
sengers carried was less than 7,000,000 ; in 
1884, the total of passenger traffic for all rail- 
ways and omnibus lines were 302,183,362. 
This is an average increase of over 
9.000,000 per year. In 1850 the population 
of the city was 515,547 ; while in 1880 it 
was 1,206,299. Taken by decades, the in- 
crease of travel has reached 141 per cent., 
and the growth in population only 46 per 
cent. 

The elevated railways carry nearly one- 
third of the moving mass, or in 1884, 
96,702,620 ; but as the natural growch of pas- 
senger travel between 1877 and 1884 was 
over 120,000,000, or more than 23,000,000 
above the presented capacity of the ele- 
vated lines, it would seem that the rapid 
transit problem is yet to be solved. The 
more railways there are the more they 
seem to be used, and the statistics prove 
that increased facilities invariably bring 
about an increased ratio of travel. In 
1855, four railways carried, each, over 
4,500,000 passengers ; in 1865, twelve roads 
carried nearly 7,000,000 each : in 1875, nine- 
teen roads nearly 9,000,000 each, and in 
1884, twenty-three lines transported over 
12,350,000 passengers each. 

The publication referred to, basing its 
figures upon the semi-decade of 1875-80, 
showing the lowest percentage of increase 
in travel, viz.: 15 of population and 27 of 
traffic, estimates that in 1890, an increase 
in passenger traffic of 138,000,000 will have 
to be provided for ; and in 1900, or fifteen 
years from now, the increased demand 
will reach the enormous figures of 
561,000,000. 

If these deductions are even approxi- 
mately correct, it is very evident that the 
facilities for travel in the city of New York 
must be vastly extended to meet the possi- 
ble demand of the next few years. There 
appears to be room for nearly, if not quite 
all, of the various transit projects afloat, 
both elevated and underground cable roads 
and ordinary tramways. — Unknown Ex- 
change. 

■* ■*■ 

To Street Railway Officials. 

We should be very much obliged to 
officials, or others, if they will let us have 
by "closing day " of our next number, any 
memoranda of interest in street railway 
circles. 

Copy should reach us on the 25th of each 
month, for the issue dated the first of the 
subsequent month. 



Growth of Travel in New York. 

The wonderful growth of the passenger 
traffic of New York City in the last thirty 
odd years is an interesting study, and the 
following figures are deduced from a table 
published by the New York Arcade Rail- 
way Co. : 

In 1850 there were only two railway lines 



Cos! of Keeping London Omnibus Horses. 

The principal food of the horses of the 
London General Omnibus Company, is 
maize ; and maize has not been so cheap 
since 1879. It cost only £1 5s. 2d. per 480 
lbs., against £1 13s. 8d. in 1882. We quote 
from a recent English note on this subject : 
"No other food is so suitable for horses. It 
is heat giving, well adapted for flesh foim- 
ing, and where speed is not particularly 
required, is altogether an admirable fodder. 
Beans make up a staying power, and these, 
too, have been cheap — fully 3s. a quarter 
less than in 18b3. Oats have been a shade 
dearer, but very little is required. The 
same applies to hay. Maize is the great 
thing, as it means 95 per cent, of the whole 
fodder, and there is always a fair chance of 
its being obtained at a fair price." This 
company paid 12+£ in 1884, as against 10^ 
in 1883. 



96 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[March, 1885. 



A Changeable Horseshoe. 

We illustrate herewith a novel pattern 
of combination horseshoe, for which the 
inventor * claims several points of special 
convenience. 

The shoe, made of malleable iron, com- 
prises two parts, one of which is provided 
with heel and toe calks, and the other with 
side rows of holes, in the usual manner. 
The upper portion is nailed to the hoof in 
the same manner as the common shoe. The 
method of uniting the two parts will be 
understood from the cut. The lower por- 
tion, constituting the shoe proper, is 
slipped into the flanged recess in the upper 
permanent part, constituting the shoe car- 
rier, and the two lugs at the heel enter 
openings provided, and are firmly held by 
split keys. In icy weather the smooth 
shoe can be replaced by one formed with 
calks, in a. very short time; the operation is 
simple and easy and can be performed by 
any one. The carrying plate, being sub- 
jected to very little wear, is calculated to 
outwear many ordinary shoes, and while 
that portion lasts, shoeing does not require 
the aid of a blacksmith. When the hoofs re- 
quire trimming, the same shoe is replaced 
after the operation. Should the 
horse interfere, when shod with 
calks, or should he become uneasy 
in the stable, the under part can be 
taken off. If it is considered neces- 
sary, an elastic layer can be placed 
between the two parts. It is claimed 
that by the use of these shoes the 
services of the blacksmith are in less 
frequent demand, and the cost of 
shoeing will be proportionately re- 
duced. 

* David J. Pryor, Roxbury, Mass. 
•-♦-• 

On Horse Shoeing. 

Eds. Street Railway Journal :— 

I have been reading the Street ^_ 
Railway Journal, find it very in- 
teresting, and would not be with- 
out it. «, 

As I have seen nothing in it about 
horse shoeing, I thought I would give what 
I found to be the best system for horses in 
the use of the street railways. In the ten 
years that I have been in the employ of the 
Chicago West Div. R.R. Company I have 
tried many different kinds of shoes to 
keep the horses from going lame, but 
none of them proved satisfactory until I 
tried the tip system of shoeing. In nine 
cases out of ten, lameness in the foot comes 
from contraction ; when anything is the 
matter with the foot the shoes are taken 
off, and as a result the horse gets better. 
Now, then, if we can shoe a horse so 
that he gets the same effect as if he was 
barefooted, we have made our point. The 
only place that needs to be protected is 
around the toes back to the quarters of the 
foot, so as to give the frog and heels full 
pressure on the ground. A horse shod 
on the tip system is more sure-footed on 
slippery pavements than a horse shod with 
heels and toe-calks. The great trouble with 
the farrier is, in place of assisting nature, 
he destroys what nature put on the foot to 



protect it. The frog should never be cut 
away, and the sole of the foot should be let 
alone ; it will shed itself ; keep the toe short 
as possible with safety ; rasp the heels and 
wall down to the proper state ; only take off 
what is surplus growth from the protection 
of the shoe ; there is no such thing as a 
horse's frog wearing away or becoming 
bruised or the heels getting sore from 
coming in contact with the pavement. 

The shoe that I use only weighs ten 
ounces, and they will wear as long as shoes 
put on the full length of the foot, that 
would weigh from two to two and a half 
lbs., heeled and toed. 

As I have no shoe to sell or axe to grind 
in the matter, but only the interest I feel 
in the horse, therefore I don't recommend 
any firm's shoe in particular. At present I 
am using the Goodenough shoe. 

By taking the No. 1 army pattern and 
cutting one inch off the heels, makes a shoe 
that can be manipulated very easily to any 
foot. 

I can prove to any one that may be 
skeptic on this system of shoeing that 
there is no need of having bad feet or lame 
horses, as I can convince them by showing 
the horses' feet that I am now shoeing on 




I insist that a baby can best judge of the 
necessity and expediency of taking its 
usual refreshment, and when it has signi- 
fied its imperial wishes to its mother, she 
has a divine right to turn any conveyance 
into a dining car if she pleases, and there 
is no indelicacy in the act. 

Respectfully yours, 

Mrs. M. 

« ■ » 

Pans for the Elevated Roads. 

A bill was recently introduced in the 
N. Y. Assembly requiring elevated rail- 
roads to place iron pans under the 
structures, so as to protect pedestrians 
from dropping coals, water and grease. An 
officer of the Manhattan Railway Company 
said about it: " It is the same bill that was 
presented last winter. It was sent to the 
Board of Railroad Commissioners for an 
opinion as to its practicability, with 
naturally an unfavorable result. Any 
sensible man would see at once that such a 
plan could not be carried into effect. In 
the first place the pans would seriously 
obstruct light, but in addition to that they 
would be practically be useless, for they 
would be filled with snow and ice in the 
winter months, and in the summer 
every rain storm would overflow 
them. The bill is an old stand-by." 



the tip system : they are as sound as horses 
that never had a shoe on. 

I also wish to say that railroad com- 
panies can shoe their horses with half 
the expense by adopting this system of 
shoeing, besides the saving of horseflesh. 
I have already taken up more space in your 
paper than I intended to, but the old 
system of shoeing is so wrong that it seems 
as if there should be a law that would 
compel men to make a change, and I know 
if the horses had a voice in the matter they 
would certainly demand it. 

Yours respectfully, 

Thos. Leggett, 
Foreman W. Div. (Chicago) Shoeing Dept. 



Nursing Babies in Street Cars. 

The query in your " Kicker's Column," as 
to the right of a woman to nurse her baby 
in a street car could have emanated only 
from the brain of a crusty old bachelor, a 
personage who has no rights that any well 
ordered baby is bound to respect. 



Street Railway for China. 

Whether John Chinaman buys his 
boots as large as he can for the money 
is an open question, but it is certain 
that he is fond of riding in street cars 
and goes in for getting his money's 
worth, even if he has to walk back 
part way. This being the case, it 
seems strange that in all the couitless 
large cities of the Flowery Land there 
is no street railway. India, Japan, 
the East and West Indies, Mexico, 
^_ Brazil, the states of South America, 
etc., are all endowed with these 
conveniences of modern civilization, 
but the tinkle of the bell-punch has 
never yet been heard in populous, ride- 
loving China. We can state, however, upon 
good authority, that parties are here ar- 
ranging for such plant and appliances as 
are necessary and that Yankee street cars 
will soon be rolling through the streets of 
at least one city in the Celestial Empire. 

F. B. G. 



Surface Drainage and Blindness. 

Does or does not surface drainage of 
stables cause or promote blindness in 
horses? This will be a good text for a few 
short sermons, which would lead to the 
betterment of the condition of car horses 
and the dividends of the companies. 



The Kansas City Railway Co. has 
adopted the bell punch as a check on con- 
ductors. Edward J. Lawlers, Superinten- 
dent, had five years experience with the 
punch on the Sutton Street road in San 
Francisco. 



March, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



97 



Car End Framing:. 

Eds. Street Railway Journal: — 

I send you a cut representing a skeleton 
frame of street car end , all framed together 
before being put into place. Several yeare 
ago, while connected with the South Side 
City Railway Co., of Chicago, by permis- 
sion of the Master- Mechanic of that com- 
pany, I proposed to him to build the whole 
end of street car in one frame; which to my 
knowledge had not been done before. The 
foreman was somewhat in doubt whether 
it could be made practical, and as cheap as 
the old way, yet it proved so in a very short 
time to their entire satisfaction, a ad the 
same method is now constantly resorted to 
wherever new cars are built. 

That this system of construction is 
cheaper, I think can be easily demonstrated 
by any one willing to make the experiment. 
Not only is it practical for street cars, om- 
nibusses, etc., but may also be employed on 
the regular railway coaches. There is no 
necessity of building a car as one would a 
frame house, fastening first one 
stud, then another, and so forth. 
The putting together of frames 
of this kind is much easier — 
some large iron clamps and 
trusses may be built for the 
purpose, so that the workmen 
can get all around their work 
and do it much quicker and 
better in every respect than by 

the old way of climbing up and 

down on scaffoldings, that some- 
times occupy as much space as 

the structure itself. 
First, of course, it is necessary 

to have all parts that enter into 

the frame mortised, tenoned, 

bored, grooved, and smoothed 

up in good shape. When that is 

done, then frame door post and 

head together; the same with 

end or head plate, and ventilator 

carling. Then frame together 

strainers with top and bottom 

rails, left and right hand side; 

and when everything is ready to 

clamp together take a perfectly 

laid out end sill and slip in all tenons of 

posts and strainers, then glue the same, 

having all measurements correct. 
This completes the end, ready to be set up. 

W. M. Gabrielson. 
New York, 1-26. 



and " any structure to be erected on the 
New York side shall be subject to the ap- 
proval of the Mayor."' 



Personal. 



Jno. F. Courtney, of the Railway 
Register M'f'g. Co., will soon make a trip 

West. 

S. A. Green, Superintendent of the Ro- 
chester City & Brighton R.R., has resigned, 
to take effect April 1st. 



Comments. 

— A street car conductor was punished in 
Baltimore, the other day, for starting his 
car too soon, and dragging a gentleman 
through the mud. My opinion is that a 
good many conductors ought to have some 
sort of a lesson on this point ; but it is not 
often you find a person aggrieved who will 
so far forget his personal dignity as to be 



Future Management of the Brooklyn 
Bridge. 

The bill providing for the future manage- 
ment of the Bridge, prepared by the Trus- 
tees' Committee on Legislation, has been 
read by Oswald Ottendorf er. According to 
Mr. Ottendorf er the principal features are as 
follows: The Bridge is made a State work. 
The new Board of Trustees will consist of 
the Mayors and Comptrollers of New York 
and Brooklyn. To provide for repairs, 
accidents, etc., income bonds may be 
issued. The Brooklyn terminus of the 
Bridge is placed at the City Hall Park, 
while the New York terminus "has been 
and is still at or near the City Hall Square," 



willing to act as both jury and sheriff in 
such case. 

— What is the matter with the riding of 
new car No. 33 of the Fulton Ave. Line, 
B. C. R.R. Co., Brooklyn? Passengers 
with false teeth keep their mouths firmly 
closed to prevent their being shaken out. 
Would suggest that Conductors be provided 
with ear trumpets to better understand the 
questions put to them by the passengers. 

— Two portly, middle-aged ladies were 
compelled to stand, as I did, on a Sixth 
Avenue car the other day. As they 
stepped off at 42d Street, I heard one 
observe to the other, — " Faith, Mrs. 
Murphy, I find it a good deal aisier to get a 
seat in a sthreet car, whin I put on me 
good clothes ! " 

— I don't object to Philadelphia street 
car conductors wearing ear muffs in cold 
weather, but I do object when they shut 
their eyes as well at their ears. I lost a 
train the other day through failure of a 
20th Street Line conductor to look about 















r > 






I 














i 




















(f 



him at a street crossing. He had his ears 
muffled, and couldn't hear ; and naturally 
the weather was pretty warm in my vicin- 
ity at that moment. 

— There is a fool of a driver on the Race 
and Vine Street, Line, Phila., who insists 
on making all passengers, old and young, 
male and female, mount his car while it is 
in motion. Sometime he'll meet an artillery 
captain, or break some one's leg; and then 
the company will look into his record and 
discharge him. 

N. B. — After paying damages to the 

"breakee." J. C. 

■» • » 

Notes and Items. 

Chicago Cable Roads.— For the first 
time, we believe, since the South Side 
(Chicago) Cable lines started up, there are 
reports of failure, on account of snow and 
ice during the recent cold snap. We can't 
see, however, that this is any argument 
against the cable, as horse car lines were 
stopped at the same time all 
over the United States. 

Chicago. — A grip was broken 
on the Madison Street switch 
the other evening, and all 
switching from one track to 
the other, on both the State and 
Cottage Grove lines, was done 
with the assistance of horses. 

In Baltimore, the other day, 
Captain Ramsay, of the 2d U. S. 
Artillery, assaulted a Blue Line 
(Calvert Street) conductor for 
starting the car too soon, and 
dragging hie official dignity 
through the mud. Undoubtedly 
the conductor deserved punish- 
ment for his carelessness, but 
we can't see how a slugging 
matinee of the kind described 
by the papers is going to restore 
the dignity of a U. S. Artillery 
captain, tarnished with civilian 
mud. 

The Winnipeg, Manitoba, Com- 
mercial says: — "It is reported that Stone- 
wall is about to have a street railway." 

The Plate Portrait of Mr. Wm. H. 
Hazzard, Prest. Brooklyn City Pass. Ry., 
and Prest. of the Nat. Assoc, published in 
the report of the late convention, is a good 
likeness, very appropriate, and well worthy 
of a frame for office adornment. 

A Street Railway Car Chair has been 
patented— No. 312,259— by B. F. Curtis, of 
Atlanta, Ga. 

The Brownell & Wight Car Co., St. 
Louis, Mo. have in course of construction, 
equipment for two new street railroads to 
be built in St. Louis in the spring, one 
of them to be operated by cable. They 
have in addition a large amount of work 
for other cities ; among these orders being 
one from Mexico. Their car for the New 
Orleans Exposition is ready for shipment, 
they having held it until the rush of 
freight was over, so as to avoid long expos- 
ure in freight yards. This car is intended 
for use in summer or winter and comprises 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[March, 1884. 



many novel points. It must certainly at- 
tract the attention of all street railroad 
men who see it, and receive the favorable 
opinion of those who are anxious to have 
comfortable cars iu summer without being 
compelled to have a double equipment. 

E. V. C. 

M. A. Cutter, of Galveston, Texas, has 
patented a street car — No. 312,556. 

L. Daft's (Greenville, N. J.), latest 
patent on electric railways is numbered 
213,557. 

.1. H. Polhemus, of Brooklyn, N. Y., is 
the inventor of a cable grip— No. 312,507. 

Mr. Randall, Master Mechanic of the 
Metropolitan R.R. of Boston, and inventor 
of the Randall gear, is building 20 open 
cars with all the latest improvements for 
that road. 

C. L. Van Wormer, President and Gen- 
eral Manager of the Oriental Metal Manu- 
facturing Co., 48 Congress Street, Boston, 
Mass., has lately received orders for over 
200,000 lbs. of their metal, including one 
order of 5 tons in ingots for export. The 
wearing qualities of their Journal bearings 
are said to be remarkable. Mr. Richards, 
President of the Metropolitan R.R. after 
thoroughly testing it, uses nothing else for 
bearings, as may be said also of the Lynn & 
Boston, R.R. and others. E. O. 

St. Louis Cable Road. — An exchange 
has the following: "The contracts for St. 
Louis Cable road have all been let, except 
that for the steel rails. The power station 
at Franklin & Channing Avenues is nearly 
completed. The New Albany Rail Mill 
Company, of New Albany, Ind., has the 
contract for the conduits. Each will be 
made of % inch sheet iron, rivited every 
every 4% feet to ribs or yokes made of 40 
pound steel railroad iron. It will be made 
in sections of eighteen feet in length and 
placed in position, when it will be riveted 
together in one continuous piece. There 
will be two conduits, one for each track, 
making the entire distance covered six and 
two-fifths miles. These conduits will be 
surrounded with a layer of concrete not 
less than six inches thick. The twenty- 
four passenger and fifteen grip cars will be 
of the most approved pattern, and are to seat 
forty passengers each. The boilers will be 
three in number, 60 inches in diameter and 
20 feet long, to furnish power for 250 horse- 
power engine. The Fulton Iron Works 
have the contract for the winding ma- 
chinery, pulleys, drums, etc.; Philip F. 
Stifel for the granite and the paving be- 
tween the rails, and John A. Roebling's 
Sons Company, of Trenton, N.J., the con- 
tract to furnish the 34,500 foot \% inch 
cable. 

Staten Island Rapid Transit— Erastus 
Wiman, of the Staten Island Rapid Transit 
Company, has published the confession of a 
lobbyist who got through the New Jersey 
Legislature, in the closing hours of the last 
session, a resolution opposing the bill he 
has in Congress to authorize the bridging 
of Staten Island Sound at Elizabeth and 
Perth Amboy. The story is one of the 
most ridiculous descriptions of a ridicul- 
ous scene which I have ever read. The 



only "influence " which the lobbyists says 
he employed was the embodying in the 
preamble to the resolution the one fact that 
Mr. "Wiman is a British subject and the 
falsehoods that the Staten Island Rapid 
Transit Company is domiciled in London 
and composed of English capitalists. The 
Irish members put the resolution through 
with a yell. — Daily Paper. 

The Cream City (Milwaukee) Railway 
Company's cars are all heated during the 
winter. 

"Democrat Catcher." — Mr. McDevitt, 
Master Car Builder of the North Chicago 
Railway Co. , has invented a device which 
he facetiously terms a ' ' Democrat Catcher, " 
and which has been applied to all cars be- 
longing to that company. It consists of a 
peice of strong pipe some two inches in 
diameter, and stretches from step to step 
on each end of the car in semi-circular 
form, and covering the lower end of the 
brake-staff. The object is to prevent the 
cutting of the horse's flanks either by step 
or brake-staff, should the horse fall and 
the car run up on it. • Since it has been 
adopted on this line not one horse has been 
cut by the car in cases where a fall oc- 
curred. 

Elevated Railway Schemes in Chicago 
and Philadelphia seem fated not to be. 
The Philadelphia councils have invariably 
refused to sanction the various propositions 
looking to quicker transit by this means ; 
while the Chicago papers are inclined to 
think the State Street projects will fall 
through on account of an Illinois law (Rev. 
Statutes, Chap. 47, Sec. 1), which provides 
that ' ' Private property shall not be taken 
or damaged for public use without just 
compensation , and that in all cases in which 
compensation is not made by the State in 
its corporate capacity such compensation 
shall be ascertained by a jury." This will 
give enterprising property owners a chance 
to find sudden bonanzas in their holdings, 
which will, it is thought, be beyond the 
reach of the available capital. 

Messrs. M. C. Moseman & Bros, cata- 
logue cost them over $5,000. There's 
enterprise, and " there's wisdom for you," 
too, as Capt. Cuttle would rise to remark, 
for it has paid. They carry a full line of 
horse furniture, and number among their 
numerous street railway customers Sharp's 
crosstown roads, the 42d and Boulevard 
road, Broadway and 7th Avenue, Fourth 
Avenue, Broadway road of Brooklyn, and 
others out of town. G. 

The Saginaw Street Railway Line is 
thus complimented by the Saginaw (Mich.) 
Daily Times: * * * * Our citizens have 
no complaints to make. There has hardly 
been a single hour's delay during the 
whole winter from the great snow fall. 
The tracks are kept in perfect readiness and 
repair. The system of heating adopted by 
our street cars is all that can be desired and 
calls forth the admiration of every patron. 
No smoke, dust, gas, or anything un- 
pleasant, and the car is as cosy, warm and 
comfortable as a parlor. If some of the 
managers of- street railway lines in other 
cities would visit this city they could learn 
how to equip a road that would give entire 



satisfaction to the public. If there is a 
better equipped or managed street railroad 
line in America than can be found in this 
city we would be pleased to know of it." 

Josephine D. Smith, 352 Pearl Street, 
New York, has got out a new extension 
chimney for street car centre lamps, so 
arranged as to fit different sizes of globes. 

Andrews & Clooney, New York, report 
an increasing business, especially in their 
wheel department. Their spring business 
is also good. They have just completed a 
job of turntable work for export. 

The New Kansas City Railway will 
not be ready to start on the first of March 
as expected. 

In the Suit of the Railway Register 
M'f'g. Co. against the Belt Line and the 
Broadway and Seventh Avenue roads, for 
using the "Standard" register, Judge 
Wheeler's decision in favor of the Railway 
Register M'f'g. Co. covered all the points 
claimed by them. An appeal has been 
argued for a rehearing. Decision will soon 
be given. 

Andrews & Clooney have just made 
for the Kansas City Cable road, and are 
now making for the 10th Avenue (N. Y.), 
Cable road, a number of springs to be so 
applied as to relieve the cable of sudden 
strain. They are graduated in- such a 
manner as to indicate at any time the 
amount of resistance of the car. Why 
would it not be a good plan to attach to 
such a graduated spring a pencil to mark 
on a ribbon of paper to move by clockwork 
in such a way as to indicate the exact 
amount of load at any part of the trip, and 
the average amount of power required to 
haul the car or train ? 

The Westchester County Railroad 
Co. — W. C. Hurd, President, Yonkers, 
N. Y., having obtained the consent in 
writing of a majority of the property 
I owners along the proposed line, to build a 
road, has formally asked the Common 
Council for its decision. 

A Car Drivers' Strike is talked of in 
New York for April 1st. It's well that the 
would-be strikers have given themselves 
plenty of time to think about such a strike, 
for the more it is thought about the less 
likely it is to occur. 

A Bill has been introduced into the 
New York Legislature to reduce the fare to 
three cents on all street railroads in the 
State which pay 20 per cent, on their cost. 
Certainly ; but, by the by, will the legisla- 
ture also make the fare seven cents on 
roads paying little or no dividends ? 

Assemblyman Earle, of New York State, 
has a bill to limit a day's work for con- 
ductors and drivers to twelve hours. Isn't 
it a little hard on an industrious man to 
say how many hours of his own time out 
of the twenty-four he may sell to his em- 
ployer ? 

A Cable Road has been patented by Mr. 
Francis de Vooght, of Antwerp, Belgium. 
The invention covers means for retaining 
the cars on the rails on curves, and for 
holding them down to prevent overturning 
on steep ; means for conducting a cable 



Mabci-i, 1885. J 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



99 



through a shield over or under ground, and 
for obviating friction ; hooks of peculiar 
form for attaching and detaching cars ; 
means for obviating opening and closing the 
shield to permit the car attachment to com- 
municate with and be carried by the cable; 
means for crossing transverse cables and 
for adapting the same car to run either way 
on the same track, with provision for auto- 
matically disconnecting the hook from the 
cable and notifying the car driver thereof, 
at crossings, and other novel features in 
cable motive practice. 

Recent Patents. — The following list of 
patents relating to the street railway in- 
terests, granted by the U. S. Patent Office 
during the month of February, 1885, is 
specially reported for these columns by 
Franklin H. Hough, Solicitor of American 
and Foreign Patents, 925 F Street, N.W., 
Washington, D.C. : 

311,537— Cable and Car, traction— J. H. 
Smith, Newark, Ohio. 

311,627— Car-starter — A. R. Whitmer. 
Safe Harbor, Pa. 



312,273— Cable Tramway— C. M. Huson, 
South Pueblo, Colo. 

312,507— Cable Grip— J. H. Polhemus, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

312,556— Car, street— M. A. Cutter, Gal- 
veston. Tex. 

312,258— Railway Chair, street— B. F. 
Curtis, Atlanta, Ga. 

312,711— Cars, Grip Attachment for Cable 
— J. J. Enclres, Hoboken, N. J. 

The Production op Bessemer steel rails 
in the United Kingdom in 1884 was 784,968 
tons, against 1,097,174 in 1882. There has 
therefore been a diminished make of 312,206 
tons in 1884. 

New Tramway for Tours (France). — 
The President of the French Republic has 
signed a decree, permitting the building of 
an extension of the Tours street railways 
from the barriers of Vouvray to the depot 
of Saint-Symphorien. The necessary ar- 
rangements for the execution of the work 
must be completed within a year from date 
(Jan. 25th, 1885). 

The French Tramways Company of 
the Department of the North, has rented 



of the city corporation, under certain limi- 
tations, all the street railways of Lille; 
lease to terminate in 1918. 

The contract for the girder rails for the 
Melbourne tramcars has been placed, we 
understand, in the hands of Messrs. Dick, 
Kerr and Co., of London, this being the 
second contract that has been placed in 
connection with these tramways, the pre- 
sent one amounting to about 9,000 tons. The 
same firm have also just shipped the whole 
of the ironwork for the Brisbane tramways. 

Electric Tramway. — The Blackpool 
(England) Town Council General Com- 
mittee has resolved to employ electric 
power for the new tramways to be there 
laid. 

Every Traveler in France will wel- 
come a long expected railway reform 
effected by the Minister of Public Works. 
A circular has been sent to the boards of all 
the railway companies, requesting them to 
arrange by the 1st of April that free access 
shall be given to the platform and trains to 
all passengers provided with tickets. The 
misery of prolonged incarceration in salles 
d'attente will, therefore, soon become a 
thing of the past. 

The Covert Mfg. Co., of West Troy, N. Y., has 
added to its business the manufacture of chains of 
all sizes and styles. 



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I. J. Car Spring and Rubier Co., 

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WRITE FOR PRICES. 



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A Trial of Our Street Railway Journal Bearing solicited. 



Section No. If 
46 lbs. per Yard 



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100 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[March, 1885. 



C. M. MOSEMAN & BRO. 

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March, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



101 



Street Railway Builder and dealer in Railway Supplies. 

OM> KOADS RE-LAID, GRADING, PAVING, &c. 

Special attention given to laying Switches, Curves, Turnouts, Connections and 

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Used by Pittsburgh Transverse Railway Co. 

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A speedy and sure cure for Colic —has saved hundreds of horses where all 
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out it. I hope you will meet with the 
success your cure deserves. 
Truly yours, 

VALENTINE BLATZ, 
Per H. Lieb, Manager. 



Decatur, III., Oct. 2, 1884. 
Messrs. Jokes & Roach, Chicago, 111. 

I have used your Colic Cure for my 
horses and mules on my street car 
lines and found it the best and surest 
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It gives relief in a short time after it is 
taken. I can cheerfully recommend it 
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President Decatur Street R. R. 



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horses as being the best that I have 
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Office of North Hudson County 1 

Railway Co. y 

Hoboken, N. J., Oct. 4. 1884. ) 

Gentlemen: It gives me pleasure 
to say that I can heartily recommend 
your European Colic Cure to all horse 
owners, from a personal knowledge of 
its curative qualities. I have used it in 
our stables, containing about six hun- 
dred horses, and have always found it 
to be beneficial. Yours very truly, 
ALBERT SAILLET, 

Foreman and Veterinary Surgeon 
for the North Hudson County Ry. Co. 



Sample Bottles Furnished Street Railway Companies Gratis. 

For further information, prices, etc., address 

JONES & ROACH, 259 Fremont Street, Chicago. 



"\K7"KX<3-H:'X , 'S 

PATENT JOINT FASTENING. 

The accompanying cut shows 
a cross section through joint. 
A is the rail, B the joint chair, 
U the stringer, D the patent 
screw fastening, E the nut, F a 
slot in chair allowing rails to 
contract and expand. The chair 
cannot settle and the rail ends 
are held level with each other, 
preventing the many evils of 
ordinary construction. 

For Further Particulars Address 

AUGUSTIN W. WRIGHT, 

NORTH-CHICAGO CITY RAILROAD, 

CHICAGO, ILL. 




102 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[March, 1885. 



THE STANDISH FOOT-POWER HAMMER 

Is specially adapted to making light forgings, 
for welding in dies having impressions cut to the 
shape of the work required. They are superior 
to power hammers, as the hammer is under as 
perfect control as the Smith's hand hammer, 
and are used in the carriage business for weld- 
ing Dashes, Shifting Rails. Top Props, shaping 
and forming ALL SMALL WORK equal to drop 
forging, and are in use by the principal manu- 
facturers of the United States. Send for circu- 
lars. Address. 

The Capital City Machine Works, 

COLUMBUS, O. 




Patented July 10, 1883. 



-A.. ATSES, 
Manufacturer and Patentee. 

Send me full size section of rails to be used at points A, B, C, D, E, G. 
No. 625 TENTH AVENUE, NEW YORK. 




Steel Groove Curves bent to suit 
any radius ; Channel Plates, all 
kinds ; Knees all sizes ; Pedestals 
and Boxes, all kinds ; Brake Shoes; 
Ayres' Patent Automatic Switches, 
Plain Switches, Frogs and Cast 
Rails for curves, and all kinds of 
castings. 



PLUMBAGO BEARINGS. 



p 

L 
U 
M 
B 
A 
G 




-POE- 



Cable Roads. 

Warranted to Run Cool, without Oil, 
G-rease or other lubricant, 

4,000 IN NEW YORK. 

2,600 IN KANSAS CITY. 



J. J. RYAN & CO., 



62 & 64 W. Monroe St., CHICA60. 



B 
E 
A 
R 
I 

N 
G 
S 



PLUMBAGO BEARINGS. 



M.M. White & Co., j pennin£,on ' s Groomin£ Machine ' 

fell 



531 WEST 33d STREET, 

NEW YORK. 




OWNERS AND BUILDERS OF 

H. DOUGLASS' 

Patent Automatic Switch 

FOR STREET RAILROADS. 




The brush is caused to revolve by gear wheels actuated by a flexible shaft. 
Both hands free to handle brush. Swings and turns in any direction. Direc- 
tion of motion quickly changed. The cheapest and best Grooming Machine yet 
invented. Motion supplied by hand, steam or animal power. Rights to use or 
manufacture. For full particulars and rates apply to 

ELLIS PENNINGTON, 

204 Walnut Place, - - - Philadelphia, Pa. 



March, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



103 



LAKE & McDEVITT'S 



For Horse Railways, Omnibus Lines, Etc. 




The Advantages 



ROPE TRACE 

are its ready application 
to Horse-Car service, or to 
any other purpose where 
cheap harness is required. 
It only costs about naif as 
much as leather traces, 
while at the same time 
one set of Rope Tugs will 
(when used on horse cars) 
take the place of three or 
more sets of leather 
traces, as the Tugs remain 
attached to the car all 
day, no matter how many 
changes of stock are 
made. The relief horses 
having hooks attached to 
their hames, all that is 
necessary is to unhook the 
tugs from the working 
team back in the fresh 
horses, hook on the tugs, 
and the change is made. 
Railroad men will at once 
perceive their adaptabil 
ity and economy from the 
above facts. They will 
also last longer than leath- 
er traces, and require but 
very little care. From 
their durability and cheap- 
ness they are also espec- 
ially adapted for all kinds 
of farm use and heavy 
teaming, as farmers, etc., 
can easily repair them . 



Patent No. 171,883, December 31, 1875. 



In use on the Chicago West. Div. R'y. ; Louisville City R'y Co.; Milwaukee City R'y; Transverse R'y Co., Pittsburg, Pa. ; Citizens Street R'y Co., Pittsburg, Pa. ; 
Pittsburg and Birmingham, Pittsburg, Pa.; Central City R'y, Peoria, 111.; Grand Rapids R'y ; Minneapolis St. R'y Co. ; St. Paul City R'y; Houston City R'y , Texas ; 
Superior Street R'y, Cleveland, O.; Cincinnati City R'y Co. ; Fifth Ward Street R'y, Syracuse. : Detroit City R'y. ; Ft. Wayne and Elmwood St. R'y, Detroit, Mich.; 
Galveston City R'y; Springfield City R'y, Springfield, 111. ; Toledo St. R'y, Toledo, O. ; Adams St. R'y, Toledo, O. ; Atlanta Street R'y, and others, in all on about 100 
Street R'ys in United States and Canada, and a large number of other prominent Street R'y Companies throughout the Country. EST" Send for descriptive Circu- 
lar containing testimonials, prices, etc., to 

LAKE & McDEVITT, 161 South Robey Street, Chicago, 111. 

CLARK'S PATENT POWER GROOMING MACHINE, 

S X 2iT <3- X, IE OE DOTJBIiE. 




TO STREET RAILWAY COMPANIES AND OTHER STOCK OWNERS. 

This machine for grooming may be driven by any known power, and can readily be placed for use in any stable or out-building. It can be operated by an ordin- 
ary groomsman; its work is perfect; its action simple and effective. Stock owners will readily realize the importance of the machine. The perfection and rapidity 
of its work, and the benefits derived by its use, commend it to those interested in the care and use of all classes of thoroughbred and work stock. The most vicious 
animal readily submits to its use. Machine Grooming is found to be less expensive than hand grooming, saving in fool and medicines, and materially increasing 
the value of the animal. 

The Curry Comb and Hand Process Superseded ! Economy of Labor ! Perfection of Work ! 

Three Hundred Head of Stock Thoroughly Groomed with Each Machine every Ten Hours. 

This Grooming Machine is in daily use in some of the largest Street Railway Companies' stables, and has always given perfect satisfaction. Among those using 
itaretheCity R'y Co., Chicago, 111.; Detroit City R'y Co., Detroit, Mich.; Central City R'y, Peoria, III.; M. W. Dunham, Wayne, 111 ; West Division Street R'y Co., 
Chicago, 111.; Lindell Street R'y Co., St. Louis, Mr ; Pleasant Valley R'y Co ., Allegheny City, Pa.; Marshall, Field & Co., Chicago, III.; Leroy Payn, Chicago, 111.; 
SaginawCity R'y, Saginaw, Mich. ; Pittsburg and Birmingham R'y Co., Pittsburg, Pi. ; and a number of others who have given testimonials as to the perfect work- 
ing of the machine. IS"" For prices, circular and other information apply to 

161 SOUTH ROBEY STREET, CHICAGO, ILL. 



104 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[March, 1885. 



J. W. FOWLER, 

President. 



DAN'L P. LEWIS, 



Treasurer. 



LEWIS <fe FOWLER M'F'G CO 



BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

PATENTEES AND MANTTPACTTJREBS OP 

IMPROVED 

"ALARM" 

Passenger Register, 

STATIONARY 
PORTABLE. 

SOLE AGENTS AND MANUFACTURERS OF 

"SMALL'S PATENT AUTOMATIC FARE COLLECTOR" 





FOE 



^-I2E 




o:^ 



CAES 



iLLSO 



"RANDALL'S" PATENT CAR AXLE AND ROX. 



Sectional View. 

j3b 



Front View. 



End View. 




En 



m 
A 




O 

M 

H 
O 

M 

H 




March, 1885. J 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



105 



RAILWAY REGISTER MANUF'C CO 



THE MONITOR REGISTER. 




MANUFACTURERS AND OWNERS OF THE 

Latest Designs, Improvements and Inven- 
tions in Registers, Indicators, Classi- 
fiers and Punches, for the Re- 
cording of Fares Collected 
on Street and Steam 
Railroads. 




BEADLE & COURTNEY, 

13-EITEISjA.Xj AGENTS 

Railway Register Manufacturing Co., 

1193 BROADWAY, NEW YORK, 

Branch Office: 426 "WALNUT STREET, Philadelphia, Pa., 
FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOCUE. 



106 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[March, 1885. 



PENNSYLVANIA 
STEEL COMPANY, 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Steel Rails 



Of T patterns, weighing from 16 to 76 lbs. per yard. 
CENTRE BEARING Street Patterns, 42 to 60 lbs. per 
yard, TRAM Street Patterns 45 to 47 lbs. per yard, 
and Street Patterns for STEAM ROADS. 



WORKS AT 
STE ELTON, DAUPHIN CO., PENN. 



NEW YORK OFFICE, 



160 Broadway. 



Fare Boss: and Changs Receptacles 



MADE BY 



WALES MANUFACTURING CO., 

76 and 78 East Water Street, 



Philadelphia Office, 208 South Fourth St. 




SYRACUSE, N. Y. 

Our Street Car 
Fare Boxes, for Sim- 
plicity of Construc- 
tion, Cheapness and 
Practicability are Su- 
perior to Anything of 
Like Character in the 
Market. 

H3P Descriptive and 
Illustrated Circulars 
an application. 



Front View. No. 3. 





Back View. No. 3. 



F. H. ANDREWS. 



F. T. LERNED, GEN'L ACT. 



B. A. CLOONEY 



OFFICE: 

545 West 33d St. 



ANDREWS & CLOONEY, 

WORKS: 

535 to 551 West U M 



■^f \ f^ " 'rf -fT V 'l— -r 



i - ^-. 



j|- | f r wrti. nn M pS^g j 1 1 l|j 



;dfc 



s 



NEW YORK. 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

ELLIPTIC, SPIRAL, 
VOLUTE, CAR and 
ENGINE 

SPRINGS 

OF EVERY DESCRIPTION.! 



CAR WHEELS, AXLES, 

BRAKE SHOES, 
PEDESTALS, BOXES, 

BRASS BEARINGS 



Street Railway Turn-Table. 
SEND FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE. 



-A-ITX) 




533 to 552 Mth Street. 

NEW YORK. 

AND CASTINGS 

of all Descriptions where great Strength 
is Required. Also 

SWEEPERS, 

SNOW PLOWS, 
TURN TABLES, 
TRACK WORK, 
AUTOMATIC SWITCHES, 

Etc. 
Steel Grove Rails and Machinery. 



March, 1885. 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



107 





±3 Barcla37- Street, 



£TeTX7- "STorH^, 



PATENTEE AND MANUFACTURER OF 



Graduated Street Car Springs, 



Patented, April 15th, 1879. 



ADAPTED TO THE 

STEPHENSON, 
BEMIS, 
RANDALL, 
HIGLEY, 
BRILL, 
JONES, 
BALTIMORE, 

-AND— 

ALL OTHER BOXES. 





No. 0, for 10-ft. Light Oars. 
No. 1, for 10-ft. Cars. 
No. 2, for 12-ft. Oars. 




1/ 




jSB No. 3, for 14-ft. Oars. 

1 a 

M| No. 4, for 16-ft. Oars. 



No. 5, for 16-ft. Cars. 

(Single Pedestal.) 



No. 1, Cushion, for 16-ft. 
Cars. 

No. 2, Cushion, for 12 and 
14-ft. Car?. 





STEEL CONE CITY CAR SPRING. 

Patented April 15, 1879— August; 5, 1884. 



The unprecedented popularity of the 

"VOSE [GRADUATED RUBBER GONE SPRING" 

for Horse Cars has induced the inventor to bring this 
class of Springs as near perfection as possible, and after a 
series of experiments and tests now presents for favor what 
he claims to be the MOST PERFECT SPRING FOR 
HORSE CARS ever offered. It is exceptionally Soft and 
Easy with the Empty Car or with the Greatest Load. It 
is believed to be the Most Durable, being constructed 
upon a principle that seems to insure that the Spring must 
Actually Wear Out. The very Finest Quality of Crucible 
Cast Steel will always be used in these Springs. 




10S 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[March, 1885. 



JOHN STEPHENSON COMPANY 



(LIMITED), 



TRAMWAY CARS 




'^-y^-^saijmgtg^^^, l __ 



LIGHT, ELEGANT, DURABLE. 



Every Description. 



Best Materials. 



Minimum Prices. 



ORDERS QUICKLY FILLED. CAREFUL ATTENTION TO SHIPMENTS. 
All Climates Suited. 




OCT 2 







Vol. I. 



j NKVVYIKK: ) 
| 32 Liberty Street. ( 



APRIL. 1885. 



I CHICAGO : I 

I 8 Lakeside Building. \ 



No. 6. 



Car No. 



Demorest's Duplex Fare Register. 

The cut shows the style of conductor's 
daily register report, made internally and 
automatically by the Duplex fare register,* 
showing each half trip during the day. 

This sheet or dial is turned in at the 
Receiver's office at the 
end of the day, to cor- 
rect any errors made 
by the conductor in 
his daily report. It 
must tally exactly in 
every particular, in 
order to relieve him 
from all responsibil- 
ity, thus making the 
conductor his own 
detective. 

It will also be ob- 
served, that as the 
register is being used 
by the conductors, 
they are required to 
sign their names, time 
used, and the number 
of passengers the 
hand indicates on its 
face, which identifies 
each man. This is 
claimed to avoid the 
necessity of employ- 
ing men to keep the 
records, as is the case 
with the use of other 
registers. The con- 
ductor i n resetting 



* W. Jennings Demorest, 
15 East 14th St., N. Y. C. 



this register each half trip, must put the 
number (indicated on its face by the " in- 
dex hand ") in the place provided on this 
sheet, which is " duplexed" upon the paper 
dial. 

Referring to the copy of a supposed page 
register, and to the dial register, our read- 



Run No..- 
5> 




ers will find reported 7 fares short of what 
the index hand indicates ; and we would 
like to have them determine which con- 
ductor did it, and on what trip it was done. 
To enable them to count or check the 
Duplexed Record (made mechanically), and 
the conductor's figures taken from the in- 
dex hand, we give 
the following instruc- 
tions : Take the first 
figure made by the 
conductor, which is 7, 
then compare it with 
the radial line which 
has figure 7 on the 
outside of the "dial 
circle;" and if the 
perforated dots cross 
the line and do not 
cross line No. 8 the 
tally is correct, and 
so on, until all the 
trips have been 
checked. If found in- 
correct, the conductor 
is charged with the 
difference between 
what he reports and 
where the perforations 
stop. By this system 
the maker claims that 
you can positively 
check the man who 
handles your money, 
without the assist- 
ance of any one else, 
thereby saving 
money, and render- 
ing collusion and 
fraud impossible. 



EACH CONDUCTOR MUST SIGN HIS NAME OR NUMBER BEFORE USING THE REGISTER. 



Trips. 


Time used. 


Number 
of conductor. 


Total | 
pass, i 


Trips . 


Time used. 


Number 
of conductor. 


Total 
pass. 


Trips. 


Time used. 


Number 
of conductor. 


Total 
pass. 


E. 


5.30 


A M 


Haines, 


7 


E. 


9.30 


A 1 M 


Adams, 


70 


1 E - 


1 M 






w. 


6.00 | " 


M 


•' 


1 


W. 






M 






| w. 






M 






E. 


6.30 


(I 


M 


Page, 


17 


E. 






M 






E. 






M 






W. 


7.00 


it 


M 


" 


27 


W. 






M 






W. 






M 






E. 


7.30 


" 


M 


Riley, 


43 


E. 






M 






E. 






M 






W. 


8.00 


,, 


M 


" 


32 


W. 

E. 




| M 






W. 

~eT 
w. 






M 


| 


E. 


8.30 


it 


M 


Jones, 


51 






M 







— - 


M 






W. 


9.00 


it 


M 


a 


36 


W. 1 


1 M 1 




M 







110 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[April, 1885. 




American Street Railway Association. 

Officers, 1884-5. 

President. — Calvin A. Richards. President Metro- 
politan Railroad Co., Boston, Mass. 

First Vice-president.— Julius S. Walsh, President 
Citizens' Railway Co., St Louis, Mo. 

Second Vice-president. — Henry M. Watson. Presi- 
dent the Buffalo Street Railway Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Third Vice-president, — Edward Lusher, Secretary 
and Treasurer the Montreal City Passenger Rail- 
way Co., Montreal, Canada. 

Secretary and Treasurer. —William J. Richardson, 
Secretary the Atlantic Avenue Railway Co., Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. 

Executive Committee. — President, Vice-presidents 
and William H. Hazzard. President Brooklyn City 
Railroad Co., Brooklyn, N.Y ; James K. Lake. Super- 
intendent Chicago West-Division Railway, Chicago, 
111.; Charles J. Harrah, President the People's Pas- 
senger Railway Co., Philadelphia, Pa.; William 
White, President Dry Dock, East B. & B. R. R. Co.. 
New York. N. Y.; B. Du Pont. President Central 
Passenger Railroad Co., Louisville, Ky. 



Report ol the Convention. — Continued. 

STABLES AND HORSES. 

Continuing our report of the discussion 
at the Annual Convention from page 92 of 
our March issue : 

Mr. Patrick : What is the rule among the 
gentlemen here present, with reference to 
the number of miles traveled per day, and 
what is the percentage of longevity on the 
greatest distance traveled ; meaning: First, 
longevity of horses on a line of any given 
distance? Second, the greatest number of 
miles made by the horses of any street line 
represented here, in a day ? 

Mr. Clark, of Cincinnati, replied : We 
have eleven different lines. In one case 
four teams make seventy-five miles ; four 
make sixty-seven; four, sixty-seven; four, 
sixty-four ; four, sixty-seven ; four, sixty- 
seven; four, sixty-four; four, sixty-nine; 
four, seventy ; four, sixty-eight, and four 
make seventy-five miles. This represents 
about eighteen hundred horses. We cannot 
notice any difference in their length of life. 
This depends a great deal with the sort of 
street they travel over. We have boulder, 
or cobblestones, Macadam and Nicholson 
pavements. We find those that travel over 
boulder are longer lived, and in a better 
condition every way. We use, in nearly all 
our stables, a clay floor. A rather curious 
fact with regard to this matter was noticed 
the last time the epizooty was in Cincin- 
nati. One of our stables represents about 
six hundred horses. The stable is divided 
into two parts, with a street about the 
width of this room between them. The 
stable with the wooden floor was decidedly 
affected. The other one was clay, and in 
this stable there was not a case of epizooty, 
while in the other there were numerous 
cases. The horses, as soonasthey come in, 
are taken immediately to the watering- 
trough, then to the stalls and cleaned off. 

Mr. Parsons, of Philadelphia, said: I 
would like to inquire of the gentleman 
whether the averages he gave were the 
stable averages of the horses? 

Mr. Clark replied : No, sir ; the working 



averages. Seventy-five is the largest, and 
sixty-four the smallest. 

Mr. Thurston said : It is a very important 
question in regard to the mileage of the 
horses, to know whether they are used only 
six or seven days in the week. In New York 
City and vicinity, they use them seven. 
In many cities they use them only six. 
Our experience is that fourteen miles per 
day is sufficient for a horse used seven days 
a week. 

Mr. Clark said : The largest business done 
in the week is done on Sunday ; probably 
one-third larger than on a week day. 

Mr. White said : I would like to ask the 
gentleman from Montreal a question. He 
states that the percentage of deaths is two 
and one-half. I would like to know what 
his renewal is year by year. That would 
bring it in better relation with the Com- 
mittee's report. 

Mr. Lusher replied : Out of four hundred, 
we can get along with a renewal every 
year of fifty. 

Mr. White rejoined : That puts it along- 
side of our own experience. In New York 
and Brooklyn, there are a number of roads 
that run from sixteen to twenty per cent., 
which would make his renewal fall below 
and above that average. The average life 
of a horse in New York and Brooklyn 
would not come up to the Montreal state- 
ment, although there they have much 
harder roads to work on. The hills and 
pavement they travel over are abominable. 

Mr. Lusher said : When you say twenty 
per cent., that is one-fifth; the renewal is 
twenty-five per cent. We have, however, 
the advantage in climate. 

Mr. White said : The question of veter- 
inary attendance has nothing to do with 
renewal. We have about one thousand 
one hundred and fifty horses, and have no 
veterinary. Once in a while we get a case 
in which we are a little puzzled. We send 
for a doctor. After we get the benefit of 
his advice, we are prepared for a recurrence. 
Mr. Patrick misunderstood one item ; the 
grade of the stalls. It called for slats laid 
upon the floor at an inclination of one and 
one-half inches. The common experience 
is to take nine feet for length of stall, and 
four feet three inches for width ; cutting 
slats to a feather edge, to bring the heel 
three inches higher than the shoulder, 
thereby indicating that the grade for the 
urine of the horse would bring the stall 
level, and carry the heels to the same level 
as the forepart. We have an excellent 
plan for chaining, which prevents the horse 
from burrowing into the gutter. We 
would not be able to maintain a wooden 
gutter for any length of time, unless the 
horse was kept on a level. The strip will 
last six times as long with the three inches 
at the heel, while the feather edge under 
the forefeet scarcely shows any service. 
Our floors are laid with one inch and a 
quarter cement. We put the floor down 
on that with about three courses of tarred 
paper, laid in asphalt. On this we lay and 
secure the stringers to which we nail the 
upper floor ; the joints at the gutters and 
where the urine is likely to go, are all 
calked, and then we run in hot tar. That 
makes a perfectly water tight floor, and a 
comparatively sweet stable. As to the 



odor of ammonia, there is nothing better 
as a disinfectant than common plaster, and 
it should be used frequently in warm 
weather. The hostler and stable foreman 
should make it their duty to use it freely. 
It is neither costly nor offensive ; is even 
more desirable than lime, as it is more 
readily used. It goes towards disinfecting 
the manure, when it gets into the pit. 
When the manure is thrown out, it is 
sweetened by the the plaster. * * I think 
our horses on our four lines average about 
fifteen miles of service a day. 

Mr. Patrick inquired : At about what rate' 
of speed do they travel? 

Mr. White replied : They travel about six 
miles an hour. We endeavor to give one 
day's rest out of seven ; we may not ac- 
complish it exactly, but we endeavor to 
keep enough extra stock to be able to do it. 

Mr. Parsons said : I must confess that I 
have heard a great deal of news in the last 
hour. One of the most astounding things 
is that of giving an unlimited quantity of 
water. We have had a great many horses 
foundered by giving water when hot. 
Another astounding thing to me has been 
this — the small number of miles run. We 
do not think we are getting any work if we 
do not get nineteen to twenty-one miles a 
day. We do not think that our stable aver- 
age should be less than fourteen or fifteen 
miles ; the entire number of miles run — the 
entire work done by all. We do not want 
to get lower than fourteen and one-half or 
fifteen miles a day. We get an average of 
four years out of our horses. We make a 
time-tab'e, absolutely running five miles an 
hour, including stops. We did drop this to 
°"i<jV ; but we found that the traffic was so 
great that, in turning in and out, we were 
really going between seven and eight. The 
stopping for and picking up passengers, and 
the stoppage by reason of wagons being in 
front of them, made it very rapid driving. 
In all the longevity mentioned, nothing 
has been said about percentage of extra 
horses to number employed, nor in regard 
to percentage of lame horses unfit for 
work. Eight years is exceedingly long, 
unless you have a large percentage of extra 
horses. Ours that do nineteen miles a day 
keep in good condition ; do their work 
comfortably and conveniently. The loss, 
out of three hundred and fifty, runs from 
twenty-five to thirty per cent. When 
twelve years old, they are unfit for work. 
The percentage of losses in our stables does 
not run over five per cent., including 
deaths from accident or the effects of the 
sun. In deaths for the year just closed, 
out of fifteen lost, four are directly attrib- 
utable to accident ; coming in contact 
with a wagon, or being run into by a fire 
engine. I should certaii ly like to know in 
what this longevity consists ; what their 
percentage of extra horses is in proportion 
to the number of horses worked, and what 
is the percentage of horses unfit for work. 

Mr. Thurston said : I would like to ask 
the gentleman who has just sat down, first, 
the character of his road, that is, the style 
of pavement ; second, the maximum num- 
ber they carry at a time on a car ; third, 
the maximum grades ? 

Mr. Parsons replied : Our pa\ement is 
the ordinary ccmmcn cobble-stcnes ; grade 



April, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



Ill 



comparatively level, and with but slight 
indentations in the street. So far as the 
number of passengers goes, taking an aver- 
age trip, it is difficult to state. It may be 
said to range from fifteen to ninety. Of 
the lir es of our Company, one is compara- 
tively level. But tbree bave grades, the 
maximum being seven to nine in a thou- 
sand. One has a grade of about six in a 
thousand. 

Mr. Robillard said : Our average laid 
up is one per cent., including the extra 
borses. 

Mr. Parsons inquired : How many horses 
do you allow to a car. ? 

Mr. Robillard replied : Some cars have 
twelve ; some ten ; some eight. The aver- 
age number of miles traveled is fourteen. 
They last fully eight years. A gentleman 
said awhile ago that he was surprised to 
hear a great many things. I have been a 
good deal taken by surprise to hear that 
horses are not played out doing twenty-one 
miles a day. 

Mr. Parsons remarked : I think the gen- 
eral service is about twenty. 

Mr. Wright said : "We figured that our 
per cent, is twenty ; on Nicholson pave- 
ment twenty-five. On cobble-stones, at 
twenty. We have about twelve horses to 
a car, and they drive from fourteen to six- 
teen miles. Stable average a little less than 
twelve miles. 

Mr. Thurston said : I am now taking out 
about two miles of Belgian pavement and 
putting in small cobbles ; I think they are 
the best for the horses. 

The Secretary said : I want to call atten- 
tion to one item touched upon by Mr. 
White ; his arrangement for resting his 
horses one day in seven. Some two years 
ago it was seemingly necessary to start 
building a road in Brooklyn on Sunday 
[laughter], and to which considerable an- 
tagonism was manifested. This developed 
much discussion and information, statis- 
tical and otherwise, in reference to Sunday 
horse-car running. I do not know but the 
very nature of our business, deadens our 
consciences somewhat, and makes it seem 
to us that our horses should be run seven 
days in the week year in and year out. 
I have this to say, however, that I believe 
from what I have learned on this subject 
from those who have tried resting their 
horses one day in the week — not always 
giving to all of them Sunday, of course, 
but arranging that out of the seven days, 
the horse will have one day of complete 
rest — that the life of the horse will be 
increased over and above, in actual profit 
to the Company, from the loss of his ser- 
vices for one day in seven, something like 
fifteen per cent. Now, if that be a fact — 
and it is certainly well worth verifying — our 
horses should all have accorded to them 
one day's rest in the week. 

Mr. Parsons said : I would like to know 
what percentage the sales of the blind, lame 
and decrepit horses bear to then purchase 
money ? 

The President replied : That dependsvery 
largely upon the Company ; whether they 
work their horses to death, or sell them 
when they can do a day's work. 

Mr. Thurston further replied : Our death 
rate is about fourteen and one-half, our 



selling rate about ten, and our purchase 
rate about twenty. 

Mr. Richards said : With what little 
strength I have left after sitting in this 
den, I desire to say a few words in a general 
way upon this Report. I should have 
spoken an hour ago better than now. If 
we do not exercise more sense in ventilating 
our stables than we do this room, we will 
kill all our horses. I have been very much 
entertained, pleased, delighted and in- 
structed with all that I have heard. I be- 
lieve that any man of intelligence, who 
has sat and listened and reflected upon the 
different items of information brought 
forth, must go home from this Convention, 
feeling that he has learned a great deal. 
In regard fo the horses, the rule which has 
always governed me in my management of 
them should govern everybody, because 
it is based on common sense : Use your 
borses as you would use yourself. The 
connection between humanity and the 
animal life is so near and delicate, that it 
is misunderstood to a great extent by men 
who do not reflect upon it. A horse has 
every disease that a man has, only known 
by other names. You have simply to give 
your horses the same remedies in quantities 
four times as large as you would take your- 
self. All the debate that we have had has 
tended to one point, that you should give 
the horse proper quarters, fresh air and 
proper food. If you speak of ventilation, 
if you speak of the different methods of 
building your stable, of his food or his 
drink, it simply means that you would 
do for him as you would do for your- 
self. We would not construct our houses 
in such a manner that all the ventila- 
tion should remain under the floor ; nor 
would we shut them up so close — except 
we met at the Fifth Avenue Hotel — that 
they could get no air. Their duties are 
like your own, but in a different direction. 
Would you, when very much heated after 
a run or other violent exercise, go directly 
to the water pail ; or would you load your 
stomach at that time, when the organs are 
not in a proper condition for digestion? 
Would you then sit down and eat a hearty 
meal, or sit by and cool off, and allow the 
heated brain and the rapid pulse to decline, 
and then sit down and take such refresh- 
ment as you needed? 

In warm weather, on the streets, when 
our horses are toiling on heavy roads with 
large loads, it is very hard on them.' I have 
a plan of stationing molasses tubs with 
water at different points, which stand open 
and in the sun frequently, and into it we 
mix oatmeal, making a little porridge. 
This is not so much to assuage his thirst, as 
to help the horse in his faintness. Some 
men like a drink of whisky ; I suppose Mr. 
Johnson will feel a little that way, but you 
and I, Mr. Chairman, will take a little por- 
ridge. That is the reason we give it to the 
horses. [Laughter.] 

As regards ventilation in stables, or 
rather cleanliness in stables, I conceived 
the idea some time ago of taking tar and 
boiling it and washing the insides of the 
stalls all over with it, and do this instead 
of using whitewash. I found it so effectual 
as a disinfectant, that we now use it en- 
tirely in all the new stable s. I have built 



during four years stables for over three 
thousand horses ; and there is no such 
thing to use as this tar. It is very cheap ; 
and where it is used a horse will never crib. 
Use rosin-tar or coal-tar. Common pine- 
tar is also good. We take it and heat it in 
the caldrons. Our hostlers can apply it as 
well as anybody else, simply taking a brush 
and going all over the stall. If you have 
a glandered horse or a farcied horse, you are 
twice as safe, It has an agreeable odor, is 
healthful, and, on the whole, very advan- 
tageous. 

Mr. Hasbrouck said : In our city, where 
the contract requires the manure pits to 
be emptied every day, they do not quite 
get to the bottom ; they leave a little layer, 
and it is anything but agreeable. What is 
best to throw into the pit to disinfect that ? 
Many say carbolic acid. I have a friend 
with whom carbolic acid is a hobby ; he 
holds that it should be used all around 
everybody's stable and everybody's house. 
He took a barrel of it down to Greenwood 
Cemetery, and gave it to one of the men to 
try. He said, I will come down here next 
week, and I want you to tell me how it 
works. He used it freely in a receiving 
vault. A week afterwards my friend went 
down and said: "How do you like the 
new disinfectant?" "Well, sor, to tell ye 
the truth, I like the old smell best ! " 
[Laughter.] There are various new-fangled 
disinfectants brought to our notice, and 
they are continually asking a trial of 
them. 

Mr. Johnson said : There seems to be two 
schools, one in favor and one against the 
free use of water. We are greatly in the 
minority ; but we have this advantage : we 
have tried it, and have educated our horses. 
The merit of the case is in educating them 
to it. You who are opposed to it have 
not tried it ; therefore, your negative theory 
or idea does not amount to as much as our 
positive assertion of fact. It is one of those 
things you cannot force people to adopt : 
but in time, our system of watering will 
be adopted by a great many. Mr. Richards 
says treat your horses as you would treat 
yourself ; but he did not carry it out in his 
own case when he gave them oatmeal. As 
to his insinuation about water and whisky — 
I am a Kentuckian, and we don't believe 
that water improves whisky down there. 
[Laughter.] 

Mr. Ladd, of New Bedford, said : The 
question we have been discussing about the 
life-time of a horse has not been as defin- 
itely answered as it might be. The Metro- 
politan Railroad has some three thousand 
horses ; they knew what the valuation of 
those horses was on the first day of October, 
1883, and how much they spent on that 
valuation since that time up to the last day 
of September, 1884. That would give the 
actual percentage of the money spent on 
renewals and the number they got. 

Mr. Richards replied : I can only give 
approximately the figures. It costs us fifty 
thousand dollars a year to renew our 
horses. We have three thousand six hun- 
dred. They cost us between one hundred 
and fifty and one hundred and sixty dol- 
lars each. 

The President said : Our loss is about 
twenty-two and a half percent, per annum. 



112 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Apkil, 1885. 



We run about sixteen or seventeen miles ; 
six miles an hour. 

Mr. Robbins, of Baltimore, said : The life 
of a street car horse depends upon the 
character of the road he is working on, and 
the amount of labor. The evidence that 
we heard is that on some roads the average 
life in New York city and Brooklyn is five 
years ; also, that in Lansingburgh they last 
eight years. I would like to ask what is 
the character of the street that the horse 
runs on, between Lansingburgh and Troy. 
Mr. Cleminshaw replied : It is a cobble- 
stone pavement. 

Mr. Robbins inquired : Are you interfered 
with much by the ordinary vehicles on the 
street ? 

Mr. Cleminshaw replied : Not as much as 
in New York ; but we haven't the same 
number. 

Mr. Robbins continued : The question 
appears to me to be reduced to this : If we 
get five years' labor out of a horse in the 
city, it is equal to seven or eight years' 
labor on a suburban road. It is very hard 
on a horse in these crowded streets — here 
and in Boston ; frequent stopping and 
starting, weight of the cars, number of 
passengers— all make a very severe service 
compared with any suburban road. I am 
operating a suburban road, and a road in 
the city over paved streets, and know there 
is a quite a difference in the wear of the 
horses. 

My instruction about watering is, while 
out on the road to give them all they want, 
or a little feed. Upon what they get on 
the street will depend how tired they will 
be when they come in. My instructions 
are to give the horses whatever they want ; 
to give them water sufficiently frequent, 
that they will not get very thirsty and take 
too much. The mule is a different animal ; 
and he is more hardened, more muscular, 
more vigorous. You can subject him to 
entirely different treatment from what you 
can a horse. He will stand a change of 
driving or of feed. My friends up North 
do not use mules ; but in the South they 
are pretty generally used. They are very 
serviceable ; when you consider the species 
of animal they come from, you find a very 
vigorous animal. In cold climates, espec- 
cially where there is much snow and ice, 
in the winter time, when they get on the 
ice, if they fall down, they get up and stay 
there. [Laughter.] We have got over that 
kind of fun. They possess more natural 
sense than the horse ; they are a very much 
abused animal. I started to use them, 
prejudiced against them, but have come 
out in love with them, on account of their 
intelligence. 

Mr. Littell said : The gentleman remarks 
about mules not doing well in the North. 
I would like to say something in regard to 
that. You all know Col. Lowry — if you do 
not, you ought to. He is the President of 
two roads ; one in St. Paul and the other in 
Minneapolis. " It snows up there about 
365 days in the year." He recently tried 
mules, and the result was, he bought 
$48,150 worth lately in Louisville for use in 
those cities. 

Mr. Robbins rejoined : I'll bet he will 

have mules to sell next spring ! [Laughter.] 

Mr. Cleminshaw moved that the report 



be adopted as the sense of the Convention. 
Carried. 

Mr. Cleminshaw said : I understand that 
some of the delegates want to get home as 
soon as possible ; and suggest that we have 
evening sessions. 

The President said : So far as the Chair is 
concerned, he is here at the service of the 
Convention. You put me here, and as long 
as I am here, I will obey your orders. 

Mr. Woodworth moved that when we 
adjourn, it be until ten o'clock to-morrow 
morning. Carried. 

Mr. Cleminshaw said : I was going to 
refer to a matter which has been customary 
in the past, and I suppose it will be in this 
Convention. I make the suggestion whether 
it would not be well to appoint a Committee 
on Nominations this evening. Suppose we 
should only have to-morrow's session and 
close up. Let us appoint the Committee 
and give them a certain time to-morrow to 
report. 

Mr. Johnson said : There was quite a 
number of us that talked the matter over 
last year, and many have thought it best 
for the Convention to form itself into a 
committee of the whole and ballot for the 
President and other officers. It is a ques- 
tion that all feel interested in. It is a 
delicate work for the Committee to do. 
I do not think any gentleman here wants 
to undertake it. I was once on that Com- 
mittee myself, and it was a very delicate 
duty. I believe greater satisfaction will be 
had by having open nominations and bal- 
loting. It is very quickly done ; it gives 
one an opportunity to speak. 

Mr. Cleminshaw said : It is for that very 
reason that I have brought this matter up 
It is a delicate question ; but it is more 
delicate for this whole Convention to do it 
than it would be for a Committee. It has 
been the practice of this Association, in 
designating the officers, to look the whole 
country over ; selecting one here, another 
there, and one at some other point, so that 
all parts would be represented I think the 
system of appointing a Committee is the 
right one. 

Mr. Thurston said : My experience has 
been, and I have had about half a century 
of experience in these matters, that if you 
go into convention and ballot for A. B and 
C, and you are there to elect men without 
regard to the different localities, orwhether 
they have held the positions already, or are 
qualified for them, then this committee of 
the whole may be all right. My belief is 
that the Committe appointed to select 
officers would judiciously discriminate, so 
that the different sections would be properly 
represented. I would cheerfully vote for 
the officers that Committee might recom- 
mend. If Mr. Wharton, or any one else, 
should come to me and say, this is the man, 
vote for him, I might be induced to do so. 
I would a great deal rather that the names 
be submitted to me by some Committee. 
I believe that the Chair in selecting a Com- 
mittee to nominate officers, would select 
those that would present to this body such 
names that we could consistently vote for. 

Mr. Flagler said : I move, for the purpose 
of getting this matter before the Conven- 
tion, that the Chair appoint a Committee of 
seven to report officers. 

The vote on this motion stood, thirty-five 
for, and nine against its adoption. The 
motion was declared carried. 

The Chair appointed the following Com- 
mittee : 
Mr. Charles Cleminshaw, of Troy, N. Y. 
Mr. Benjamin Flagler, of Niagara Falls, 
N.Y. 

Mr. Tom L. Johnson, of Indianapolis, Ind. 
Mr. C. B. Thurston, of Jersey City, N. J. 
Mr. T. C. Robbins, of Baltimore, Md. 
Mr. Charles B. Holmes, of Chicago, 111. 
Mr. Edward Lusher, of Montreal, Canada. 
On motion of Mr. Lusher, the meeting 
adjourned until ten o'clock to-morrow 
morning. 

[To be Continued.] 



Fireless Locomotives for Elevated and 
Street Railways. 

Between two and three years ago Euro- 
pean mechanical papers contained stme 
description of the Lamm-Francq fireless 
locomotive, Lamm being a New Orleans, 
La., engineer and Francq a French engi- 
neer. The engines were then being used 
very successfully on the Vienna (Austria), 
Elevated Railroad. 

The last number of Engineering to band 
enables us to give its subsequent history 
and data concerning it which, we think, 
will be of considerable interest to our 
readers, and especially those interested in 
Elevated and Street Railways. 

These engines are built in Europe, by the 
Hohenzollern Engine Co. of Dusseldorf and 
are fitted with the Joy valve gear. The 
mechanism, wheels, springs, etc., are of 
the ordinary type, but the fire grate is con- 
spicuous by its absence. The boiler consists 
of a plain cylindrical reservoir with dished 
ends and steam dome at top. This reser- 
voir is originally filled within a short dis- 
tance of the top with cold water and then 
placed in communication with a high pres- 
sure stationary boiler. A current of highly 
heated ste an is thus passed into the reser- 
voir, which gradually heats the water up to 
boiling point, then fills the steam space and 
finally raises the pressure until it equals 
that in the stationary boiler. To heat the 
water as uniformly as possible, the inlet 
pipe is continued through the reservoir to 
the middle of its length, near the bottom, 
where it joins a horizontal pipe extending 
the whole length of the reservoir and 
pierced all over with holes. 

The steam escapes through these holes 
and bubbles up through the water to the 
surface. When sufficient steam has been 
introduced and the pressure raised to 250 
lbs., the engine is disconnected from the 
fixed boiler and is ready for work. The 
steam is taken from the reservoir by a pipe 
opening high in the steam dome, delivering 
into a steam expander or special valve chest 
which reduces the pressure to about 50 lbs., 
at which it enters the cylinders. The pipe 
leading from the expander to the cylinders 
is large in size to form a receiver for the 
expanded steam and is carried diagonally 
through the reservoir, whereby the steam is 
to some extent superheated and completely 
dried ; the object being to prevent the ad- 
mission of the steam to the cylinders at a 
high pressure and yet retain a high pressure 
in the reservoir. 

Loss from radiation from the outside of 
the reservoir during the journey is effectu- 
ally prevented by a deadening consisting of 
a thickness of felt and sheet iron with an 
air space between. 

The advantages of the fireless system are 
summarized, as follows : — 

1. By the use of fixed boilers burning 
cheap fuel, high pressure steam can be 
generated with much greater economy than 
is possible in the grate of an ordinary loco- 
motive. 

2. No firing being required on the engine 
one driver is ample. Two firemen will suf- 
fice for a pair of boilers capable of supply- 
ing four engines each : so that six 
uremen are saved for eight engines as com- 



Apkil, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



113 



pared with systems where two men are 
needed on each locomotive. 

3. There heing practically no wear and 
tear in the reservoir repairs are not needed 
and the stock of engines in reserve may be 
much smaller than in ordinary cases. 

4. There being no fire, there is no smoke, 
sparks, cinders, etc., to annoy the public, 
and no danger of explosion, while the ex- 
haust steam can readily be condensed if 
required. 

5. There is no need to spend time and 
fuel in "firing up "early each morning; 
the engine being left charged over night, and 
loses only 30 to 40 lbs. pressure, so that it is 
ready to make its first tiip at any moment. 
It is thus never allowed to get cold. 

6. The large store of energy maintained 
on the engine can be drawn on just as re- 
quired, and utilized to keep up the speed 
when ascending steep gradients, etc., or 
overcome exceptional difficulties. 

This system has been tried on a very 
extensive scale in Batavia and has given 
so much satisfaction that it is to be ex- 
tended. 

The Batavia Steam Tramway Co. owns a 
line divided into two portions, the first 
from Batavia to Kramat (5 miles). The 
haulage is effected by 21 tireless locomo- 
tives and five stationary boilers. Two 
of the boilers are at Batavia and three at 
Kramat, but only one is in use at each 
station at a time, the others being in re- 
serve. They are worked twelve hours a 
day and fill an engine every 1*2 minutes, 
during about three hours in the day, and 
every 10 minutes at other times. An en- 
gine charged to a pressure of twelve atmos- 
pheres will draw two or three passenger 
cars from Batavia to Kramat and from 
Kramat to Cornells up and down again to 
Kramat. Part of the line was opened in 
July, 1883, and from the last annual re- 
port it appears that the cost of haulage 
amounted last year to 14.33 cts. (U. S.) per 
mile, made up as follows : — 

Driving Engines 1 88 cents (U. S.) 

Heating boilers 0.92 " " 

Coal 5.60 " 

Packing, lubricating, etc. 0.80 " " 

9 T % cents per kil. 
Or 14.33 per mile. 

More recently the cost of haulage has 
been only 6. SO cents per kil. or 10.84 cents 
per mile. The price of coal is $10 per ton. 
The fuel consumption was at first 21^% 
lbs. per mile, but has recently been de- 
creased 3^. 

The repairs to boilers and engines have 
been fa cents per kil., and have consisted 
chiefly in re-turning wheel tires and re- 
newing the felt on boilers. Since the com- 
pletion of the road the monthly receipts 
have been 22,800 florins ; total expenses, 
12,800 florins ; leaving total monthly profit, 
10,000 florins, or $4,000. The fare is five 
cents for a 4- mile run or any part of it. 

The engines (which are also fitted with 
the Joy Valve Gear) give every satisfaction. 
They are in native hands and run con- 
stantly with little or no attention and no 
break downs. Two moie have been 
ordered and will be shipped this month. 

W. T. 



Compressed Air Motors in Cincinnati. 

Mr. Geo. A. Clarke, of Cincinnati, has a 
project for street car propulsion by com- 
pressed air, an outline of which we give 
below, on the authority of the Cincinnati 
Commercial Gazette : 

" Cars are constructed with double metal 
bottoms for air chambers. Compressed air 
which is known to be about ten per cent, 
more efficient than steam at the same 
pressure, will be utilized to run the car 
both forward and backward and stop and 
start it on any grade. By a simple con- 
trivance the motion of the car continually 
replenishes the constantly exhausting air, 
but, of course, only partially. Means must 
be provided for refilling. 

" At each end of the line is a simple twelve 
horse-power engine. The entire length of 
the line, between the tracks if double, or at 
the side of a single track, is laid fifteen 
inches beneath the surface, an iron pipe 
four or five inches in diameter. This is 
perfectly jointed, and every piece tested to 
stand a pressure of one hundred and twenty- 
five pounds. The engines keep this pipe 
constantly filled with air at a pressure of 
about one hundred pounds. At intervals 
of a square, this pipe will be tapped, and it 
is estimated that connection can be made 
with the car and pressure taken on in six 
seconds time. A pressure of eighty pounds 
to the. square inch in the air chambers of 
the car will give a propelling force equal 
to six horses. This will always be sufficient 
to drive the car through snow and slush, or 
assist it on the track should it be derailed, 
and if greater force is necessary, it can be 
obtained from the pipe to the extent of one 
hundred pounds pressure, for the air cham- 
bers like the pipe will be tested to stand one 
hundred and twenty-five pounds. Some 
advantage will be had in running two cars 
together. Both will be filled at the engine 
to eighty pounds pressure. One will be 
allowed to do the work until its force is 
exhausted. By this time the motion will 
have increased the pressure in the other 
car to about ninety pounds. Then it will 
be allowed to propel the two until ex- 
hausted , when the first will have a pressure 
of perhaps forty or fifty pounds. By doub- 
ling cars and the automatic filling, it is 
estimated that a distance of about three 
miles may be covered without resorting to 
the ground pipe for more air. 

"The advantages claimed over horses, 
steam, electricity or cable are considerable. 
The inventor claims that any line which is 
now in operation can be equipped with 
compressed air cars, air pipe line, engines 
and all complete for less than $7,000 per 
mile ; that the change can be made with- 
out stopping travel for a single hour, or ob- 
struction of the street ; that once equipped, 
the expense of running is reduced to the 
minimum. No horses to buy and feed, 
no cable to renew, no stables to rent or 
stablemen to pay. The engines are so 
small and simple that any man competent 
to run a car can tend one. There is no 
steam to frighten horses, no disagreeable 
dust, no fire and no smoke ; there is no 
tearing up streets for repairs as with the 
cable, and expresses and wagons can use 



the track as now, which can not be safely 
done on the cable. There are no electrical 
shocks during a storm, as is the case on 
electric roads, to frighten ladies and en- 
danger life. With the compressed air line, 
there need be no change of cars to go from 
Fountain Square to the farthest suburban 
point, as is necessarily the case with the 
cable. Moreover, the same air that serves 
as a motor can be so utilized as to warm 
the bottom of the car, a point which cer- 
tainly would be appreciated in such weather 
as we had last week. 

" We hear that Mr. Clarke will contract to 
run any line of street cars and guarantee 
the company owning it five per cent, larger 
dividend on the capital stock than they 
are now paying. This is worth looking 
into. 

" Here are some figures that may be inter- 
esting. A cable road will cost to build 
from $80,000 to $100,000 per mile. The 
cable must be renewed every thirteen 
months at a cost of $8,000 a mile. To illus- 
trate the saving over the present system, 
take a single line running twenty cars. The 
points of expense in running incurred by 
the compressed air line, which the horse 
car line would not have are, for one year : 

Two engineers: $1,600 

Fuel 2,000 

Total $3,600 

" The horse car line will have expenses to 
meet not found by the air line, as follows : 

Horse feed $8,700 

Horse shoeing 2,680 

Horsemen 4,500 

Harness 600 

New horses 4,000 

Total $20,480 

Total air line expenses 3,600 

Difference in favor of compressed ■ 

air line $16,880 

" It is presumed that other expenses, such 
as drivers, conductors, repairs, &c, will be 
equal in the two systems. It should be 
observed, however, that the horse car line 
is not charged with the continual repair of 
the track necessitated by the wear of the 
horses' feet, which the air line will not 
have. This and other small items will 
undoubtedly increase the savings to $20,- 
000 per annum ; but suppose it is only 
$17,000. 

"From these figures some startling deduc- 
tions are easily drawn. The saving amounts 
to about $47 per day, or $2.35 per car. In 
a city using three hundred cars, which is 
approximately the number used in Cincin- 
nati, the saving would be $705 per day, 
$22,750 per month, $257,325 per year. 

' ' The amount of additional business which 
must be done by a horse car line to make 
its profits equal those of the air line is also 
surprising. To make up this difference of 
$705 per day in running expenses, the old 
line must carry 17,625 passengers, at four 
cettts each, more than the new line every 
day, 528,750 a month, and 6,433,125 a year. 
If the horse car lines of this city were 
paralleled by compressed air lines, they 
would find it difficult to compete for the 
trade." 



114 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[April, 1885. 



■ Casting Chilled Car Wheels. 

We show herewith the method employed 
by the Baltimore Car Wheel Company in 
casting chilled wheels to prevent tread 
defects, the ordinary mode of pouring from 
the ladle into the hub part of the mould 
and then letting the metal overpour down 
the brackets to the chill, produces cold 
shot, seams, &c. In the arrangement here 
shown the hub core A has a concave topi?, 
and the core seat C is convex, its centre 
part being lower than the perimeter of the 
top of the core. Figs. 3, 4, show the core 
A in side elevation and in plain. Fig. 2 is 

a core point forming 

a space to connect the 
receiving chamber E, 
above, with the mold 
by passageways D D 
formed in the side of 
the top of the core. 
The combined area of 
these passageways 
being less than that of 
the conduit i^from the 
receiving chamber, 
the metal is skimmed 
of impurities and the 
latter are retained in 
the receiving chamber 
E. The entering metal 
flows first to the 
lower hub part at 
H H, thence by the 
sprue-ways G G to 
the lower rim part at 



get ahead of us on the electric tramway 
question. We quote from the Mechanical 
World of Loudon: 

" The proposed electric tramway along 
the esplanade, two miles i a length, at Black- 
pool, is of interest, as the principle upon 
which it is to be worked forms a new de- 
parture from any hitherto used. In the 
arrangement in question, which is that of 
Mr. M. Holroyd Smith, of Halifax, engi- 
neer to the company, the rails are laid in the 
usual way, but in addition a central channel 
is employed through which the electric cur- 
rent is conveyed from stationary engines 
and dynamos. This channel is formed of 



carrier, and for dirt or wet to fall through 
to a drain space formed of shaped granite 
or artificial stone beneath. Sump holes 
connected with the main street drain are 
formed at intervals, in which any mud that 
accumulates can be removed. Also hand 
holes for the purpose of fixing or removing 
the collecting carrier which collects the 
electric current from the copper half tubes 
and by means of a dynamo attached to the 
car that propels it along. This collector 
consists of two sets of fluted rollers free to 
revolve on spindles, which are held by 
knuckle joints drawn together by springs 

in such a manner as 

to press the rollers 
against the two hol- 
low tubes with a con- 
stant pressure. Should 
any grit or other ob- 
struction occur in the 
tube, the spiral flute 
cause* the rollers to 
revolve and throw it 
out. Two sleel plates 
are attached to the 
rollers passing 
through the slot or 
groove in centre rail, 
and are by means 
of leather straps at- 
tached to the car. 
Straps are adopted 
so that on any for- 
midable obstruction 




J J, being again skimmed at the mouth of 
the sprue-ways. Thus the rim fills as 
rapidly as the hub and the metal is of a 
uniform and high temperature when it 
reaches the chill. 

In the wheels made by this firm, every 
alternate rib is connected with the rim and 
runs offto nothing near the hub ; the inteV- 
mediate ribs are attached to the hub and 
diminish in width toward the rim. 



Blackpool Electric Tramway. 

It looks as though Europe was going to 



FIG. I 



two angle irons laid wich about f in. space 
beeween them, being supported at intervals 
by cast-iron chairs laid upon wood sleepers. 
The chairs also carry the substitute for the 
electric cables, being two rows of half round 
copper strips, hollow in section, like a tube 
cut in two longitudinally, by means of in- 
sulated vulcanite blocks. The ends or 
junctions of the copper half tubes are joined 
together by brass clamps which make elec- 
tric contact, and they are laid about H in. 
or 2 in. apart and kept quite separate, so 
that a free passage is left for the collecting 



occurring they will* break without in- 
juring the car, which wdl then stop, as the 
electric circuit which passes by a wire from 
the collector to the dynamo will be broken. 
The cars will be driven by one of Siemens' 
or other dynamos, revolving in the space 
between the axles of car by means of an 
endless chain passing round a stud wheel 
keyed to one of the wheel axles. Although 
the Blackpool line will be the first on a 
practical scale on this system, the inventor 
has already laid down 100 yards of rails on 
the 4 ft. 8 J in. gauge as an experiment in a 



April, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



115 



field near Manchester, upon which a car 
has been run. He has also had a small 
pleasure line at work during last summer 
at the Winter Gardens, Blackpool, so tbat 
the practicability of the arrangement has 
already been tested to a limited extent. It 
is proposed to lay the new line, which is to 
be on the 4 ft. 8£ in. gauge, in time for the 
summer season, and we understand con- 
tracts for the cars, stationary engines, wbich 
are of the Robey type, boilers and other 
necessary fittings, have already been given 
out." 



Chaplin's Anti-Friction 
i ni-'s. 



Journal Bear- 



Referring to the illustration : — 
The axle is surrounded by a series of 
cylindrical rollers, nearly as long as the 
hub in which they are placed ; at the cen- 
tre of their lengths, the rollers are reduced 
in size, forming a neck, the object of the 
necks being to retain in the proper position 
another series of anti-friction rollers, which 
are placed between the necks to prevent the 
surface of the bearing rollers from coming 
in contact with each other. 

The diameter of the separator rolls is less 
than the diameter of the body of the bear- 
ing rollers, but greater than that of the 
necks ; by this arrangement the 
circular retaining bands, which 
are placed both inside and outside 
of the roller necks, in order to 
retain all the parts in proper posi- 
tion around the shaft, are sup- 
ported entirely on the separator 
rolls, and do not come in contact 
with the axle, the necks of the 
rollers, or the inside of the hub, 
but only on the separating rolls, 
where the bearings cannot be put 
on the shaft from the end, the 
retaining bands are hinged. Thus 
four independent rolling motions 
are secured, that at every point 
at which any weight or pressure 
is applied a rolling contact is pro- 
vided, and the bearing becomes 
strictly anti-friction. 

The makers * say that careful experi- 
ments have demonstrated that the weight 
on shaft is always distributed over at least 
three rollers : also that the pressure on the 
rollers, is always directly toward the cen- 
tre of the shaft or axle, consequently the 
weight of the load does not tend to crowd 
the rollers together, and the separate rolls 
and bands are not liable to wear. 



tion cable similar to that on the Brooklyn 
Bridge. Traction plant built by Poole & 
Hunt, Baltimore ; two 500-H.P. engines 
been built by Watts & Campbell, of Newark. 
Both ready for use. Building on Palisade 
Avenue, top of hill, 120 by 80, will contain 
engines and traction plant ; upper part used 
as terminal depot. 

Here the tracks, which are fourteen feet 
above surface, will pass over driving ap- 
paratus and machinery. Large boiler house 
been built, solid brick, adjoining depot ; 
four steel boilers, 125-horse power each, put 
in. One end of boiler house occupied by 
chimney ten feet square at base and 100 
feet high. 

At Hoboken Ferry the depot is 170 by 40 
feet ; tower story a massive brick structure, 
carrying handsome frame superstructure 
for elevated station above. Ground floor 
will be used for offices and waiting rooms. 
Proposed to have three stations between 
ferry and hill and to run cars every minutet 
Pullman & Co. are building cars ; not ye. 
received. Company hopes to have road 
open for travel by June. Engineer Endrus 
is supervising work, and pushing it as fast 
as practicability will permit. Although 
road is not quite a mile and a quarter long, 
it is estimated to have cost over half a 
million. 



opinion that heating cars pays financially. 
Thinks that if their stoves were taken out 
their receipts would fall off at least ten per 
cent. 



Horse Mileage. 

A reader desires to obtain, through the 
Street Railway Journal, the experience 
and practice of some of his fellow managers 
of street railways relative to feeding. He 
asks, ' ' What is the character of feed ? " 
"How prepared, whole or ground?" "How 
much hay?" " How cut, long or short?" 
" Time of feeding?" 

These questions are also asked, "How 
many miles per day do you drive your 
horses? " and " How many hours ? " 

We hope each practical street railway 
man will consider these questions addressed 
to him personally. 



Recent Patents. 




313,824— Car-starter— C. A. Iversen, Copen- 
hagen, Denmark. 
313,513— Fare-register— C. A. Neuert, Bos- 
ton, Mass. 
314,519— Car-starter— F. Dawson, Sr., and 
F. Dawson, Jr., Williamsport, 
Pa. 
314,299— Car-starter— N. J. Roberts, 
Battle Creek, Mich. 



XT, 



Chaplin Manufacturing Co., Hartford, Conn. 



Hoboken's Elevated Road. 



Hoboken is to have an elevated railway ; 
trestles are up, tracks laid, paint on, etc. 
Everything substantial. North Hudson 
C. R. R. has the franchise. 

Structure all wrought iron, resting on 
heavy brick piers, built on piles driven 
ninety feet (in meadows 100 feet). At this 
point grade very heavy, the highest point 
ninety-seven feet from ground. Peculiar 
featurein construction of the iron trestle is 
the lattice work on every column, beam and 
girder. It is designed to run cars by trac. 



It is said that as soon as road is in opera- 
tion company will extend to Court House 
and Union Hill. Intention is to eventually 
run to Fort Lee, which will afford magni- 
ficent view of the Hudson from the 
Palisades. 



Ordinary 



Stoves for 
Cars. 



Heating Street 



W. J. Hart, Supt. G. & W. and S. & G. 
Street Railways, Syracuse, we believe was 
the first in this country to heat street cars, 
beginning some nineteen years ago. In 
reply to a representative of the Street 
Railway Journal, Mr. Hart said: "Yes, 
we have used stoves for heating our cars 
now for nineteen years and we like the 
methods better than arfy other we know 
of. The excellent ventilation obtained by 
constantly taking the bad impure air out of 
the bottom of a car is a very great advan- 
tage of the stove. It is a good idea to sur- 
round the stove with wire netting to pre- 
vent clothing from getting against it and 
being burned." Mr. Hart is firmly of the 



The National Cable Railway 
Company. 

Eds. Street Railway Journal : 

In answer to your inquiry I beg 
to state that the National Cable 
Railway Company is a corporation 
of the State of New York, organ- 
ized in July, 1883, for the purpose 
of exploiting the cable system of 
traction covered by the patents of 
A. S. Hallidie and others, for which 
this company owns the exclusive 
rights for the United States, east 
of the 106th meridian. All the cable rail- 
ways in the world, now or heretofore in 
successful operation, excepting only one in 
San Francisco, have been constructed and 
are operated under licenses for the use of 
these patents. 

The roads so constructed and operated 
are as follows : 

Clay Street Railway, San Francisco, op- 
erated since Sept. 1st, 1873 ; Sutter Street 
Railway, San Francisco, operated since 
Jan. 27th, 1877; California Street Railway, 
San Francisco, operated since April 9th, 1878; 
Geary Street Railway, San Francisco, op- 
erated since Feb. 16th, 1880; Presidio Street 
Railway, San Francisco, operated since 
Oct. 23d, 1880; Chicago Street Railway, 
Chicago, operated since Jan. 28th, 18S2 ; 
Roslyn Tramway, New Zealand, operated 
since 1880; Highgate Hill Tramway, Lon- 
don, Eng., operated sines 1884; a road in 
Liverpool, Eng., operated since 1883. 

There are several roads in foreign coun- 
tries being constructed under contract to 
use this system, among which is a road in 
Sydney, New South Wales. The railway 



116 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[April, 1885. 



in San Francisco which has not taken out 
a license to use the Hallidie patents is being 
prosecuted by the Hallidie Company in 
San Francisco for infringement of its 
patents. 

The advantages of the cable system of 
traction are very fully set forth in the re- 
port of the Committee upon Motive Power 
of the Street Railway Association, made at 
a meeting of the Association, held in Chi- 
cago in October, 1883, and the discussion 
upon the report. 

The twelve miles of cable railway con- 
structed in Philadelphia during the past 
year, which are now being heralded abroad 
as a failure, were not built under the patents 
of the company, but, on the contrary, the 
failure of those roads is directly due to an 
effort to evade the patents controlled by 
this company, the cost of which would have 
been but a fraction of the expense of rem- 
edying the mistakes already made, while 
we regard it as certain that they will in- 
fringe our patents even with the imperfect 
construction which they will have through 
their efforts to evade them. If the pat- 
ents of this company had not sufficient 
value to enable them to control the con- 
struction of cable roads, yet the experience 
gained by the companies that have con- 
structed roads under these patents would 
be worth more than the cost of a license. 
Parties occupying the streets of a great city 
should not beat liberty to experiment upon 
new devices to their heart's content, tear- 
ing up the same streets over and over again 
when there are devices in existence which 
ten years' experience has proved to be 
adapted to their wants, and the use of which 
can be had by the payment of a reasonable 
license fee. 

The cable railway on the Brooklyn Bridge 
has been a conspicuous example of partial 
failure, which we have found has operated 
greatly to the prejudice of our system. The 
problem on the bridge is very different from 
that of building a cable railway in a public 
street and is much easier of satisfactory 
solution. The bridge trustees having de- 
clined our offer to license them the use of 
our patents and our later offer to operate 
the cable cars for a rate of two cents per 
passenger, adopted other devices which, 
while they have answered the purpose to a 
considerable extent, have frequently failed, 
causing much delay and complaint, which 
has generally been supposed to be insepar- 
able from the cable system. Had our sys- 
tem been adopted no such vexatious delays 
need have occurred, and had our proposi- 
tion to operate the cable at two cents per 
passenger been adopted when it was made 
in November, 1888, the bridge would have 
fulfilled during the year 1884 the object for 
which it was constructed, which was, not 
to earn money, but to afford a prompt, rapid 
and satisfactory means of transit between 
the great cities of New York and Brooklyn. 

The advantages of the cable system where 
the travel is sufficient to warrant its adop- 
tion, have proved to be so great that it ap- 
pears remarkable to those who have become 
familiar with them through observation or 
use, that anybody should object to their 
introduction. They are: 

First. — Greater capacity for traffic when 
aiiitional capacity is needed. 



Second. — Greater economy in cost, aver- 
aging 25 to 40 per cent. 

Third. — Greater speed attainable, the only 
limit being the ordinances of the city re- 
lating to surface travel. 

Fourth.— Saving in time owing to the abil- 
ity to stop and start quicker than a horse- 
car. 

Fifth. — The avoidance of the nuisance 
caused by the voidings of horses in the 
public streets. 

Sixth. — Less liability to accidents caus- 
ing injury to persons, resulting from the 
ability to make quicker stops. 

There is at present considerable interest 
exhibited in the subject of cable traction, 
and inquiries addressed to our company at 
the office of the President, No. 22 Cortlandt 
Street, will be promptly answered and i he 
information desired will be furnished if in 
our possession. Wi. P. Shinn, 

President. 
New York, March 21, 1885. 



Mr. Hallidie's Affidavit. 

GENERAL TERM OF THE SUPREME 
COURT. 

FIRST DEPARTMENT. 



In the Matter 



1 



of 

The petition of 
York Cable 
Company for 



the New 
Railway 
Appoint- 



ment of Commissioners. 



J 



City and County of New York, ss.: 

Andrew S. Hallidie, being duly sworn, 
deposes and says : I have only arrived 
quite recently from across the Atlantic 
Ocean, on the other side of w T hich I went 
to see the construction of a cable railroad, 
and I am now on my way to San Francisco, 
intending to depart for that place late this 
evening. I am the inventor of the cable 
system of railroads for the transportation 
of passengers and freight. The cable sys- 
tem was matured in 1870 by myself, and 
being anew method with which the public 
were not familiar it was necessarily slow 
in being introduced; I found it impossible 
at first to persuade the public, or those I 
thought ought to take an interest m the 
construction of a better system of transit 
to take an interest in my invention from a 
lack of faith in the system; it was new, and 
being new they were unfamiliar with it, 
and naturally had a great doubt as to its 
feasibility. Eventually, in or about the 
year 1872, I organized a company in San 
Francisco and endeavored to sell stock, got 
rid of a hundred shares and abandoned 
that undertaking. I let it rest for about a 
year, and meantime conversed with several 
of my friends in whom I had confidence, 
and two gentlemen who came forward and 
said if I had enough confidence in that 
system to join them in the expense of its 
construction, they would share equally with 
me the expense; and in connection with 
them and one other gentleman of San Fran- 
cisco, I built the first cable road there, 
costing about $100,000. The road was com- 
pleted in 1873, in or about the month of 
September, and has been running ever since 
quite successfully. Previous to maturing 
this system of cable road I had completed 
another system for the transportation of 
material and ore over mountainous and diffi- 
cult roads, and that is now in use through- 
out the country quite successfully, and is 
known a the rope-way system. It is used 
in almost all mountain districts of the 



Uiited States where it is impossible to 
build roads or railroads. As the result of 
that investigation I gave my attention to a 
better system of carrying passengers in 
cities. In San Francisco there are a great 
many hills; a portion of the city is hilly 
and the other portion is level ; the hilly 
portion, in passing from one part of tie 
city to another, has to be traversed, and 
there are three or four blocks on which the 
horse railroads in the most busy parts of 
the day had to put on some two or three 
extra horses to carry the passengers, and 
frequently the horses would slip and fail 
and the loaded car carry them in a pros- 
trate position to the street below before the 
same could be stopped; that directed my 
attention to this system. I was partly 
aware at that time of what had been done; 
I was familiar with the system of mountain 
railroads and with the Blackwall Railroad 
in London, entirely different from the cable 
system, and until "that period of 1S73, when 
the San Francisco Railroad was completed, 
there was no road in existence in the world 
of that kind. The road in 1873 was about 
half a mile long and ran up a very narrow 
street; the street was only forty-nine feet 
wide between the houses: taking from that 
the width of the sidewalks, about twelve 
feet each side, left about twenty-five feet 
for the roadway; we built there a three and 
a half foot gauge cable road, and the grade 
varied from one foot in three feet to one 
foot in five and a half feet. From 1873 up 
to the present time that railroad has been 
running without intermission; I have, of 
course, worked at and overcome some gen- 
eral defects; from that time until the pres- 
ent it lias run successfully. Three years 
later another road propelled by horses on 
Sutter Street, about four and a half to five 
miles long, was converted into the cable 
system ; that road runs thiough a wider 
street, sixty-eight feet, but lhrough a very 
densely populated portion of the city ; the 
horses moved along slowly, and the busi- 
ness was increased so that it W3s almost 
impossible for them to carry their pas- 
sengers on that system, and they con- 
verted it to the cable system. They have 
infringed on my patents, and I have had to 
sue them, and got judgment for the in- 
fringement: during tbetrialtheystated that 
there was a saving of thirty-five per cent, by 
the adoption of the cable system : they ad- 
mitted a saving of 35 percent, in the operat- 
ing expenses of the cable road as compared 
with the horse railroad. The property on the 
line of the cable road, after it was finished, 
became at once in demand and the real 
estate dealers in advertising property on 
Sutter Street or in its vicinity Avould gener- 
ally head it " on the line of Sutter Street 
cable road," so that the property brought 
an enhanced value. Just before the build- 
ing of the Clay Street railroad I purchased 
on the top of the hill, for the purpose of 
putting up a residence, a piece of property 
costing $3,000, right adjoining " Nob Hill," 
before it was Nob Hill. Eighteen months 
afterwards I sold it for $0,000. That I cite 
as an instance to show what effect on real 
estate the construction of the cable road 
had; and it was so through the whole line 
of the road. 

A year after the Sutter Street road was 
completed, in or about the month of April, 
1878, another road was constructed on the 
line of California Street, and run through 
Nob Hill. The people who had fine resi- 
dences there found that the cable system 
was so noiseless and unobjectionable, doing 
away with the use of horses, so certain and 
regular in its operations, petitioned the 
Board of Supervisors to build a road there 
and that road was built. That runs through 
the most fashionable part of San Francisco 
and passes the houses of many of the most 
wealthy men and among others of Gov- 
ernor Stanford, Charles Crocker, Gen. Col- 
ton, Mark Hopkins, and others. 

That road is about three miles long. 
There is also a road built on Geary Street, 
and another on Union Street and Market 
Street, and on various branches, so that 



April, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



117 



there are to-day about twenty miles of 
cable roads with double tracks, arid built at 
a net cost of about $5,000,000, including the 
cost of condemnation of property and other 
things. 

The construction of those roads and con- 
version of the other roads from horse roads 
to cable roads dispense with the services of 
about three thousand horses in the City of 
San Fran cisco. Of course, when you take 
into consideration three thousand horses 
with their natural droppings, and consider 
the effect they must have on the sanitary 
condition of a large city, it must at once 
strike you that the cable system has an im- 
mense advantage over the horse system. 
Moreover, in the cable system there is a 
better system of management ; it is more 
like managing a locomotive railroad, and 
you direct your men more like you do an 
army of soidiers, and besides there is not 
the demoralization that there is in connec- 
tion with stables. I have operated a short 
horse railroad myself, and I know tbat be- 
tween the two classes of men employed 
around the stables and on the cars of 
horse railroads, and the men around the 
engine-room of a cable system and on its 
cars, there is a vast difference. It is more 
easy to manage those men in the engine- 
room than the men who have more stable 
about them and less stability. 

Tne cost of the cable railroads in San 
Francisco has varied according to circum- 
stances, but I may say, generally, that the 
road-bed and rolliug-stock would cost from 
$100,000 to §220,000 a mile for double tracks. 
When you spend an amount like that on a 
street railroad in its absolute construction, 
it carries its own conviction that you can- 
not afford to build it imperfectly. The 
road-bed, the surface of the road, must be 
better ; it must be as perfect as it is pos- 
sible to build a surface of any road, because 
the cost of and the finishing of the surface 
are small as compared to the cost of con- 
structing the underground work and tube. 
The roads in San Francisco are run at 
various rates of speed, but generally at 
from five to eight and nine miles an hour. 
That speed could be increased if advisable ; 
but there is a limit under the Municipal 
Act which prohibits a speed of more than 
eight miles within the city's limits on the 
surface. 

Now with respect to the control of the 
cars, the control of the management and 
the stopping and starting of the cars. That 
has been tested in almost every conceivable 
circumstance, and I cannot conceive of any 
manner of stopping a car and bringing the 
same to an absolute stop in so short a time as 
is done under the cable system. The man 
in charge of the grip takes the place of the 
man in charge of the horses on horse rail- 
roads. A horse has a mind of his own. has 
a brain and heels, and requires the atten- 
tion of the man in charge to look after him 
as well as the br tke. In the cable system 
the gripman looks after the brake and has 
no horses to look after, and consequently 
has immediate and absolute control 
over the starting and stopping of his car. 
Moreover, he stop 3 it absolutely. When a 
passenger gets off there is no jerking and 
grasping hold of the strap to keep his equi- 
librium, but the car is stopped at once. I 
have seen on Clay Street, in San Francisco, 
where the car has been shopped and a tum- 
bler filled with water held in the hand of 
the superintendent standing in the car, and 
the car then started without spilling a drop 
of the water. This shows what control of 
the motion of the car a man with some ex- 
perience at the grip possesses. 

Now, a-sto noiselessness. All the clatter 
of the horses is done away with. The 
cable car moves along smoothly and quietly 
and regularly, without jerkins or thump- 
ing on the grades or anything. In fact, 
the grade makes no difference, so long as 
it is not so steep as to tumble the passen- 
gers into one end of the car. There are 
grades in San Francisco on the line of the 
cable railroads from one foot in five feet, 
and in the City of Dunedin, in New Zea- 



land, the cars are running on a grade of one 
foot in four and a half feet, and in the City 
of London they are running over grades 
varying from one foot in twelve ieet to 
one foot in seven feet. 

1 here is also another point to be consid- 
ered, and that is with regard to the capac- 
ity of the cars and the carrying capacity of 
the road. This capacity is almost unlim- 
ited, because there is no limitation to the 
number of cars which can be used within 
the horse-power of the engine, and cars can 
be added within the range of the engine, so 
as to meet all the vaiying demands of 
travel. Single-deck cais or double-deck 
cars can be used, which can be run in 
trains of one, two, three, or four extra cars 
to one grip car, or can be made up and oper- 
ated as a single car and grip car which can 
be run every quarter of a minute, or with 
just time enough to keep the way clear. 
Double-deck cars can be made to carry 
forty-four inside and thiity-two outside 
comfortably seated, and with this system 
there should be no difficulty under ordi- 
nary circumstances of furnishing a seat to 
each passenger, so that the capacity of the 
system must be considered as unlimited. 

In my recent visit to England I took par- 
ticular notice of the style of rail they are 
using there, and I must say, tbat on this 
side we are far behind them on the form of 
the rail and construction of the road-bed 
generally on our horse-car lines in the 
United States as compared with the Euro- 
pean countries. The general form there is 
a kind of V groove, and the whole of the 
street is flush. There is a foundation of 
concrete or Macadam, on top of which are 
the stone blocks, or stone sets, as they are 
called there, about four and a balf inches 
deep to six or seven inches long, and three 
inches wide that set along side the rails. 
The rail is very like an ordinary T rail and 
has a flange at the bottom. There is no 
projection, as you find here, in the centre 
of the rail, offering an obstruction to the 
wagons crossing it. I suppose you cannot 
cross safely a railroad track here at a less 
angle than fifteen or twenty degrees. There 
the obstruction is so slight that an angle of 
three to five degrees you can cross over. I 
would suggest to the Commissioners here 
and those who are interested in the con- 
struction of roads, whether it would not be 
well for them to consider that in the con- 
struction of the cable system ; it would be 
a convenience to the public. 

As to the economy of the system. The 
economy increases in the cable system in 
proportion to the amount of business done. 
That applies to all roads, but you can save 
from sixty to seventy-five per cent, in the 
cost of operating a cable road as compared 
with a horse railroad. This means that you 
can operate your road and carry people at 
a less fare. That affeuts the public more 
than anything else. It means also that if 
you can build a road at a cost of $250,000 a 
mile, the public will be saved the amount of 
money that is necessary to obtain from it in 
the way of fares to pay the interest on the 
enormous amount of bonds for which I am 
informed the various horse railway compa- 
nies in the city of New York have bonded 
their properties and franchises, and amount- 
ing, on an average, as I am informed, to 
something like $300,000 or $400,000 a mile. 
I think that there is no doubt that under 
the cable system the people could be car- 
ried at a fare of five cents, or even less: 
and there is no question that five cents fare 
should enable the cable railroad company 
to let a passenger ride on its road all over 
the island. 

As to the popularity of the system. In 
San Francisco, as in Chicago, it was found 
that the horse railroads were not paying so 
well as they might, and they had to change 
them to some other system; and some of 
them were converted into cable roads, and 
such are now paying handsomely. The 
Sutter Street road, which prior to its con- 
version into a cable road had its stock sell- 
ing for $22 or a little less, is a successful 
road, and its stock is selling now at $100. 



They give transfers along their main line 
running east and west and north and south, 
parallel with the ocean. The Geary Stieet 
raihoad, which cost |87.5oa share to build, 
to the original stockholdeis, is selling for 
from S}97 to $103. So it is with the other 
roads. So it is with the Chicago roads; the 
stock has advanced. 

Then with respect to severe winters, such 
as you have in Chicago; to the cable system 
the;' present no difficulty. With a rope at- 
tached to a steam engineany accumulation 
of snow can be removed. It can be put on 
freight cars or on flat cars and carried away 
and got rid of, instead of being thrown on 
each side of the track as is done in the 
cities by tbe horse railway companies. It 
is impossible to prevent the running of the 
cable cars if proper attention is given to the 
business. When the horse cars must stop 
the cable road can run. 

Now as to accidents to horses. I have 
seen a little discussion with regard to horse- 
shoes being torn off horses by the slot in 
the centre of the cable roads. In all my 
connection svith the cable system I have 
known but one case in San Francisco during 
twelve years where a horseshoe has been 
detached from the hoof of ahorse, and then 
tne driver said it had been loose. There is 
no need for such occurrences. If the slot 
is properly constructed there is no need for 
such an accident. I doubt whether in a 
great city with good pavement it is proper 
to allow the use of heavy calks on horses' 
shoes. It is not allowed in European cities 
wheie they keep good pavement. And the 
question of humanity to the horse arises 
in that connection which should also be 
considered, but with which Mr. Bergh has 
probably more to do than we have. 

As to the effect of the cable system on 
trade, here is an experience with respect to 
San Francisco. The principal street in San 
Francisco was Montgomery street. It was 
the street on which was situated the pop- 
ular retail stores, jewelry, fancy dry goods 
stores and other stores of a similar charac- 
ter, which the ladies were accustomed to 
patronize on their shopping excursions ; in 
fact, it bore the same relations to the city of 
San Francisco as Broadway does to the city 
of New York. At the time when the city 
was becoming converted to the horse cars 
from the old omnibuses a general railroad 
act and charter to run horse cars was passed , 
and an endeavor made to locate a road on 
Montgomery Street. The residents of 
Montgomery Street opposed the road, and 
successfully opposed it, and the road was 
not built on that street, and the company 
had to go down to one street below to a 
street that was occupied by wholesale deal- 
ers and warehouses, and was not so prom- 
inent. That street was Sansome Street. 
Kearney Street was shortly afterwards wid- 
ened, and on that street the railroad com- 
pany put down a double track. The shop- 
keepers of Montgomery Street soon found 
that business was leaving Montgomery 
Street and going to Kearney Street, where 
the railroad was running. The fact was 
that people could ride in the cars, and it 
was a convenience to step from them into 
the stores. The Montgomery Street trades- 
men sent to the railroad company and in- 
vited it to lay a track through Montgomery 
Street. This was done, and business par- 
tially came back to Montgomery Street, but 
not as it had been previously. 

As to operating the cable roads in narrow 
streets. In London the cable system runs 
through a street that is very narrow, and 
in the lower portion of it is about eighteen 
feet from curb to curb, and then it widens 
to about forty feet, with varying width, and 
is quite steep and tortuous. The upper por- 
tion has a double track with two tubes, and 
the lower portion has but one tube, the road 
converging from the double track into a 
single track and both ropes running through 
a single tube, thus requiring switches and 
sidings and so on. That road has been in 
operation since May, and is quite an attrac- 
tion, just as the cable system was in San 
Francisco and is to-day in Chicago. There 



118 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[April, 1S85. 



has been spent about $3,000,000 iD convert- 
ing the Market Street road in San Francisco 
into a cable road, and wherever the cable 
system has been constructed there has been 
a demand for property. The cable road 
has increased the amount of building in the 
vicinity, and it has had the effect of bring- 
ing back from the suburbs of San Francisco 
a large amount of population formerly re- 
moved into the adjacent villages and towns 
because of the formerly insufficient accom- 
modations afforded by the horse railroad 
companies. The cable system has enhanced 
the value of property in San Francisco fully 
thirty per cent., and has prevented that 
exodus of citizens which took place because 
of the lack of facilities for getting to busi- 
ness from the suburbs to San Francisco 
when travel by the old horse system was so 
uncertain. 

In the city of Melbourne they are now 
laying down a very important series of 
lines under the cable system, and propose 
to expend seven million of dollars in the 
construction of it. They have already sold 
bonds in the city of London, 4| per cent, 
bonds, to the amount of two million five 
hundred thousand dollars, and are rapidly 
constructing the line. The city of Sydney 
is at present operated by steam motors, and 
they have become so obnoxious that it has 
been determined to supplant them by the 
cable system. The city of Edinburgh has al- 
ready entered into a contract for the con- 
struction of cable lines there. The City of 
Glasgow isnegotiating for a similar construc- 
tion there. In Liverpool they are about to 
change their gauge from 4 feet 8£ inches to 
3 feet 6 inches, and they propose at the 
same time to change their system and put 
down the cable system. Other cities, Shef- 
field, Manchester and others, are moving in 
the same direction. A franchise has also 
been granted to the Cable Tramways Com- 
pany to build underground railways in 
London, and to connect those now operated 
by steam by the cable system underground. 
The present system of operating the under- 
ground railways is by steam motors, and 
the result is that the tunnel is filled with 
gases, and while the people are compelled 
in order to save time to employ that mode 
of transportation, they would not adopt it 
from choice, because it by no means adds 
to their health. It is now proposed there 
to introduce the cable system, and to run 
the cars at about eleven miles an hour, in- 
cluding stops, which is about the speed on 
the New York elevated railroad, and about 
equal to the present speed of the several 
subways in London. That will remove all 
objections to the underground road in 
respect to gases, foul air, ventilation, etc. 
If that is applicable to subways, it is equally 
applicable to elevated roads. It is intended 
to expend on this conversion in the subways 
of London somewheres from £7,000,000 to 
£10,000,000 sterling. 

I don't know that I can add very much 
more except to state that wherever the 
cable system has been introduced and tried, 
people are pleased with it. They feel re- 
lieved, from the simple fact that it does 
away with any anxiety as to trouble with 
the horses, and they feel they are not im- 
posing upon animals to exert themselves to 
do all they can and more than they should 
in carrying them in their daily travel; 
besides, they are carried surer," quicker, 
cheaper and more agreeably. It is found 
by experience that there is less danger in 
entering and alighting with respect to 
cable railroad cars. This is a matter of 
great importance, especially in respect to 
children, aged and infirm persons ; and I 
have been told more particularly by persons 
of advanced years, who find it difficult to 
get on and off street cars propelled by 
horses, that the cable system has relieved 
them of the immense anxiety in this 
respect. This is because the man in charge 
of the grip has nothing to do but to run 
that. His business is to manage the grip. 
His mind is left free except in regard to 
the grip, and he has complete control of it. 



I have no statistics with respect to acci- 
dents with me, but from recollection I can 
state that last year there were nine acci- 
dents from horse railroads and seven from 
the cable cars ; but, of course, the number 
of passengers carried by the cable cars 
greatly exceeded the number of passengers 
carried by the horse cars, probably four 
times as many. The bottoms of the cable 
railroad cars are guarded by fenders. It is 
only in cases of carelessness that accidents 
can happen . The fenders come within two 
inches of the surface. The fenders, how- 
ever, do not run alongside the cars in all 
cases ; in some cases they omit them be- 
cause the companies consider that their 
use is not necessary, accidents being so 
few. While the system was new, an acci- 
dent on the cable road was a great thing, 
and excited much comment, while an 
accident on a horse railroad was not 
considered, that being an old thing. But 
now we can run at a much higher speed, 
and with greater safety, than a horse 
car. 

The space occupied in the street under 
the cable system is less than is occupied by 
horse railroads, and in the cars them- 
selves, all the space possible is utilized for 
carrying passengers ; everything, in fact, 
excepting a small space devoted to the 
grip. 

A cable car can be stopped almost in- 
stantly. I have seen this incident on the 
gradeof one foot in six feet : three men, 
apparently miners, had come to the town 
probably to see the sights, and apparently 
had indulged in somewhat of a spree, and 
under those conditions boarded a cable 
railroad car. It was in the summer time, 
and they took front seats and enjoyed the 
breeze, a gust of which lifted off the hat of 
one of ihem, who jumped off to get it, in 
front of the car, and fell within three and 
one half feet of it, and directly in front. 
The man with the grip saw him, released 
the grip from the rope, put his foot on the 
brake, and stopped the car before reaching 
the man, while the friends of the man, who 
had risen up in horror, ran forward expect- 
ing to find him mangled. 

The capacity in the cable system is almost 
unlimited, and seats can be provided that 
cannot be provided in the horse railroad 
cars ; double-deck cars can be run, or 
single-deck cars, or numbers of cars in 
trains in connection with one grip car ; the 
necessities of travel can be met as they 
arise. There is generally a grip car. These 
vary according to the size ; on the heavier 
grades tbey are lighter. They are made to 
run with seven passengers on a seat on 
each side up to twenty-four on each side. 
On the small cars where the dummy will 
seat seven on each side .and the car will 
seat fourteen, I have known as many as 
sixty-five passengers to ride. Great alti- 
tudes can be overcome. In San Francisco 
the greatest is three hundred and seven feet 
in a distance of twenty-six hundred feet ; 
it is on Clay Street. The cross streets are 
level, so that the cars must run up-hill 
and then level and then up-hill and so 
on. 

I have no connection with the New York 
Cable Company. I have a small interest in 
the Cable Railroad Company of San Fran- 
cisco, which has made some arrangement 
with the National Cable Company of the 
United States, but that is throughout the 
United States, and has no connection with 
the New York Company. 

The Mexican Cable Tramway Company 
are about constructing cable roads in some 
of the cities of Mexico — where the tempera- 
ture runs up to 100° and over in the shade. 
And in the city of Los Angeles, California, 
a cable line is being constructed, where the 
weather is very hot, and I may add that, 
while the cable system has demonstrated 
itself of so much value in a cold climate, 
subject to heavy snows, like Chicago, it has 
in like manner proved its very great value 
in extremely hot weather — this you will 



realize in this City of New York during 
some of the exceptionally hot days of 
summer. A. S. Hallidie. 

Sworn to before me this 10th ) 
day of February, 1885. f 

Josia.h W. Thompson, 

Notary Public, 
N. Y. Co. 



Mr. Holmes' Affldayit. 

State op Illinois, ) 

County of Cook, City of Chicago, <j ss - 

Charles B. Holmes, being duly sworn, 
deposes and says: That he resides in the 
City of Chicago, and has resided in said 
city for a period of fourteen years ; that he 
is now President and Superintendent of the 
Chicago City Railway Company, and has 
been connected with that company for the 
period of twelve years last past ; that tjie 
territory covered by said company is what is 
known as the South Side in the City of 
Chicago, which embraces a large portion, 
and almost the entire business portion of 
said City of Chicago, and that the number 
of miles under operation by said railway 
company is eighty-seven (87) miles of track, 
a portion of which extends south of the 
city limits of the said City of Chicago ; that 
said railway is operated from Lake Street 
in said city southward on State Street to 
Sixty-third Street, a distance of seven 
miles, with a track also upon Wabash 
A\ enue extending to Twenty-second Street; 
thence on Twenty -second Street and Cottage 
Grove Avenue to the city limits, a distance 
of five miles, and that up to the year 1882 
the cars on said street railway had been 
drawn by horses, and that upon an investi- 
gation of the so-called cable system, as it 
was then in operation, in the City of San 
Francisco, a cable system was adopted in 
the City of Chicago by said Chicago City 
Railway Company, and since the year lb82, 
and up to the present time, has been in 
active and successful operation ; that the 
cable system is in operation on said road on 
State Street, north of the city limits, and 
on Wabash Avenue, Twenty-second Street 
and Cottage Grove Avenue, and, in general 
terms, this affiant says that the cable system 
has been, both so far as the public and the 
company are concerned, eminently suc- 
cessful. That for the first few months after 
said cable system was adopted, it was, to a 
certain extent, experimental, and neces- 
sarily so, and that for the first six months 
after the inauguration of the cable system 
the accidents were more numerous than at 
any other like period of time under the old 
system of drawing by horses. This affiant 
states that in all the accidents that occurred 
during those first six months, there was but 
one which was not fairly and directly at- 
tributable to the carelessness of the parties 
injured ; that methods were immediately 
devised by said company for preventing 
such accidents, and that since that period 
of time, with the application of these 
methods, the accidents under the operation 
of the cable system have been less in point 
of number and severity than under the old 
system, and under the present management 
and methods an accident which would be 
at all serious in its character is almost an 
impossibility. The wheels are so guarded 
and protected that it is impossible, even 
with the utmost recklessness, for a person 
to get beneath the wheels, and it is prac- 
tically impossible that an injury at all 
serious in its character should be suffered 
by any one in the streets or traveling upon 
said cars. 

This affiant further says, that the rate of 
speed under the present cablesystem in the 
City of Chicago averages about nine miles 
per hour, and that under the old horse 
system the maximum rate of speed was 
six miles per hour. Under the present 
system, whenever occasion demands it, 
long trains made up of several cars are 
drawn, which would be an impossibility 
under the old method, and that by means 



April, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



119 



of the automatic momentum brake em- 
ployed on the roads of which this affiant is 
president and superintendent, the brake is 
brought to bear upon every wheel in the 
train, and the cars can be stopped more 
readily even than a single car drawn by 
horses, and the longest train can be brought 
to an absolute stop within a distance of ten 
to thirty feet. This statement is not 
theoretical, but is the result of actual ex- 
periment and experience. Ten cars, con- 
taining over one thousand people, have 
been drawn behind one grip and stopped 
as stated. 

In the practical operation of the cars 
under the cable system, great advantages 
are found in the rapidity and ease with 
which cars may be started. They may be 
brought from a dead stop into a rate of 
speed of nine miles per hour almost in- 
stantly, and without jerking or surging of 
the cars. 

The supposed injury to horses by the slot 
is imaginary and fanciful, and perhaps that 
is about all that can be said on that subject. 
The slot can be so protected that the injury 
to horses from it is practically an impossi- 
bility, by having the top of the irons which 
form the slot made of an oval shape. 

As to the sanitary effect of drawing cars 
by cable instead of by horses, thus getting 
rid of the voiding of about twenty five 
hundred horses, as is actually done, this 
branch of the subject may be considered, 
perhaps, as somewhat theoretical ; but, that 
there is a most substantial difference in 
sanitary effects from this one cause, is too 
obvious to require comment. The most 
superficial observation of those streets 
where horses are used, compared with those 
where the cable system is employed, will be 
sufficient to demonstrate the importance 
of this consideration as between the two 
methods. 

Witn regard to the effect upon the values 
of real estate by the cable system, much 
more definite conclusions can be reached, 
and this affiant is prepared to state that 
such appreciation over the lines operated 
by the company of which he is the president 
and superintendent as aforesaid, are very 
marked and decided. A few instances wiil 
perhaps illustrate this branch of the case. 
A house and lot purchased for $1,000 two 
months before the construction of the cable 
system, was sold within six months after 
the line was in operation for the sum of 
$5,440, a gain of $4,440, attributable ex- 
clusively to the construction and operation 
of the cable system, and that is only a fair 
sample of many instances. The whole 
extent of the appreciation of real estate by 
reason of the substitution of the cable for 
the horse system can, with entire safety, be 
said to be largely in excess of the expense 
of the entire system itself. The substitution 
of the cable system in place of the horse 
method has added to the value of real estate 
on the lines where it has been operated many 
millions of dollars, and it is really and sub- 
stantially so much added to the real and 
substantial wealth of the city, or that 
portion of the city wherein the cable system 
is in operation. The appreciation of real 
estate is not limited to the mere streets 
upon which the cable road is operated, but 
to the cross and parallel streets for quite a 
distance either way. 

Affiant states that with all the experience 
which he has had under the cable system, 
he has been unable to discover that there 
are any objections to it based merely upon 
the ground that certain streets over which 
it passes are narrow, but that, where the 
street is narrow, experience has demon- 
strated that cable-cars are greatly superior 
to horse-cars, for the reason that the rate 
of speed may be absolutely regulated — 
starting and stoppages are under complete 
control, and for these reasons the cable 
system, as to narrow streets, is greatly to 
be preferred in practical operation to the 
old method of drawing by horses. In San 
Francisco many of the streets are very nar- 



row, and the cables are operated without 
difficulty. Any objection that the cable 
system upon narrow streets interferes with 
truckage, absolutely fanciful, and the actual 
experience of this affiant is in that case as 
stated. This affiant states from observation 
and theorizing on the question as a matter 
of actual experience, that, under the cable 
system, the turning of short corners is as 
feasible and practicable as under the horse- 
car system. We know that it can be done, 
even to so short a curve as a thirty- five foot 
radius. 

This affiant further says that he has 
passed over the lines of the New York 
system, as illustrated in the map annexed 
to the affidavit of A. S. Hallidie, and in the 
judgment of this affiant, after a careful 
examination of those lines, the system as 
applied to and operated upon those lines, is 
entirely feasible, and can be operated with- 
out the slightest injury to any other in- 
terest, and with perfect practicability. 

Testing the operation of the cable system 
in the city of Chicago by public opinion, it 
will perhaps be sufficient to say that the 
surest way to raise a public clamor is to 
attempt, when any accident occurs which 
renders it necessary, the substitution of 
horses for the cable, and under which the 
public would have the same facilities pre- 
cisely as it formerly had. In the city of 
Chicago, and particularly upon the South 
Side, in public judgment the cable has 
become a necessity, and is finally de- 
manded as a right, and nothing, draws 
down upon the Chicago City Railway Com- 
pany more hearty denunciation and criti- 
cism than the substitution of horses for the 
cable system, even for an hour, whenever 
the emergency does demand it. 

It is proper to state in this connection 
that there are less of break-downs and acci- 
dents under the cable- system than under 
the horse system. This statement is made 
with reference to the running of cars during 
the winter season ; but during any season 
of the year accidents, of a character which 
prevent the operation of the cable roads, 
are very infrequent and of very short dura- 
tion, and not sufficient to weigh a moment 
against it as a regular system of transpor- 
tation. 

We have had in our experience under the 
cable system two detentions of short dura- 
tion, and during which we were compelled 
to operate with horses on a portion of the 
j lines, owing to weakness and defects in the 
machinery, which were promptly and easily 
remedied. Experience corrects all accidents 
and evils of this character, and the longer 
the roads are operated the less and less fre- 
quent become such detentions, until finally 
the system has, with us, ripened very nearly 
into perfection, and it is safe to say with 
regard to the practical operation of the ca- 
ble system in the city of Chicago, that if it 
were put to vote, not one person of either 
sex out of ten thousand would cast his or 
her ballot for the restoration of the old 
method. 

It is proper in this connection to say that 
the alleged failure of the cable-car system 
in other cities ought not to weigh against 
the system itself. In San Francisco and in 
the city of Chicago the system has been a 
success, and in the latter city a most 
marked and decided success, even during 
the most inclement winters which we have 
for a quarter of a century experienced. 

A cable road operated on a basis of mere 
cheapness, with defective machinery and 
with an enforced economy which declines 
to pay royalties for patents indispensable 
for the proper operation of the system, can- 
not be made successful any more than a 
horse railway system can be successfully 
operated where the horses are crippled, and 
an economy attempted to be exercised by 
the use of poor or disabled horses, simply 
because they can be purchased for a less 
price than animals adapted for the purpose 
for which they were intended. I do not 



say that any and all systems of cable roads 
can be made effective, but I do say that 
such a system as is in operation in the city 
of Chicago is effective, and has been so for 
several years, and both, so far as the com- 
pany and the public are concerned, useful 
and remunerative. 

It is a notable fact worthy to be here 
mentioned, that the intense frosts that we 
have nad in the city of Chicago for the last 
three years have not affected the construc- 
tion one particle. During the past winter 
the thermometer has ranged for week after 
week below zero ; great bodies of snow have 
fallen, and yet the cable roads have been 
operated without a detention worthy of 
note or mention. In one instance the ma- 
chinery was broken after the storm was 
over. This applied only to a portion of the 
line. The delay was something over two 
days, during which time, over the line thus 
affected, horses were substituted, and the 
defect was permanently remedied by 
strengthening the parts which were found 
upon investigation to be weak. 

This affiant further says that if his com- 
pany were so situated that it could not use 
horses, or had none to use in case of acci- 
dent, all contingencies could be well cov- 
ered by having machinery and cables in 
duplicate, which would prevent any deten- 
tions whatever, with small additional orig- 
inal outlay. 

Practical experience has also demon- 
strated that the system can be operated as 
effectually in hilly regions as in level ones — 
such as is the territory occupied in Chicago 
—and in such regions the cable system pos- 
sesses great advantages, obvious to the most 
superficial observer, over the horse-car meth- 
od. The cable system does not tire ; it never 
becomes fatigued, and operates at fifty per 
cent, greater speed than is possible with 
horses, even on level lines. 

In point of fact, it is the conclusion of 
this affiant that the horse-car system must 
gradually go out of operation, and that it 
will soon, under the decisive teachings of 
practical experience, become a scheme and 
method of the past, especially in large 
cities. 

The most marked and decided effect of 
the adoption of the cable over the horse 
system is the improvement in the grade of 
men employed, and not only an improve- 
ment in the grade of men generally, but 
improvement in the same man, when he is 
promoted from the driving of a horse to 
the handling and management of a cable 
car. 

Charles B. Holmes. 
Subscribed and sworn to before me 

this 16th day of March, A.D. 1885. 
Edward Jaeger, 
[l.S.] Notary Public. 



1 1 



State of Illinois, { gg 
Cook County, ( 

I, M. W. Ryan, Clerk of the County 
Court of Cook County, the same being a 
Court of Record, do hereby certify that 
Edward Jaeger, Esq.. whose name is sub- 
scribed to the annexed jurat, was, at the 
time of signing the same, a notary public 
in Cook county, duly commissioned to ad- 
minister oaths ; that I am well acquainted 
with his handwriting, and I verily believe 
that the signature to the said jurat is 
genuine. 

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto 
set my hand and affixed the seal of said 
Court, at the City of Chicago, in the said 
county, this 16th day of March, 1885. 

Il.s.I M. W. Ryan, 

Clerk. 



Subscribe. — If you have not already be- 
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Journal it will pay you to send a dollar, 
and receive the paper regularly. It is the 
aim of the publishers to make various 
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120 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[April, 1885. 



Car Heating-. 

Eds. Street Railway Journal : — 

Allow me to give the readers of your 
journal the benefit of our experience in 
heating cars. We use a small anthracite 
stove (made by a New York firm), which is 
devoid of complication and which takes up 
the room of but one passenger (a piece of 
the seat being removed and the stove placed 
therein). To this stove we had the follow- 
ing objections: 

First. The bottom of the stove being 
round would not permit the use of an ash- 
pan, and the conductor or driver had to 
remove the ashes, a small shovel full at a 
time, into a bucket, which sent the dust all 
over the car. 

Second. The accumulation of foul air, 
gas, &c. 

Third. Passengers spitting on the floor 
and stove. 

Objection first we overcame by having a ' 
cast-iron box attached to the bottom of the 
stove, inside of which is an ash-pan that is 
emptied from the outside of the car, thus 
promoting cleanliness and saving time. 

Objection No. 2 we overcame by taking 
the glass out of two ventilators on each 
side of the car and putting in fine screen 
wire, thus permitting 
pure air to circulate at 
all times. 

As to objection No. 3, 
we have partly over- 
come it by having the 
following card placed 
prominently in the cars: 
"Gentlemen are re- 
quested not to spit upon 
the floor." When an 
alleged gentleman fails 
to notice it we call his 
attention to the same. 

There is not the slight- 
est doubt in our minds 
that the stoves increase 
travel, and when properly cared for will be 
a source of financial gain to any company 
and a comfort which the traveling public 
has a right to expect. C. W. G. 



and Construction, North Chicago Railway, 
was read before the Association on Febru- 
ary 3d, 1885. We copy from the Journal 
of the Association of Engineering Societies. 
It will repay a careful reading : 

About six years ago, it became my duty 
to prepare plans for a stable to contain two 
hundred horses engaged m the street rail- 
way service of this city. These horses 
spend about twenty of the twenty-four 
hours per diem in the stable The horse is 
a sensitive animal, and his diseases closely 
resemble many of those under which his 
master, man, suffers. I enlarged upon this 
fact in a pap?r that I had the honor to read 
before you, entitled "Stable Construction," 
in July, 1884, and I trust you were so con- 
vinced of these facts, that it is not now 
necessary to say more upon that subject. 
Realizing the paramount importance of 
ventilation, I desired to ascertain the proper 
amount of air to provide for each animal. 
I turned to my engineering library, and 
consulted book after book, in vain, for the 
desired information. I then went to one 
of the prominent engineers of this city, 
and asked him "How much air does a horse 
breathe per minute ? " 

He said: "Well, I don't happen to re- 
member just now, but about the same 




JOHN STEPHENSON 



The First American Street Car. 

47 East 27th St., New York, ) 
March 27, 1885. \ 

Messrs. Editors : — The Street Rail- 
way Journal of February, 1885 says to^ 
its readers : 

" Passenger street cars were first used in 
cities in the United States as early as 1840." 
See cut herewith of the car " John Mason '' 
which was designed, constructed and used 
at the opening of the first section of 
the first street railroad by the New York 
& Harlem R.R. at that time extending from 
Prince Street to 14th Street, via the Bowery 
in the City of New York. The writer was 
there and rode in the car with the Mayor, 
Aldermen and invited guests of the City of 
New York. John Stephenson. 



Ventilation of Stables. 

The following paper, by Mr. Augustine 
W. Wright, member of the Western Society 
of Engineers, and Superintendent of Track 



amount as a man." I thought it must be 
greater, and turned to the Public Library, 
where I examined every book that I thought 
might contain the information, but could 
not find it. Not disheartened at my failure, 
I looked through half a dozen other leading 
works upon the horse, but could not secure 
the coveted information, although Stone- 
henge contained the following : "By com- 
mon consent, it is allowed that no stable, 
divided into stalls, should give to each 
horse less than 800 or 1,000 cubic feet;'' 
and the Civil Engineers and Architects'' 
Journal, 1841, page 103: "The committee 
of the Academy of Paris, to whom the 
question, What is the quantity of air neces- 
sary for the healthful respiration of the 
horse? was referred by the Minister of V/ar, 
reported that in a building where the air is 
properly renewed, and that result is effected 
by a skillful and efficient system of ventila- 
tion, a horse can never suffer so long as he 
has from 25 to 30 cubic meters of air," 883 
to 1,060 cubic feet. These statements did 
not solve the problem. I had arranged al- 
ready to give each horse 1,216 cubic feet 
of space, but I desired to know hoiv much 
air per minute he must have. I no w turned 
to the medical profession, and to a well- 
known doctor propounded the question : 



" How much air does a horse breathe per 
minute?" He said: "He breathes — he 
breathes (hesitatingly) — well, I don't re- 
member just now." I asked in vain four 
other physicians, and veterinary surgeons. 
All started to answer the question, hesi- 
tated, and finally said they did not remem- 
ber, but would look it up. This they did in 
vain. One said he had a friend, a physician, 
in the country, who was greatly interested 
in the horse, and no doubt he would know ; 
but he could not answer, and I was perforce 
compelled to assume a certain amount, and 
made by ventilators 6' X 6' on plan, taper- 
ing to 4' X 4', and 20' height, allowing one 
such for each forty horses. Assuming that 
air expands ¥ ^ T of its volume per degree 
Fahrenheit, and that it is winter weather, 
the interior of the stable being 15 degrees 
warmer than the exterior air — for in my 
opinion the horse enjoys better health if 
the stable temperature varies only 10 to 20 
degrees from the exterior air than he does 
in a hot stable — the air inside the stable 
V70uld lose in weight 20 X 5 V 5 (T = -61 2 IQ ot. 
That is, it would be lighter than the out- 
side air by the weight of a column of air 
.612 foot high. The velocity with which 
the outside column would try to get in at 
the base of this shaft would be governed 
by the same law as that 
of a body falling through 
the space of this excess 
of height. The formula 
for this velocity is V= 
^2gh, g representing 
the force of gravity, 
here 32 about, and h the 
height or space through 
which the fall is made ; 
substituting, we have 
V =8 / "0.612" = 6.26 
cubic feet per second ; 
but we must deduct from 
this amount the loss by 
friction of the air against 
the sides of one ventilator. Being a straight 
box with smooth sides, this loss will prob- 
ably not exceed 0.3 of 6.26 cubic feet, say 
1.90 cubic feet. Deducting this amount 
from the former leaves 4.36 cubic feet per 
second passing through each ventilator ; 
multiplying by 3,600, the number of sec- 
onds in one hour, and dividing by 40. the 
number of horses supplied by the said 



4.36 X 3,600 



ventilator, 



= 392.4 cubic feet 



40 



per hour per horse, as supplied under the 
foregoing conditions. In summer the doors 
and windows are open ; and as most of my 
stables have light and air from four sides, 
through many openings, there is no trouble 
about ventilation at that time of year, I 
located my gas burners that light the stable 
under the said ventilators. The part they 
perform, assisting in the ventilation, is 
important. There are two four feet burn- 
ers under each ventilator. The quantity of 
heat envolved by the combustion of a cubic 
foot of ordinary illuminating gas is esti- 
mated at 700 heat units. The two burners 
would therefore evolve 2 X 4 X 700 = 5,600 
heat units per hour, or 93.3 per minute. 
The specific heat of air is 0.238 nearly. A 



April, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



121 



cubic foot of air at 45° weighs 552 grains 

552 

. = .0789 lb., so tbat to ascertain how 

7000 

many cubic feet of air at 45° -would be 
heated 1° by burning two four-feet burners 

93.33 

per hour we have = 49.701 cubic 

.0789X0.238 

feet, or 15.690 cubic feet, the amount pass- 
ing through as per above estimate, heated 

1 

3.1°. Air expanding 'for each 1° of 

490 

temperature, we see here additional power 
to carry off the impure air. These figures 
apply to the ventilator provided to carry 
off the impure air. Provision is made to 
admit fresh air through flues beneath the 
floor, extending clear across the stable, 
with an exterior opening at each end, cov- 
ered with iron grates, to exclude rats, etc. 
Its cover is perforated, so that the air is 
broken up and admitted without drafts. 
The mangers on each side are boarded up 
44 inches high, affording additional protec- 
tion to the horse against drafts. The ven- 
tilator above the roof was first built with 
slats on its four sides, like ordinary blmds, 
moved by ropes extending to the first floor 
to regulate the amount of opening ; but we 
found it impossible to prevent downward 
drafts, chilling the horses. I then changed 
the construction ; took out the slats, and 
put in a slide with an angle board inclined 
at 45° on the four sides. The wind is thereby 
deflected upward. These slides are moved 
by ropes extending to the ground floor, and 
we now have no trouble from a current in 
the wrong direction. I would also state 
that I built numerous air flues in the brick 
walls at first, but had to stop them up, as 
the current passed through in the wrong 
direction. Instead of going out, cold air 
came down, and blowing upon the adjacent 
horses, chilled them. 

Some months since the Boston Journal of 
Chemistry opened its columns for " Ques- j 
tions and Answers " to matters of general 
interest. Recognizing the eminent ability 
of Dr. Nichols, and believing that amid its 
numerous readers were many among the 
owners of the fourteen millions of horses 
possessed by this country, I propounded 
my so often asked question, "How much 
air does a horse breathe per minute ? " It 
was not answered until the January num- 
ber of the present year contained an edi- 
torial entitled "Ventilation of Stables,'' 
from which I quote : ' ' According to author- 
ities on ventilation, a man makes twenty 
inspirations of air per minute, each inspira. 
tion being of a volume equal to 40 cubic 
inches ; so that he requires 800 cubic inche s 
per minute of fresh air to supply him with 
the necessary health-giving pabulum for 
his lungs. Each expiration unfits for 
breathing twice the bulk of fresh air ; that 
is, the 800 cubic inches expired per minute 
contaminate 1,600 cubic inches of fresh air, 
or nearly a cubic foot. Hence, in round 
numbers, a man requires a cubic foot of 
fresh air per minute, or 60 cubic feet per 
hour. * * * A horse or cow is said to 
have six times the breathing capacity of a 
man ; so that it will require 360 cubic feet 
per hour. These figures agree quite closely 



with the amount I furnish each horse, as 
above stated, 392.4 cubic feet. 

According to Pettenkoffer, an average 
pair of human lungs exhale about 15 cubic 
feet of air per hour, but authorities differ 
as to the proper amount of fresh air needed 
to keep the air in a fit state of purity. 
Peclet, calculating from the quantity of 
carbonic acid produced, says 5 cubic feet 
per minute per individual. Eeid, adding 
for an amount to carry off all the contam- 
inations resulting from human life, says 10 
cubic feet. Arnott and Roscoe, 20 cubic 
feet per minute. Wort hen allows 3 cubic 
feet per minute. Haswell states : "Each 
person requires from 3 to 4 cubic feet of air 
per minute." Box considers Zy 2 cubic feet 
per minute the minimum quantity neces- 
sary for cleanly and healthy persons. Phil- 
breck thinks 50 cubic feet per minute the 
proper allowance, and Dr. Billings allowed 
60 cubic feet per minute in the John Hop- 
kins Hospital. Curtis, in his "Fresh Air 
in the House," states : " The mean number 
of respirations per minute in the case of 
1,407 healthy males was found to be 
eighteen. * * * Then, if we take 230 
cubic inches for the quantity of air neces- 
sary to a man of medium height for each 
breath and multiply this by the number of 
respirations per minute, we shall get some, 
thing like the quantity required, andwhich 
will give us 2.39 cubic feet as the fullest 
measure." Surgeon-Major F. de Chaumont, 
in a paper " On the Theory of Ventilation," 
estimates the cubic feet of air needed per 
individual per hour, calculated from Angus 
Smith's estimate, that the amount of car- 
bonic acid expired per hour per individual 
= 0.450, at from 530 to 2,460 cubic feet ; by 
Dr. Parke's formula, C0 3 =0.600, from 
700 to 3,280; by Pettenkoffer's estimate, 
C0 2 = 0.705, from 825 to 3,850. He adopts 
Dr. Parke's formula. Seven hundred cubic 
feet per hour per individual gives " a very 
close atmosphere ; 3,280 cubic feet 'fresh,' 
no appreciably different sensation from the 
outer air." Gen. Morin, by actual experi- 
ment, found " different numbers of cubic 
meters of air per hour are required for dif- 
ferent purposes. In hospitals for ordinary 
illness, 60 to 70 per hour, for each patient ; 
the wounded repuire 100. Persons suffering 
from epidemics, 150. In prisons 50 are 
enough. In ordinary workshops, 60. In 
barracks — by day, 30 ; by night, from 40 to 
50. In theatres, 40. In stables and stalls, 
180 to 200." These figures, being in cubic 
meters, must be multiplied by 31.3156 to 
reduce them to cubic feet. Having done 
this, we find that from 939 cubic feet for 
the individual in the barracks to 4,697 
cubic feet for the wounded are deemed 
necessary for each individual per hour by 
Gen. Morin, and from 5,637 to 6,263 cubic 
feet per hour for each horse. The English 
army regulations at the present time are 
said to allow to each horse a space of 1,605 
cubic feet, 100 square feet of floor and 2,466 
cubic feet of fresh air per hour. Philbreck, 
in his admirable work, ' ' American Sanitary 
Engineering," states: "The standard of 
purity (of the air) must be a conventional 
and arbitrary one, fixed by experience and 
adapted to the class of occupants by whom 
a building is to be used." Applying these 
words to stable ventilation, permit me to 



affirm that experience demonstrates that 
our ventilation is sufficient. R. Atkins, 
Superintendent of the Horse Department 
North Chicago City Railway, reports : 
" The number of horses owned at the pres- 
ent time, 1,658 ; average number owned 
during 1884, 1,500; average number unfit 
for duty from all causes, 38^2 > but this in- 
cludes a number of new horses (over 150) 
purchased fresh from the country to stock 
a new line, who suffered from distemper in 
being acclimated. Excluding them the 
average was 32, or about 2 per cent. Forty, 
five horses died during the past year — 14 
from accidental injuries, 10 from colic, 5 
from lung fever, 4 from paralysis, and 12 
from 8 other diseases." Deducting the 14 
from accidents and 10 from colic, leaves 21 
deaths only that might have been remotely 
affected by ventilation, or 1.4 per cent. 
Surely this experience indicates ample ven- 
tilation. Having given so much time to 
this matter and believing it to be of general 
interest, I take great pleasure in submitting 
the same for your consideration. 



The " Providence " Rail and Track. 

In reply to inquiries we give, on the au- 
thority of Mr. Longstreet of Providence, 
who controls the steel girder rail track 
shown on the front page of our issue of 
February, the following estimate of the cost 
of material for one mile of street railway: 

1 . Ordinary Team Rail Construction. 
52 lb. steel rail. 

82 Tons Rail at $40 $3,280 

352 Joint Plates at 60c 211 

6 Tons Knees at $50 300 

3,200 lbs Spikes at 3%c 100 

32 m. ft. Hard Pine at $ 23 736 

700 Chestnut ties at 35c 245 

700 Iron Ties at 35c 245 

$5,147 
2. Providence Steel Girder Rail Con- 
struction. — Same wearing head. 

82 Tons Rail at $48 $3,936 

25 Tons Castings at $45 1,125 

700 Iron Ties at 35c 245 

60Bbls. Cement at $1.30 78 

$5,384 
Less saving in labor over No. 1, at 

least 300 

$5,084 
Memo. — The girder rail is figured at $8 per ton ad- 
vance over tram, which will cover extra cost of man- 
ufacture and all patent rights. 



The St. Louis Cable Railway. 

The contracts for the St. Louis Cable 
Railway are let, and work begun. The 
new road will connect the central business 
portion of the city, from near the entrance 
to the great steel bridge over the Mississppi, 
with the western suburbs, whence connec- 
tions are made with the West End Narrow 
Gauge Railway, extending some twenty 
miles into the country. The route is from 
Sixth and Locust Streets, between the Gould 
and Barr buildings, west to Thirteenth 
Street, thence north to Lucas Avenue, 
thence west to Fourteenth, thence north to 
Wash, thence west to Leffmgwell, thence 
to Franklin Avenue, thence west to Grand, 
thence south to Morgan, thence west to 
the Narrow Gauge Depot. The route down 
town will be the same, taking in the new 
post office and the new exposition building. 



122 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[April, 1885. 



— THE 



Street Railway 

JOURNAL. 

MONTHLY, $1,00 PER YEAR. 



E. P. Harris General Manager. 

P. G. Monroe General Western Manager. 

Robert Grimsh aw, M. E Editor in Chief . 

G. B Heckel, Associate Editor. 

American ^ailw/y PublishingCo. 

32 LIBERTY ST., NEW TOEK. 

8 LAKESIDE BUILDING, CHICAGO, 
S. L. K. Monroe, Sec'y and Treas. 



BRANCH OFFICES: 
Eastern District. 8 Exchange Place, Boston,Mass. 
H. M. Swetland, Manager. 

South-Eastern District, 419 Walnut St., Phila- 
delphia, Pa. G. B. Heckel, Manager. 

Southern District, 68 Alabama St., Atlanta, Ga. 

E. V. Cavell. Manager. 

South-Western District, F04 Temple Building, 
St. Louis, Mo. N. Hunt, Manager. 



Special Notice. 

Street Railway officials and others inter- 
ested, who have not yet subscribed for the 
Street Railway Journal, should do so at 
once, so as to receive the back numbers. An 
index will be printed at the end of the year, 
embracing the first twelve numbers— consti- 
tuting a most valuable fund of information. 
The price (only One Dollar) shoidd place 
it in the hands of every practical street rail- 
way man in the country. 

Street llailways Public Benefactors.— I. 

It is our intention in this paper and the 
following numbers of the series, to review 
the relations, past and existent, of the street 
railways to the public. The number now 
in hand will be confined to merely a gen- 
eral review of the subject, and in succeed- 
ing numbers we shall glance over the his- 
tory of the institution, its development — 
showing that it has kept in advance of 
needs rather than behind them ; legislation; 
improvement in methods, appliances and 
aids to comfort ; closing finally, with a 
synopsis of the plans, work and possibilities 
of the National Association in America. 

It may be laid down as a broad general 
principle, that no great enterprise can ever 
succeed unless there first exists a necessity 
demanding it. But present success is not 
always the most important thing to be 
attained, and often, where no demand 
exists for a thing, its very creation may 
awaken such a demand, and its prosperity 
be thus finally secured. The man or cor- 
poration that thus establishes an important 
device or system, and therewith creates, as 
it were, a necessity for his invention, is to 
be honored as a public benefactor of the 
highest order. And in this category the 
originator of the street railway — not 
Outram, whose honor is, after all, but per- 
functory, but he who first opened up the 
streets of a great city to rapid and regular 
passenger transport — may well be classed. 



In the ante-tramway (or, as we prefer to 
call it, street railway) days, city streets 
were narrow, foul-smelling, ill-paved, and, 
at night, dark and dangerous. The lum- 
bering stage coach, indeed, performed its 
"semi-occasional" journeys from town to 
town, and the European modification of 
the Japanese jin-riM-sha, or "man-power 
carriage" — the chair borne through the 
narrow lanes and alleys of unprogressive 
cities — together with a few detached hacks 
or cabs, but poorly represented the service 
and convenience now performed in every 
borough of the United States and the rest 
of the civilized world. 

To understand the importance of this 
modern means of transit to commercial 
and personal life in cities, it must be 
remembered : 

(1.) That a street railway is impossible 
without at least .passably good road-beds, 
and good roads almost necessitate fair side- 
walks. 

(2.) That good drainage is requisite to the 
maintenance of good roads. 

(3.) That a street railway requires some- 
thing wider than a mere lane or alley, and 
that wide streets mean light, air, ventila- 
tion and health to the dwellers thereon. 

(4.) That the regular transit of closed 
vehicles, which may be used at a cheap 
fixed price, renders locomotion possible in 
all weathers without prejudice to health or 
comfort, and thus improving the facilities 
for business and social intercourse directly 
benefits all the inhabitants of a town pos- 
sessing such facilities, and directly im- 
proves the value of properties situated on 
streets having them. 

(5.) That corporations operating upon a 
large scale and having the special privileges 
for which only such corporations can offer 
adequate returns, are enabled to perform 
at a smaller expense and on a lower per- 
centage of profits, more regular and satis- 
factory and cheaper services than the 
enterprises of individuals could possibly 
offer. 

(6.) That success is always dependent 
upon the acceptable perforance of needful 
services, and that success, in the case of 
street railway companies, is therefore de- 
pendent upon the adequate accommodation 
of the public, and that the greater the suc- 
cess, the greater, necessarily, the benefits 
rendered. 

On these propositions we shall base our 
future articles. M 



The Car Heating- Question. 

In view of the fact that our past com- 
ments on this subject appear to have 
misled some of our readers, and placed us 
in a false light before them, we publish this 
in explanation of our position. 

The question whether cars shall or shall 
not be heated is, we take it, one which con- 
cerns the street railway companies alone, 
and in its settlement the public has abso- 
lutely no right to consideration, save in the 
light of patrons. It is a matter solely of 
dollars and cents, and the only problem to 
be solved is this: — Will it pay better to heat 
cars or not to heat them ? It is, furthermore, 
a local question, and the fact that car-heat- 



ing has proven successful or unsuccessful 
in one city cannot decide whether it would 
be profitable or unprofitable in another. If 
the people refuse to patronize unheated 
cars, or if a sufficient additional number 
would use the heated cars, there is no com- 
pany which would not hasten to supply the 
desired accommodation, always providing 
that a practicable method can be found. 
But in cases where companies refuse to heat 
their cars, we take it that after canvassing 
the grounds, they have come to the conclu- 
sion that the prospective increase of profits 
will not justify the added expense. It is 
usual with unreflecting people to look at 
such matters from a sentimental or a 
partisan standpoint. Street railways, like 
all other enterprises, are purely business 
ventures, and a passenger has no more 
moral right to demand of the corporation 
heat in the car which he patronizes than he 
has to demand a pound of sugar as a bonus 
on the pound of tea which he buys of his 
grocer. " The public," in the eyes of news- 
paper writers, is a sort of gigantic auto- 
cratic monster, to be worshipped and 
flattered and pampered, like a Burmese 
white elephant, and possessed of an in- 
herent right to set foot, when the whim 
moves it, upon a whole detachment of its 
devotees and crush them out of entity. 
But the fact is that the public is merely a 
collection of individuals, each naturally 
desiring to get what he wants at the lowest 
price; and the public has no " right" which 
obligate any corporation or individual to 
give it something for nothing, or, in other 
words, to perform an unprofitable service? 
If it will pay to heat our cars, let us 
heat them ; if it will not pay, they should 
remain unheated — now, are we com- 
prehended? C. 
•-+-• 

Beneficent Monopolies. 

Just now (the past year having been an 
election year), readers of the daily press are 
condemned to see a great deal of philipic 
literature directed against "grinding mon- 
opolies." In New York and some few other 
unfortunate states the target of abuse is, 
at present, the street railways, just as in 
the far West, the steam roads are made the 
scapegoat of "near "-eyed grangers and 
wide-mouthed borough politicians. 

It is a rather startling proposition to ad 
vance, but has it ever occurred to our read- 
ers that in the present age of free compe- 
tition, there can be no such thing as a 
" grinding monopoly? " 

If a fiat law could give to a single man or 
body of men, the unlimited and exclusive 
control of one of the absolute necessities of 
life, that would be a " grinding monopoly ; " 
but in regard to things which people are 
able to accept or reject, we fail to see how 
a monopoly can be oppressive. 

In the case of a street railway, a body of 
individuals, under certain just or unjust 
restrictions, is permitted to erect facilities 
for performing a certain service, and in re- 
turn is guaranteed certain privileges. If 
the services are poorly performed, the road 
is not patronized, loses money, and, in the 
natural course of events, finally finds its 
way into more capable hands. A line in 
this final condition of successful manage- 



April, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



123 



merit, catering to the demand it has assisted 
in creating, enhances the value of adjacent 
property, attracts investment and settle- 
ment, and (sometimes!) reaps a handsome 
reward. Now, why, in the name of logic 
and common sense, should a successful road 
of this latter class be considered more ob- 
noxious than an unsuccessful one — or in- 
deed, as much so ? 

Undeserved success, be it remembered, is 
next to the problematical " honest man " 
of Diogenes, the rarest thing in the world ; 
and when a street railway company (or, in 
fact, any other sort of company) attains the 
happy position of being able to say heavy 
dividends, it is nine chances to none that 
its superior success is due to superior enter- 
prise and merit. 

We have been trying to comprehend, but 
have not yet succeeded in doing so, why a 
street railway company earning more than 
a penurious dividend, should be subject to 
public crimination, newspaper abuse and 
the hounding of legislative demagogues, 
any more than a bank or a manufacturing 
corporation. The anomaly is all the more 
apparent when it is remembered that there 
are very few commodities to be had at such 
a ridiculously low figure as street railway 
transportation. In Philadelphia, for in- 
stance, one may ride something like fifteen 
miles on a single six cent fare ; in New 
York, five cents will entitle one to ride 
about fourteen miles ; in Brooklyn the same 
amount will cover about eight miles, while 
in Chicago for the same price, nearly the 
same distance may be traveled. These fig- 
ures are merely approximate, but it will 
serve to illustrate the general cheapness of 
this commodity, when it is remembered 
that steam railway transportation is con- 
sidered very low at two cents per mile, and 
that shoe leather costs a constantly walking- 
man at least three dollars per month ; all 
things considered it seems more rational to 
attack the shoemakers than the street rail- 
ways. 

These points are worth considering, and 
holders of street railway securities need 
not fear but that the calm good sense of 
the community will finally repudiate any 
action looking to the curtailment of their 
facilities or the crippling of their resources, 
in spite of the biassed pleadings of inter- 
ested politicians. M. 



Some Features. 



and so merit your hearty support; and 
to this end we shall always esteem frank 
criticism even more highly than frank 
commendation. If any of our articles dis- 
please you, tell us so, giving your reasons; 
for we are privileged, by the rules of rhet- 
oric, to consider silence as giving assent. 

In this number will be found consider- 
able cable railway matter, which should be 
of interest at the present time, and with 
other interesting articles and notes, a 
specially valuable paper on stable ventila- 
tion, by Mr. Augustine "Wright, M. E., of 
the Chicago North Side Railway. We hope 
in the future to have a first-class "horse" 
department, and until we can secure the 
proper organization for its thorough con- 
duct, will try to give hints and notes in 
that line, which shall not be without 
value. 

Now, can we rely on our readers for 
hearty assistance ? 



It will be observed that this issue of the 
Street Railway Journal is considerably 
enlarged, and we trust our readers will find 
it also materially improved. This enlarge- 
ment will be permanent, at least to the 
extent of four pages increase over our past 
editions ; while we hope to make each num- 
ber more acceptable to our readers than the 
one preceding. Our object is to represent 
in every sense of the word, the street rail- 
way interests of the Americas, and (as far 
as they care for our assistance) those of 
other lands. To this end we invite assist- 
ance and co-operation. Tell us what you 
want and we'll try to furnish it ; tell us 
what is least valuable to you that we 
may know what we can afford to omit. 
Our sole aim is to be useful to you, 



Concerning an " Equine" Department. 

Several very good friends of the Street 
Railway Journal (friends in words, in 
deeds and in dollars) have urged upon us 
the great desirability of a veterinary, or 
more properly speaking, an "Equine" 
department. The more we think of the 
suggestion, the better we think of it ; the 
horse is at present the important factor of 
both profit and expense in the street rail- 
way business, and it is a perfectly safe 
assertion to make, that less is generally 
known about the animal (physiologically 
and psychologically) than about anything 
else connected with the business. How 
little is known definitely, for instance, 
about feeding — the proper food for certain 
work, or the proper variations of food with 
the changing seasons. This is ignorance 
of equine hygiene, and ignorance in matters 
of equine pathology is even more striking. 
Yes, we are convinced that an "Equine" 
department would be valuable, and we 
promise our subscribers such a department 
as soon as we can arrange for its conduct by 
a competent specialist — for it demands a 
specialist to make such a department of 
permanent, practical value. Meanwhile, 
the following notes may be found useful by 
some of our readers : 

Anthrax or Charbon : This disease— com- 
mon in some portions of Europe, where it 
becomes, at periods, a veritable plague, is, 
fortunately, rather rare in this country. 
Pasteur, and other eminent microscopists, 
have demonstrated it to be a "germ" 
disease, communicable only by direct in- 
fection, but very virulent. In one district 
of France, it was shown that earthworms, 
by carrying the germs from buried cattle 
which had died of the disease, to the sur- 
face, spread the contagion through the 
grazing herds of an entire district. Dr. 
R. S. Finlay, V. S. (Veterinary Editor of 
Wilkes' Spirit of the Times), says of it in 
that paper : 

" Anthrax (called by some charbon, from 
the fact that the tissues diseased are of a 
black color ; also termed splenic apoplexy, 
gloss anthrax, carbuncular fever, miltz- 
brand, black leg, black quarter, splenic 
fever, Texan fever, etc.) The same indica- 



tions for treatment are manifest, with 
slight modification, according to seizure. 
Symptoms : An animal that has been thriv- 
ing well is suddenly found feverish, with 
rapid heart's action increased to 100 to 120 
pulsations per minute, mouth hot and dry, 
conjunctiva deeply injected, with, in many 
cases, petechisel spots visible. In a short 
time swellings are noticeable in the quar- 
ters or loins, tender to the touch, with 
stiffness in moving, lies down a good deal, 
with unwillingness to get up, appetite lost, 
rumination suspended, bowels constipated, 
urine scanty and very highly colored, 
almost blood-like. Second stage : The 
swellings increase and lose their sensibility 
to touch, become dead, gases form in their 
interstices, producing crepitation when 
handled, from their breaking down and 
decomposition ; absorption of the putrid 
substance occurs, resulting in blood poison- 
ing, delirium and convulsions or the oppo- 
site condition, coma, with failure of the 
heart's action, and death in some cases, in 
a few hours. Post-mortem appearances 
are those of tarry-colored extravasations of 
blood found in every organ, with petechisel 
spots in the bowels, and, in some cases, 
ulceration. Pasteur thinks well of vaccin- 
ation with a modified virus. His experi- 
ments are published, and are worth while 
perusing. He has proven the existence of 
a specific virus, communicable from one 
animal to another. We are of the opinion 
that a timely adoption of a strict quaran- 
tine, with isolation and the administration 
of sulpho-phenol, alternated with ammonia- 
phenol, will check the incubation and in- 
vasion of the disease." 

He also says that he has frequently found 
" following in the trail of ' epizootic,' cer- 
tain structural changes in the membranous 
lining of the respiratory passages," which 
produce symptoms showing difficulty in 
breathing, under work, without other 
marks of disease. As " epizootic " has been 
epidemic in most parts of this country at 
some time during the past few years, Dr. 
Finlay's prescription maybe found of value 
in many places. He says that these cases 
' ' require care in feeding to avoid dust or 
over-distension of the stomach. We would 
advise the food to be of a laxative nature 
and as small in bulk as possible. The use 
of ground flaxseed, as an addition to the 
feed, would answer the purpose, together 
with the following powders in the feed and 
■watering a little and often, would be 
attended by beneficial results : 

Acidi arsenicum, 1 drachm. 
Glycyrrh. pulv. rad., 4 ounces. 

Misce. Sig. Tablespoonful in the feed 
twice a day." 



We Will Try to Deserve It. 

Mr. Chas. W. Goodnough, of the Pitts- 
burgh Union Passenger Railway Co., writes 
us pleasantly: — "We hope your paper will 
be a success, as we consider it of great 
value, and believe that it fills a long felt 
want in the street railway business." 

To this we can only modestly return our 
thanks, and the assurance that we will try 
right along to deserve the success which 
our efforts so far have obtained. 



124 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Apeil, 1885. 



" The Demon Varnish." 

Following up some remarks in the JOUR- 
NAL op Eailway Appliances upon the 
cussedness of inanimate objects, as espec- 
ially exemplified in varnish,* the discus- 
sion which had led to one or two animad- 
versions against contract work, brc ught to 
his feet one gentleman who said : — "I am 
one of those contract fellows they talk 
about. I have tried this board method. I 
have tried the half and half method. The 
board method did some good, although I 
have seen some differences in boards I have 
used. I had rather hear the railroad men in 
regard to that matter, but any additional 
light I can offer I shall be very pleased to 
do so." 

("The board method" consisted in paint- 
ing a board and varnishing one half of it 
with one varnish, and the other with 
another. The "half-and-half method" 
consisted in varnishing one half of each 
side and of each end of a car with 
one varnish and the other with another 
varnish.) 

It will be seen that even "the smallest 
worm will turn, being trodden on."f 

It does not appear, however, that the 
" railroad men" who were so free to criti- 
cise the contract system, cleared their own 
skirts at all ; for they in no wise showed 
where and why the contract system was 
wrong, nor how it could be bettered. This 
is all that was said in response: — "Mr. 
Stines : ' I think it is nothing more than 
fair to give those varnish men a chance.'" 
In other words, the railroad men knocked 
off the contract men's hats, and cut and 
ran. 

But the ultimate result was that one var- 
nish maker who had the good sense not to 
think that he " knew it all," got up and 
said : — "I would like to ask the gentlemen 
what they think the best varnish, that 
which dries with a strong tack, or one that 
dries without any tack with a hard sur- 
face at once." 

This was " carrying the war into Africa." 
Customers growled, and he wanted to know 
what they were growling about, and what 
they wanted. He added: — "I have been 
a practical varnish maker for over thirty 
years, and my experience is that the var- 
nish that dries on the surface will never 
stand as well as that that dries with a 
strong tack. If you take a microscope of 
ten power and look through it at the side 
of a car you will notice that the surface of 
the car is full of holes and still every one of 
these holes takes in the atmosphere, and 
in a little while that takes away the power 
of adhesion that is in the oil." 

But even this gentleman, one " of the 
guild," could not resist this fling : — " Some 
varnish men pretend to say that they have 
got a varnish that will dry from the bottom 
up. I don't believe it." 

Hit 'im again, he has no friends ! He 
continues : — " "When a varnish is dry it is 
composed of oil and gum, or ought to be. 
You will find that all varnishes crack from 
the surface, and paint cracks from the 
bottom." 



* See page 98 of our issue of March 2. 
t Henry IV., Part III., ii., 2. 



Now what we want to know is why is it 
impossible for varnish to dry from the 
bottom, and y?t possible for paint to crack 
from the bottom ? 

But the speaker adds something worth 
noting: — "If you could put on two coats 
of varnish rub it a very little and then 
polish it and close up all the pores, you 
would have a job that would last longer 
than any work we have at the present 
time." 

He then adds, what we cannot agree in : — 
" The ammonia in the atmosphere is what 
destroys varnish. The presence of that 
ammonia in the atmosphere is what gives 
more trouble than anything else." 

How about salt air? No ammonia in 
salt. But perhaps the next statement 
atones for the heterodoxy on the ammonia 
question. " I think that after a while you 
will all come to rubbing varnish with the 
hand. You thus fill up all the pores and 
the work will last longer than with two or 
three coats of finishing varnish without 
rubbing. I think it is better to rub in the 
first coat." 

A member replies: — "You make them 
come together by the force of adhesion. 
Now by rubbing this surface off you scrape 
up this varnish on the same principle that 
the plasterer scrapes up his wall before put- 
ting on the second coat. The only objec- 
tion I can see is to closing up the pores." 

Here we have one man complaining that 
the pores do the damage, and another 
asserting that to close them up would be in- 
jurious. It reminds us of the two roads to 
Heaven, described by a darky preacher : — 
" One am a broad and narrer way dat 
leads to destruction, and de udder am a 
narrer and broad way dat leads to perdi- 
tion." "In dat case," ejaculated one of 
his sable hearers, ' ' dis nigger take to de 
woods." 

The pertinacious varnish maker, how- 
ever, says in reply : — "I speak from ex- 
perience. I have had for twenty-two 
years a customer who varnishes coach 
bodies. He has never used a particle of 
finishing varnish. He polishes up a coach 
with his hand and then sends it out as 
finished, and his coaches are not revar- 
nished for five years. They last longer be- 
cause he closes up the pores." 

He adds as a parting shot against rival 
houses. " One man will send you a var- 
nish that is half turpentine. It must get 
out and there is nothing for the paint to do 
but crack." 

" Hits bleedzed ter be so " says Uncle 
Remus. 

Now rises up a champion for the much 
berated varnish and says: — "I heard a 
theory advanced here this morning that 
varnish will crack paint. I never knew 
a varnish to crack paint, I have known 
varnish to crack, but that was the fault of 
the paint." 

The last speaker of all leaves the matter 
about where it all started, on the border 
line between uncertainty and lack of defi- 
nite knowledge : — " I think that the time a 
car should run before revarnishing is not a 
matter before the meeting to be determined ; 
we cannot control it. I know some roads 
that allow their cars to run and never wash 
them, they let them run until they get so 



dirty that they have to bring them in and 
paint them. I know others that wash their 
cars once a year. We wash our cars twice a 
year with soap and water. I find that a 
car washed in this way won't stand more 
than three washings before it needs revar- 
nishing. We all know cars need washing 
before repainting. Another thing, the 
wear of varnish will depend upon the 
weather. A car run out now will wear 
longer than one run out next spring. To 
run them out of the shop and let them stand 
in the hot sun is worse than letting them 
run all the time, but as I said before, I do 
not think it is a matter we can decide. 
Our passenger cars will average two years 
before revarnishing, and they look as well 
as cars that have been revarnished in six- 
teen or eighteen months." 



Double Lip Joint Plate. 

A wrought iron continuous double lip 
joint plate* for 5-inch base centre bearing 
rail, to which our attention has been called, 
is approximately |_i shape in section ; is 
reversible, and should in great measure 
protect the timber from the wet, between 
joints, and prevent it from rotting. 

* A. Ayres, 625 Tenth Av., N.Y. 



The Metropolitan Street Railway Co. of 
Boston is building thirty new summer cars, 
to be finished the first of May. The com- 
pany will then have seven hundred and 
twenty full-size cars running on its road. 
It is introducing B. L. Randall's Eureka 
brake, which is considered a benefit both to 
the car and driver, giving him complete 
and easy control of the car at all times. It 
is also using Eaton's patent loose axle, in 
which each wheel acts independently, thus 
saving much friction in turning curves. 

E. L. B. 
#-*♦■ 

In London the great Hughes Locomotive 
Works broke down by reason of their pro- 
longed efforts to force the use of steam 
upon street railways and do away with 

horses. 

-•-►-*- 

The Pioneer Car is the " bobtail," but it 
soon gives way to the two-horse car. Three- 
fifths of all the cars now running in the 
U.S. are of the bobtail persuasion. 



Power to Run the Brooklyn Bridge Cars. 

Mr. A. H. Mathesius states that the 
"26x48" engines on the Brooklyn Bridge 
cable, working under 60 lbs. initial cylinder 
pressure, develop a maximum of 270 in- 
dicated horse-power; of which 56 H. P. 
(or about 20 per cent.) are needed to drive 
the machinery and cable. The minimum 
is 54 H. P.; mean, 162 I. H. P., got with a 
coal expenditure of 3 lbs. per hour per 
I. H. P. The " cabled " part of the run is 
5,600 feet ; grade, 3J per cent. ; speed, 10 
miles per hour, say 900 feet per minute ; 
weight of train and load, 26 tons. Mr. M. 
thinks that if four-car trains were run, 
under the present distribution, they would 
run away with the machinery. 



April, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



125 



Personal. 

Mr. J. B. Slawson, President of the 
Central Cross-town R.R., N.Y., and Treas- 
urer of the John Stevenson Co., is just 
recovering from a severe attack of pleuro- 
pneumonia. 

A thousand FRIENDS of Mr. Bidgood, 
General Superintendent of the 6th Ave. 
(N.Y.) line will learn with regret that he 
has resigned his position and gone south 
to regain his shattered health. Mr. Moore 
has succeeded to lus position. 

Mr. Abram L. Smith, late General 
Superintendent of the Dry Dock E. B. & 
B. R. R.R. Co. (N.Y.), has succeeded Mr. 
Wiley as General Superintendent of the 
42nd Street, Manhattan ville and St. Nicholas 
Ave. R.R. Co. 



Notes and Items. 



The contract for wire cable for the St. 
Louis Cable Railway, has been given to 
Jno. A. Roebling, Sons & Co., Trenton, N. 
J. It is of steel wire, endless, 1J in. diam- 
eter, 34,000 feet long, weighing 75,000 
pounds. 

We have trustworthy information that 
the Citizens' Railway Company of Pitts- 
burgh has leased the Transverse Railway 
Company's line, to take possession April 1st. 

The Brownell-Wight Car Manufac- 
turing Company, St. Louis, received the 
contract for the rolling stock for the new 
St. Louis Cable Railway, consisting of 24 
passenger and 15 grip cars. Cars must be 
run at intervals not exceeding five minutes, 
and the fare will be five cents. 

The New Albany Rail Mill Company 
received the contract for the conduit of the 
St. Louts Cable Railway, requiring 1,900 
tons of iron. 

The Smith, Beggs & Rankin Machine 
Company, St. Louis, took the contract for 
engine and boilers for the St. Louis Cable 
Railway. There will be one Corliss engine, 
24x48, sixty-nine revolutions, and three 
boilers, 60 inches diameter by 20 feet long, 
giving a capacity of 250 horse-power. 
Foundations for duplicate sets of machinery 
will be put in. 

The Fulton Iron Works, St. Louis, re- 
ceived the contract for the winding ma- 
chinery, pulleys, sheaves, drums, etc., for 
the new cable railway in that city. 

The Atlantic Avenue Railway Com- 
pany, of Brooklyn, has (as we previously 
noted), recently purchased the Bergen 
Street Railway, and will connect the two 
at several different points. The contracts 
for the switches and other appliances for 
these connections, has been given to Mr. 
David W. Binns, of Walworth St. (27 to 39), 
Brooklyn. 

Economical Steam Tramway. — The 
Dewsbury, Batley, and Bristol Steam Tram- 
ways — the first ever constructed in England 
— worked by Merryweather 7-in. engines, 
show iu the half-year's working accounts 
that the total cost of the running of the 
engines is 2.57 pence per mile, and the total 
expenses of the whole establishment, in- 
cluding locomotive charges, 5.16 pence per 
mile. This is one of the most economically 
worked lines in England. 



Louisville City Railway Company.— 
The stockholders held their annual meeting 
March 12th, and elected as directors: Major 
Alex. H. Davis. Syracuse, N.Y. ; H. B. 
Hanson, Saratoga Springs, N.Y.; St. John 
Boyle. E. C. Bohne, Theodore Harris, Alex. 
P. Humphrey and H. H. Littell, all of Louis- 
ville, Ky. The directors organized and 
elected Major Alex. H. Davis, President; St. 
John Boyle, Vice-president ; H. H. Littell, 
Superintendent ; R. A. Watts, Secretary 
and Treasurer. A dividend of three per 
cent, from the earnings of the past fix 
months (payable April 1st) was declared. 

Amos Free has been made Superintendent 
of the Watervliet Turnpike and R.R. Co., 
vice M. C. Foster, resigned. Mr. Free was 
stable foreman. The office of president of 
that company is at present vacant. 

Alfred Egeeton, Superintendent of the 
Albany (N.Y.) R.R. Co., is investigating the 
various systems of cable traction, with a 
view to adopting one of theui. He invites 
correspondence on the subject. A few cars 
and some track will be added this spring. 

The Toronto (Can.) Street Railway 
Co. is extending its line and has ordered a 
lot of American cars, we understand, of 
West Troy make. 

Charles Hathaway, President of the 
Superior Street Road, Cleveland, has pur- 
chased the St. Clair Street line, and will 
devote his personal attention to its develop- 
ment. 

The consolidation of the West Side and 
Woodland Ave. roads in Cleveland has 
been consummated, and a number of cars 
are being added. They are built by Jones, 
West Troy. 

The Detroit City Railway Co. is chang- 
ing its one-horse cars on Woodward Avenue 
line, for two-horse cars built by Jones. 

The Northampton (Mass.), Street Rail- 
way Co.'s line extending to Florence, has 
a very fine equipment, and being compelled 
to compete with a steam road, cars are run 
to make time regardless of several heavy 
grades. The equipment consists of eight 
men, twenty -four horses and six cars. Some 
additions will be made this season. 

Work will begin as early as the weather 
will permit on the College City Street Rail- 
way of Galesburg, 111., — a city of fifteen 
thousand — heretofore without anything of 
the kind. Mr. E. O. Flood, of Dallas, Texas, 
is President. 

The Race & Vine St. Company (Phila.), 
has just put into service two new cars 
(Nos. 24 and 40), built in its own shops. 
Five new summer cars are also being 
pushed to completion in the company's 
shops. 

Mr J. E. RUGG, Superintendent High- 
land Street Railway, Boston, Mass., writes 
us that " the Highland Street Railway Co. 
have added eight new cars to its different 
lines during the past whter, all having the 
Higby gear and Everett sash, and made by 
J. M. Jones' Sons, West Troy, N. Y. 

Andrews & Clooney report that they are 
" running overtime in their works on 
wheels, axles and railroad castings, and 
automatic and plain switches. Business is 
steadily increasing, they having just closed 
some large contracts for material for sev- 



eral new roads, have orders for 100 sets of 
our new Andrews and Clooney rubber cen- 
tre spring, which has met with great suc- 
cess." 

Several Capitalists on Staten Island 
have incorporated the Richmond County 
Railroad for the purpose of running hcrse 
cars from the shores to the interior of the 
island. The line is intended to make ac- 
cessible a locality where elegant residences 
are being rcpidly constructed. The capital 
stock of the company is $30,000. The road 
will be in operation within three months. 

Mr. Wm. P. Craig is to furnish the ma- 
terial and build about six miles of street 
road in New Bedford, Mass., using the 
Johnson steel girder rail. He writes that 
his prospects are good for building several 
more roads in the eaotern s-tates, using this 
rail. He has contracted to build an exten- 
sion to the Bush wick Road, in Brooklyn, 
E. D., comprising about 2i miles of track. 
He also expects, in a few days, to commence 
work on laying the curves and switches 
connecting the cable road on Tenth Avenue, 
New York, with the depot, and this road 'is 
expected to be running as soon as this work 
is completed. 

The Second Avenue R.R. of this city 
tried for seven years to introduce steam 
upon their line, but finally abandoned the 
idea. 

The Venerable John Stephenson, of 
New York, who has spent 54 years in the 
manufacture of street cars and omnibuses, 
says that omnibus lines have nearly gone out 
of date, being supplanted by street cars. 
In all this time he has never had a strike in 
his shops. Last year the John Stephenson 
Company did the largest amount of work 
of any in his experience, but the prices 
were low and profits not commensurate 
with his increased business. They are now 
completing, with other orders, a let of 
seventeen cars for the 4th Avenue read of 
this city, which are to have all the modern 
convenient and elegant app iances. 

After an experience of five years, and 
exhaustive tests of twenty-one different 
systems, the Paris Tramway Company has 
abandoned the use of steam and reverted 
to the use of horses as a cheaper and, in all 
respects, more satisfactoiy motive power. 
Scarcely a week has passed without seme 
accident on the steam line, which proved 
cosrly to the company and led to complaints 
from the public. At last the authorities 
forbade the use of steam, and the company 
was entirely ready to acquiesce. 

In Chicago the Cable .Road Company 
have expended some hundreds of thousands 
of dollars in constructing divergent lines 
from the main lines, which they have not 
utilized. 

Men of large experience in street railway 
affairs assert that no motor can now be 
practicable which depends for its propuls.ve 
power upon the revolution of a wheel upon 
the vehicle. 

The 42d Street, Manhattanville and 
St. Nicholas Avenue Ry. Co. (N.Y.) will 
open its road, through the boulevard, to 
Manhattanville about the middle of May. 
A depot is erecting for the company at 
129th Street and Eleventh Avenue. 



126 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Apeil, 1885. 



An experience of lialf a century has 
practically demonstrated the fact that sur- 
face street cars cannot with safety be run 
at a greater rate of speed than six miles an 
hour. This rate is also the le^al limit of fast 
driving of any kind of vehicle in most 
American cities. 

What is required in a mechanical motor 
for street cars is that it shall work well 
under all circumstaDces. Nothing has yet 
been found to meet this lvquirement. 

The Baldwin Locomotive Works of 
Philadelphia spent much time and money 
in the effort to apply steam motors to street 
railways. Tliey were not successful, but 
the experiments upon the Market Street 
lines developed two facts — first, that the 
cars were under better control than with 
horses ; and second, that horses in the 
streets were not as much frightentd as was 
expected. 

The Wales Manufacturing Co. , Syra- 
cuse, N.Y., is bringing out a new fare box. 
Shipments of boxes have recently been 
made to Mobile, Mo. ; Columbus, O. ; New 
Orleans and Elmira. 

The Troy and Lansingbukg R.R. will 
this spring erect a new barn on their "Blue 
Line," which may involve some changes in 
running arrangements. 

The Brooklyn City Railroad Repair 
Shops.— The rapid growth of the Brooklyn 
City Railroad has been such as to necessitate 
more commodious quarters for doing re- 
pairs. The new shops situated on Myrtle 
Avenue are very complete. The receiving 
shop will hold thirty-live cars, the wood 
shop twelve and the paint shop twenty-two. 
The blacksmith shop with seven fires, and 
all other departments are supplied with the 
latest improved machinery for car building, 
and can run through the shops five cars per 
day. Mr. A. W. Dickey, the superintendent, 



has taken great pains in making plans for 
the shops to enable work to be pushed with 
the utmost despatch. The superintendent's 
office anddraughting-rcorn are nicely fitted 
up; speaking-tubes being so fitted up that 
foremen can be called from any part of the 
building. The president and superintendent 
are awake to the wants of the traveling 
public, and there are many things in their 
management which other roads would do 
vveil to pattern after. 

The Lewis and Fowler Co. has just 
finished for the Oriental Metal Co., of 
Boston, a finely executed b<tsso-rdiero 
placque of a horse in metal. It is hand- 
somely framed on a mat mounting of 
black velvet, and is a very tasteful piece of 
work. 

John Stevenson, among other work now 
in hand, has orders from Lisbon, Portugal, 
where the original supply of street rolling 
stock was supplied by him in 1873. 

The Lewis and Fowler M'f'g. Co. have 
the sole agency in the U.S. for the Oriental 
Metal M'fg. Co., of Boston, for their goods 
as used in street car journal bearings. 

The Old Time Hacks that ran Irom the 
Grand Central Depot (N.Y.) to the 6th 
Avenue elevated cars have been replaced 
by the cars of the 42d Street line, which 
run every minute. 

The 42d Street, Maxhattanville and 
St. Nicholas Avenue (N.Y.) line will, 
when completed, have upwards of 16 miles 
of track. Cars are now running to 72d 
Street only, but the track is laid to 110th 
Street, and as soon as the frost is out of the 
ground rails will be laid to the up-town 
ends. It will be one of the longest roads 
in New York. 

Nothing has yet been devised in electric- 
ity which is applicable and practical as a 
motor for street cars, and nothing stands 



nearer to the front than the cable system at 
present. 

When asked his opinion of the cable 
system, Mr. John Stephenson said he had 
spent ten days in examining the cable 
road in Chicago, and the sense of his con- 
victions was that for use under all circum- 
stances the system was open to some 
objections, which time and experience 
would probably overcome, and that it had 
not yet passed entirely out of the realm of 
experiment as to its superiority to horses. 
He thought, however, that it was in ad- 
vance of any other system or device which 
had been suggested as an alternative for 
horses, and was especiahy applicable to 
hilly ground. 

Mr. Lewis, of Lorimer Street. Brooklyn, 
says: " the balmy days of spring are blos- 
soming out " for him more orders for his 
wood mattings for street railway cars than 
he can fill. 

April 1st the former Superintendent of 
the Rochester City & Brighton R.R. Co., 
Thomas J. Brower, after a rest of two 
years, resumed his old position of Superin- 
tendent, which he has held, with this ex- 
ception, for the past fifteen years. 

WANTED. 

By a first-class mechanic, a situation 
with some Street Railway Co. as foreman 
in Paint Shop at contract prices or day's 
wages. First-class reference given as to 
ability, &c. 

Address, '-PAINTER," 

STKEET KAIL WAY JOUErlAL, 

8 Lakeside Building, Chicago, 111. 



Section No. 17 
46 lbs. per Yard 



\ STEEL STREET RAILS. 

The Pittsburgh \wm\ Stul Co,, Limited. 

48 Fifth Ave., Pittsburgh, PA. 



STREET RAILWAY WHEELS AND TURNOUTS. 

Graded Stable Gutter with Straight or Curved Cover 



ORIENTAL METAL MANF'G CO. 

48 CONGRESS ST., BOSTON, MASS. 

C. L. VAN WORMER, President. 
A Trial of Our Street Railway Journal Bearing solicited. 



THE 




. per foat. Piecss 5 feat lengths. 
Spouts to connect with Sewer, &c. 



Short pieces furnished to suit 



BOWLER & CO., Cleveland, Ohio. 

THE STANDISH FOOT-POWER HAMMER 

Is specially adapted to making light forgings, 
for welding in dies having impres ions cut to the 
shape of the work required. They are superior 
to power hammers, as the hammer is under as 
perfect control as the Smith's hand hammer, 
and are used in the carriage business for weld- 
ing Dashes, Shifting Rails. Top Props, shaping 
and forming ALL SMALL WOEK equal to drop 
forging, and are in use by the principal manu- 
facturers of the United States. Send for circu- 
lars. Address. 

The Capital City Machine Works, 

COLUMBUS, O. 




Patented July 10, 1883. 




AJAX METAL CO. 

WE CLAIM POK AJAX METAL. 

•Tl 

*, 25 to 50 percent, more mileage. 
_l 33 1-3 " greater tensile strength, 

pi 1 00 " greater crushing strength. 

Z 20 '• less friction and wear upon 

H journals. 

% I"! 85 " less hot journals than any 

O known lironze named or un- 

_ named. 

05 Costs no more than copper, and (in or gun metal. 

? AJAX METAL CO., 

2040 No. Tenth Street, ■ PHILADELPHIA, PA. 




Si 





M 



48 & 50 North Sixth St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



EXTENSIVE MAKERS OF PATENTED CAR SEATS AND SPRINGS. 

SPECIAL PATTERNS FOR STREET CARS, 

Also manufacturers of General House and Office Furniture of the Most 

approved patterns and designs. Estimates, circulars, and samples 

furnished on application. 



April, 1885.] 



THE STREET-RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



127 



Ewelepes For Street Railway Companies. 

The subscribers beg leave to inform all pur- 
chasers of 

ENVELOPES FOR STREET RAILWAYS 

that they are largely engaged in manufacturing 

Envelopes of All Kinds, 

especially those used for 

CSiilTGE. 

They have recently introduced a new style, 
making each denomination of a different colored 
paper, thus more easily distinguished by the driver. 
All well made and gummed. 

Samples sent when requested. 

SAMUEL RAYNOR & CO., 

117 WILLIAM ST., NEW YORK. 



UNION RATTAN MANUFACTURING GO. 

Office: 125 Chambers Street, N. Y. 




350 & 352 Pearl St., 



Successor to the late WILLARD H. SMITH, 




vmBCrimniiv 




' % 



iiilll 




New York. 



Manufacturer of RAILROAD CENTRE LAMPS AND 




AND ALL KINDS OP SHIP AND MAEINE LAMPS. 



12S 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[April, 1885. 



BERRY'S PATENT MMES. 




Lightness, Strength, 
Durability, Quick- 
ness and Sim- 
plicity. 



They havp the advan- 
tage of easy adjustment. 
No buckles or straps arc 
used. They can be ap- 
plied in an instant, being 
fastened to the collar. 
The collar is divided and 
there is no strain upon 
the collar or the eyes of 
the horses. 

In case of accident the 
whole harness c in be re- 
moved at once. 

They are adapted to 
the use of Fire Depart- 
ments, Horse Railroads, 
Express Wagons. Teams 
and Light Carriages, and 
are in use in < ver one 
hundred cities and towns 
in the United States and 
Canadas. 



WE ALSO MANUFACTURE TEJ 



REGAN PATENT SNAP. 

Tli3y are ma \e of the best gun metal and malleable iron, with a brass spring 
whica is inclosed in a water-tight socket and made rust and dust proof, it is an 
ionossibility for it to become detached. Write for illustrated catalogue and 

CHARLES E. BERRY, Cambridge, Mass. 



We insert this advertisement for the purpose of impressing upon Street 
Railway Companies the importance of adopting the 

DEMOREST DUPLEX REGISTER. 

Should the officers and directors of your company conclude to discontinue 
the use of a portable register and adopt in its scead a permanent register (a wise 
conclusion), the first question which would arise, would naturally be — What 
system of registering is the best for our use ? Do we desire one that is continu- 
ous and visible, so that the conductor may, at all times, see and read the state of 
the register? Or one oh it indicates and duplexes each trip or half trip for the 
day, up:m a paper dial, to be returned into the office at night for inspection? 

We propose to solv-e ttie^e questions by showing that Railway Companies 
who use the DEMOREST DUPLEX REGISTER, have, in its adoption, combined 
both systems of registering, in such a way, as to do away with the objections 
again it either system; and, in fact, have at their command, as they may prefer, 
both methods of registering. 

Our ringing device (which is very simple) is so arranged that the Duplex 
system of recording each half or whole trip for the day, upon a paper dial, can 
b3 easily discontinued whenever desired, and in its place can be put a visible con- 
tinuous register reading up to 10,000, in such a way, that, as each fare is regis, 
tered, the figures change consecutively, and can be distinctly read without 
mistake. 

In justice to oirselves and the inventor we call attention to the fact that our 
improved continuous visible register is positive; that is to say. it has no springs 
or traps to get out of order. One is not compelled to look at sevpral places on 
the dial to find out what the reading of the register is, but only to look at one 
place and get the facts. 

It will, therefore, be understood that Railway Companies adopting the 
DEMORE3T DUPLEX REGISTER have successfully met all objections now 
raised and all questions as to which is the best system atv at once answered, for 
IT COMBINES BOTH. Our Fare Box and Register Combined is also subject 
to the same change. In ordering, all that will be necessary is to state what 
system your directors wish to try first, as the other method may be substituted 
in the same instrument, as your experience may prompt you or the necessities 
of your road demand. 

We will place any number of our Duplex Registers (with or without the Fare 
Box, according to the kind of car), upon trial for any time desired, at a very 
slight cost. Oir terms of purchase are quite reasonable. A trial is solicited. 

Address the proprietor, 

W. JENNINGS DEMOREST, 

R. M. ROSE, Manager. 

15 EAST 14th STREET, NEW YORK. 



PENNSYLVANIA 

STEEL COMPANY, 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Steel Rails 



Of T patterns, weighing from 16 to 76 lbs. per yard. 
CENTRE BEARING Street Patterns, 42 to 60 lbs. per 
yard, TRAM Street Patterns 45 to 47 lbs. per yard, 
and Street Patterns for STEAM ROADS. 



WORKS AT 

STEELTON, DAUPHIN CO., PENN. 



Fare Bases and Change Receptacles 



MADE BY 



WALES MANUFACTURING CO 

76 and 78 East Water Street, 
SYRACUSE, N. Y. 



M 



NEW YORK OFFICE, - 160 Broadway. 

Philadelphia Office, 208 South Fourth St. ' 




Our Street Car 
Fare Boxes, for Sim- 
plicity of Construc- 
tion, Cheapness and 
Practicability are Su- 
perior to Anything of 
Like Character in the 
Market. 

iW Descriptive and 
Illustrated Circulars 
an application. 





Back View. No. 3. 



April, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



129 



C. M. MOSEMAN & BRO, 

HARNESS for Horse Railways a Specialty. 



ALSO 



BITS, ROSETTES, NUMBERS, 

FIGURES, LETTERS, COLLARS, 

HORSE CLOTHING, Etc. 

Always on Hand or Made to Order. 
No. 128 CHAMBERS STREET, 

I J. Car Spring and Kuier Co., 

Cor. WAYNE and BRUNSWICK STS., 

JEESEY CITY N.S., 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

RUBBER CAR SPRINGS 

OF EVERY STYLE AND SHAPE, 

CUSHIONS, BEAKE PADS, KUBBEE MATTING 
and STEP PLATES, HOSE, DOOR STOPS, &c. 

Being one of the oldest manufacturers in the business, we have a MOST 
COMPLETE assortment of moulds. 

WRITE FOR PRICES. 



J. M. JONES' SONS, 



AGENTS, 



Street Railway Car Builders 



WEST TROY, 



NEW YORK. 



FRED. J. KALDENBERG, 



SUCCESSOR BY PURCHASE TO THE 



NEW ENGLAND CAR SPKING CO., 

(ESTABLISHED 1851) 

MANUFACTURER OF SUPERIOR QUALITY 

VULCANISED RUBBER CAR SPRINGS, 

AND ALL KINDS OF 

EUBBER HOSE, VALVES, ETC. 

FACTORY AND OFFICE : 

21310 229 E. Thirty-third St., New York, 

(Bet. 2d and 3d Aves.) 
TKLEPHONE CALI,, NASSAU 696. 

Correspondence Solicited. 

Downtown Office: 125 Fulton St. 

P.O. Box 91. Send for Price List. 




ESTABLISHED 1847 

A. WHITNEY & SONS 

CAR WHEEL WORKS, 

PHILADELPHIA, PENN. 

CAST CHILLED WHEELS, 

AXLES AITS BOXES 

FOR EVERY KIND OF SERVICE. 

Street Railway Wheels of all Sizes. 



F. W. DEVOE <& CO. 

(Established 1 852), 

PULTON ST., cor of WILLIAM, NEW YORK, 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

CORCH and CAR COLORS 

GEOUND IK" JAPAN". 

For these colors ive received the highest award, the ftold Medal, at the National 
Exposition of Railway Appliances in Chicago, last year. 

SPECIAL SHADES MADE TO ORDER. 

We furnish 'special body colors to Pennsylvania RH., New York Central 
New York & New Haven, Lehigh Valley, New Jersey Central and other large 

Railroads. 

FINE VARNISHES AND JAPANS 

Wood Tillers, Wood Surfacers, Wood Stains, Hard Oil Finish. 

Manufacturers of FINE BRUSHES for painting, varnishing, striping, etc. 

ARTISTS' MATERIALS. 

Tube Colors, Artists' Brushes, Drawing Paper. 

ENGINEERS' GOODS. 

Mathematical Instruments, Theodolites, Transits, Cross Section Papers. 

Illustrated Catalogues of 250 pa»es and 800 Illustrations on request. 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

WHITE LEAD. COLORS IN OIL, DISTEM a ER COLORS, PURE READY 

MIXED PAINTS 

COFFIN, DEI Si CO., 178 Handolph kl, HMO. 



130 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[April, 1885. 



I Manufacture all sorts of Appliances for 

STREET RAILWAYS, 



SUCH -A.S 



Car Wheels, Oil Boxes, Pedestals, 
BRAKE SHOES, KNEES, SWITCHES AND WROUGHT IRON 

GROOVE RAILS FOR CURVES, 

Sxio-w Plows and Sweepers, Szo. 



Estimates Cheerfully Furnished. Correspondence Solicited 



DAYID W. BINNS, 
27 to 39 Walworth St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

THE 

BELLE CITY FEED GUTTER 

XS THE 

Strongest, Most Durable, 

and on the whole 
it is the 

BEST FEED CUTTER 

IN THE WORLD. 

For Street-car Barns it 
has no equnl. "Write for 
Reference, Circular, &c, to 

3 THE BELLE CIT7 1IT& CO., 

RACINE, WIS., U.S. A. 




Joshua Hunt, Chairman. 



Oliver Williams, Treas. 



THE BRYDEN 

FORGED HORSE SHOE WORKS 

(Limited), 

Catasauq.ua, Lehigh County, Penn., 

Are making a plain, narrow-webbed shoe, with beveled surfaces 
for Horse Railroad work. It is " FORGED " from the very best 
Iron, and is tougher and harder than any shoe heretofore made, 
and will be sold to consumers at a small advance on the prices 
charged for ordinary mill shoes. They also make a Calked Shoe 
with a Square Toe, just the same as hand made, and the company 
warrants them to wear as long as the very best hand work. 



Among others who are using this Shoe, are the 
Third Avenue Railroad Co., New York. 
Eighth Avenue Kailroad Co., New York. 
Twenty-third Street Kailroad Co., New York. 
Christopher Street Kailroad Co., New York. 
Brooklyn City and Newtown Kailroad. 
Bush wick Kailroad Co., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Crosstown Kailroad Co., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Coney Island and Brooklyn Railroad Co., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
North Hudson County Kailroad Co., Hoboken, N. J. 
Jersey City and Bergen Kailroad Co., Jersey City, N. J. 
Ridge Avenue Passenger Railway Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Citizens' Passenger Railway Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Buffalo Street Railway Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 
New Orleans City and Lake Railroad. 



Also fully prepared to furnish any kind, weight or shane of shoe desired. 
Estimates on cost of producing such special patterns will *je furnished on receipt 
of model, with estimate of the probable number of kegs required. 



The Rates of Freight are as Low from their Factory West and East 

AS THE LOWEST. 
A Mild Tough Steel Shoe supplied at a small advance over Iron Shoes. 



HAMES, ALL KINDS. 




Street Railway, 

CONCORDS, 



\sMm Fain ed] and! finished 

I 

jysaddlery Hardware. 

(f|ra fl Seutl tor Catalogue. 

'IMPraf/ & Letchworth, 

V V 'BTJFFAXO, 



as desired. 



Manufacturers of 



ALL STYLE 




STREET RAILWAY CONCORD HAMES. 



"v^^io-iaiT's 



PATENT JOINT FASTENING. 




The accompanying cut shows 
a cross section through joint. 
A is the rail, B the joint chair, 
C the stringer, D the patent 
screw fastening, E the nut, F a 
slot in chair allowing rails to 
contract and expand. The chair 
cannot settle and the rail ends 
are held level with each other, 
preventing the many evils of 
ordinary construction. 

For Further Particulars Address 



AUGUSTIN W. WRIGHT, 

NORTH-CHICAGO CITY RAILROAD, 

CHICAGO, ILL. 



April, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



131 



WM. P. CRAIG, 

Street Railway Builder and dealer in Railway Supplies. 

OLD KOADS RE-LAID, GRADING, PAVING, &c. 

Special attention given to laying Switches, Curves, Turnouts. Connections and 

Turn-tables; also Building Tracks for Excavation, Grading, 

Mining and Factories. 



Office, 95 LIBERTY STREET, 



NEW YORK. 



THE STREET RAILWAY LUBRICANT 

"VICTOR" 

Will last FOUR TIMES AS LONG, and is CHEAPER and MORE ECONOM- 
ICAL than Oil. Samples free on application. 

HENRY F. ROHBOCK, 

109 WOOD ST., PITTSBURGH, PA. 

Used by Pittsburgh Transverse Railway Co. 

Manufacturer and Patentee. 

Send me full size section of rails to be used at points A, B, C, D, E, G. 
No. 625 TENTH AVENUE, NEW YORK. 



EUROPEAN COLIC CURE. 




Licensed 
under U. S. 
Letters Pat- 
ent to manu- 
facture and 
sell curved 
sterl groove 
rails for the 
States of New 
York and 
New Jersey. 






SI eel Groove Curves bent to suit 
any radius ; Channel Plates, all 
kinds; Knees all sizes; Pedestals 
and Boxes, all kinds ; Brake Shoes; 
Ayres' Patent Automatic ."-'witches. 
Plain Switches, Frogs and Cast 
Rails for curves, and all kinds of 
castings. 





^-^g^^sgz^ 



A speedy and sure cure for Colic -has saved hundreds of horses where all 
other remedies have failed. Horse need not be run or trotted around to start 
the wind. Let him stand or lie down as he feels inc ined and he will be ready 
for work almost immediately after recovery. A cure guaranteed in ninety-nine 
cases in a hundred. Endorsed by the leading street railway companies of the 
country, some of which we append. 



Decatur, III., Oct. 2, 1884. 
Messrs. Jones & Roach, Chicago, III. 

I have used your Colic Cure for my 
horses and mules on my street car 
lines and found it the best and surtsc 
medicine I have ever n-ed. I have nut 
lost a horse since I cotnmt-ni'ed its use. 
It gives relief in a short time after it is 
taken. I can cheerfully recommend it 
as a sure relief if given in time. I keep 
it constantly on hand. 

Truly yours. 
FRANKLIN' PRIEST. 
President Decatur Street R. R. 



Messrs. Jones & Roach: 

Gentlemen : I cheerfull}' recom- 
mend your European Colic Cure for 
horses as be ng the best that I have 
ever used. When once introouced no 
horse owner can well afford to be with- 



out it. I hope you will meet with the 
success your cure deserves. 
Trulv yours, 

VALENTINE RLATZ. 
Per H. Lieb, Manager. 



Office of North Hudson County 1 
Railway Co. 
Hoboken, N. J., Oct. 4. 1881. ) 

Gentlemen: It gives me pleasure 
to say that I can heartily recommend 
your European Colic Cure to all horse 
owners, from a personal knowledge of 
its curative qualities. I have used it in 
our stables, containing about six hun- 
dred horses, and have always found it 
to be beneficial. Yours very truly, 
ALBERT SAILLET, 

Foreman and Veterinary Sura-eon 
for the North Hudson County Ry. Co. 



Sample Bottles Furnished Street Railway Companies Gratis. 
For further information, prices, etc., address 

JONES & ROACF, 259 Fremont Street, Chicago. 



M. M. White & Co., 

531 WEST 33d STREET, 



NEW YORK. 




OWNERS AND BUILDEES OF 

H. DOUGLASS' 

Patent Automatic Switch 

FOR STREET RAILROADS. 



Pennington's Grooming Machine 




The brush is caused to revolve by gear wheels actuated by a flexible shaft. 
Both hands free to handle brush. Swings and turns in any direction. Direc - 
tion of motion quickly changed. The cheapest and best Grooming Machine yet 
invented. Motion supplied by hand, steam or animal power. Rights to use or 
manufacture. For full particulars and rates apply to 

ELLIS PENNINGTON, 

204 Walnut Place, - - - Philadelphia, Pa. 



132 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



April, 1885.] 



LAKE & McDEVITT'S 



For Horse Railways, Omnibus Lines, Etc. 




The Advantages 



ROPE TRACE 

are its ready application 
to Horse-Car service, or to 
any other purpose where 
cheap harness is required. 
It only costs about half as 
much as leather traces, 
while at the same time 
one set of Rope Tugs will 
(when used on horse cars) 
take the place of three or 
more sets of leather 
traces, as the Tugs remain 
attached to the car ail 
day, no matter how many 
changes of stock are 
made. The relief horses 
having hoo'.is attached t > 
their hames, all that is 
necessary is to unhook the 
tugs from the working 
team back m the fresh 
horses, hook on the tugs, 
and the change is made. 
Railroad men will at once 
perceive their adaptabil 
ity and economy from the 
above facts. They will 
also last longer than' leath- 
er traces, and K quire but 
very little care. From 
their durability and cheap- 
ness they are also espec- 
ially adapted for all kinds 
of iarrn use and heavy 
teaming, as farmers, etc., 
can easily repair them. 



Patent No. 171,283, December 31, 1875. 



In use on the Chicago West. Div. R'y. ; Louisville City R'y Co.; Milwaukee City R'y: Transverse R'y Co., Pittsburg, Pa. ; Citizens Street R'y Co.. Pittsburg-, Pa. ; 
Pittsburg and Birmingham, Pittsburg, Pa. ; Central Citv R'y, Peoria. III.; Grand Rapids R'y; Minneapolis St. R'y Co. ; St. Paul City R'y; Houston City R'y, Texas; 
Superior Street R'y. Cleveland, O. : Cinciua iti Citv R'y Co. ; Fifth VVard S reet R'y, Syracuse. : Detroit City R'y. ; Ft. Wayne and Elmwood St. R'\ , Detroit, Mich. ; 
Galveston City R'y; Springfield Citv R'y, Springfield, 111.: Toledo St. R'y, Toledo, O.; Adams St. R'y, Toledo. O.; Atlanta Street R'y. and others, in all on about IOC 
street R'vs in United States and Canada, and a large number of other prominent Street R'y Companies throughout the Country. HES™ Send for descriptive Circu- 
lar containing testimonials, prices, etc., to 

LAKE & McDEVITT, 161 South Robey Street, Chicago, 111. 

CLARK'S PATENT POWER GROOMING MACHINE, 

SINGLE OR DOUBLE. 




TO STREET RAILWAY COMPANIES AND OTHER STOCK OWNERS. 

This machine for grooming may be driven by any known power, and can readily be placed for use in any stable or out-building. It can be operated by an ordin- 
ary groomsman ; its work is perfect; its action simple and effective. Stock owners will readily realize the importance of the machine. The perfection and raoidity 
of its work, and the benefits derived by its use, commend it to those interested in the care and use of all classes of thoroughbred and work stock. The most vicious 
animal readily submits to its use. Machine Grooming is found to be less expensive than hand grooming, saving in fool and medicines, and materially increasing 
the value of the animal. 

The Curry Comb and Hand Process Superseded! Economy of Labor! Perfection of Work! 

Three Hundred Head of Stock Thoroughly Croomed with Each Machine every Ten Hours. 

This Grooming Machine is in daily use in some of the largest Street Railway Companies' stables, and has always given perfect satisfaction. Among those using 
It are the City R'y Co , Cnica?o, 111.; Detroit City R'y Co., Detroit, Mich.; Central City R'y, Peoria, 111. ; M. W. Dunham, Wayne, 111 ; West Division Street R'y Co., 
Chicago, III.; Litidell Street R'y Co., St. Louis, Mo. ; Pleasant Valley R'y Co., Allegheny City. Pa.; Marshall, Field & Co., Chicago, 111.; Leroy Payn, Chicago, III.- 
Saginaw City R'v, Saginaw, Mich. ; Pittsburg and Birmingham R'y Co., Pittsburg, P*.; and a number of others who have given testimonials as to the perfect work ; 
ing of the machine. jaf?" For prices, circular and other information apply to 

161 SOUTH ROBEY STREET, CHICAGO, ILL. 



April, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



133 



J. W. FOWLER, 

President. 



DAN'L F. LEWIS. 



Treasurer. 



LEWIS <fc FOWLER M'F'G CO. 



BROOKLYN, N. Y. 



PATENTEES AND MANTJFACTUKERS OF 



IMPROVED 

"ALARM" 

Passenger Register 

STATIONARY 
PORTABLE. 



SOLE AGENTS AND MANUFACTURERS OP 



"SMALL'S PATENT AUTOMATIC FARE COLLECTOR" 





OI2 



FiLEE 




IB O ^ 



CAES 



ALSO 



"RANDALL'S" PATENT CAR AXLE AND BOX. 



Sectional View. 



Front View. 



End View. 




H 



m 




O 

M 

E-i 
O 

M 

« 

■ 

M 
EH 




134 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[April, 1885. 



F. H. ANDREWS. 



F. T. LERNED, GEN'L AGT. 



B. A. CLOONEY. 



ANDREWS & CLOONEY, 



OFFICE : 

545 

W. 33d St. 

NEW YORK. 




WORKS: 

535 to 551 

West 33d St., 



AND 



5 £- . ...| 



Manufacturers of 



Elliptic, Spiral, 
Volute, Car and 



Engine 



SPRINGS 



Of Every Description, 



L+ ,_^.J*\_ L±l _ 




538 to 552 

West 34th St, 

FEW mi 



Car Wheels, 

Axles, 
Brake Shoes, 
Pedestals, 

Boxes, 
Brass Bearings 

Castings 

of all Descriptions where great 
Strength is Required. 




Street Railway Turn-table. 



Also, 



SWEEPEES, SNOW PLOWS, 

TURN-TABLES, 

Track Work, Automatic Switches^ Etc, 

STEEL GROOVE RAILS AND MACHINERY. 




Street Railway Crossings. 



Street Car Springs. 



SEND FOE ILLUSTKATED CATALOGUE. 



April, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



135 





±3 Barclay Street, 



2£T<b^X7' "STorfe, 



PATENTEE AND MANUFACTURER OF 



Graduated Street Car Springs. 



UBBDESX?, 

Patented, April 15th, 1879. 



ADAPTED TO THE 

STEPHENSON, 
BEMIS, 
RANDALL, 
HIGLEY, 
BRILL, 
JONES, 




PSSfSs 
1118 

'iil^TTTTTTITTTIinfflll 



mm 




BALTIMORE, 



-AND- 



ALL OTHER BOXES. 





No. 0, for 10-ft. Light Cars. 
No. 1, for 10-ft. Cars. 
No. 2, for 12-ft. Cars. 
V No. 3, for 14-ft. Cars. 
No. 4, for 16-ft. Cars. 



No. 5, for 16-ft. Cars. 

_ ^Bk (Single Pedestal.) 



No. 1, Cushion, for 16-ft. 
Cars. 

No. 2,. Cushion, for 12 and 
14-ft. Cars. 





STEEL CONE CITT CAR SPRING. 



Patented April 15, 1879— August 5, 1884. 



The unprecedented popularity of the 

"VOSE GRADUATED RUBBER CONE SPRING" 

for Horse Cars has induced the inventor to bring this 
class of Springs as near perfection as possible, and after a 
series of experiments and tests now presents for favor what 
he claims to be the MOST PERFECT SPRING FOR 
HORSE CARS ever offered. It is exceptionally Soft and 
Easy with the Empty Car or with the Greatest Load. It 
is believed to be the Most Durable, being constructed 
upon a principle that seems to insure that the Spring must 
Actually Wear Out. The very Finest Quality of Crucible 
Cast Steel will always be used in these Springs. 




136 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Apeil, 1885. 



JOHN STEPH 



N COMPANY 



LIMITED), 



TRAMWAY CARS 




LIGHT, ELEGANT, DURABLE 



Every Description. 



Best Materials. 



Minimum Prices. 



ORDERS QUICKLY FILLED. CAREFUL ATTENTION TO SHIPMENTS. 
All Climates Suited. 




Vol. I. 



j NEW YORK: 
| 32 Liberty Street. 



MAY, 1885. 



J CHICAGO : I -k T n 

) 8 Lakeside Building, f IN O . / . 



Street Railways Public Benefactors. 

II. 

The first proposition in our preceding 
article was that '"A street railway is impos- 
sible without, at least, passably good road- 
beds, and good roads almost necessitate 
good sidewalks." 

Now, while it may appear like "begging 
the question " to attribute all or a greater 
part of the improvements with which we 
are familiar in our modern city highways, 
these improvements are certainly to be 
credited to the street railways more largely 
than is generally supposed. To any one 
familiar with the requirements of tramway 
traffic, this assertion will require no proof ; 
but the general public may need to be re- 
minded that a street car horse requires 
good road to travel upon, or he will wear 
out rapidly, the same as any other horse. 
Then the very laying of the track requires : 
first, that the foundation should be firm ; 
second, that the grade should be regular in 
cross section ; third, that there should be 
no abrupt breaks (or ruts) in the continuity 
of the road-bed ; and fourth (as we said 
in the second proposition of our previous 
article), that the street, in order to render 
possible the maintenance of such a road- 
bed, should be adequately drained. 

So much for the general aspects of the 
case ; further than this we have to consider 
the peculiar benefits rendered by a. street 
railway company as a common carrier. 

The principal reason why corporations 
of this class are not accorded the same 
justice which is accorded by the popular 
mind to ordinaiy business firms or indi- 
vidual business men is that their business, 
once established, becomes a public neces- 
sity. This may sound paradoxical, but the 
paradox is the strongest form of argument. 

A street railway company usually has 
enough difficulty to secure its franchises. 
When the first road is proposed in a town, 
the populace opposes it on general prin- 
ciples, as "new f angled" — much on the 
grounds Louis Napoleon took, when George 
Francis Train wished to introduce the 
street railway system iDto Paris. The story 
runs as follows : "In the early days of 
tramways in Europe George Francis Train 
obtained audience of the Emperor Louis 
Napoleon, in order to secure his consent to 
their introduction in Paris. Mr. Train 
stated that they would enhance the ease 



and shorten the time of getting about the 
city and descanted upon their convenience 
to the citizens. ' But we don't want any 
such new-fangled Yankee Notions,' replied 
the Emperor ; ' let Paris remain as she is — 
the city of beauty and fashion and 
pleasure.' " 

People don't want the noise, object to 
the dust, object to the tracks, object to 
street cars, as liable to explosion, and object 
to the men composing the companies, as 
likely to absorb the town. 

After the franchise has once been secured, 
and the populace accustomed to the accomo- 
dations afforded by the line, they arrange 
their daily life accordingly, and rely upon 
it in the conduct of their business. Then, 
the new means of transport having become 
a business necessity, anything tending to 
disturb existing relations is looked upon as 
a direct injury. So it comes about that as 
a street railway becomes more and more 
useful, more and more of a public bene- 
factor, the public becomes more and more 
factious regarding it, and complaints 
against it, and efforts to restrict its inde- 
pendence become more and more persistent. 

But, looking at the matter calmly and 
from a purely impersonal business stand- 
point, why should a street railway com- 
pany, any more than a baker, be expected 
to do anything which is not profitable ? 

Leaving the question here for considera- 
tion, we shall try in our next to show that 
the average street railway does more for a 
smaller return than almost any other pub- 
lic or private enterprise. M. 



Street Railroad Tracks. 

Eds. Street Railway Journal : — 

As spring work upon street railroads will 
soon commence, it behooves the officials to 
consider well upon various matters pertain- 
ing to track construction, and among the 
most important is that of rails, quality and 
kind of material, shape, etc., etc. I wrote 
an article entitled Iron vs. Steel for Street 
Rails, that excited much discussion. I 
brought the matter before the last Conven- 
tion of the American Street R.R. Associa- 
tion and asked for the practical experience 
of the members as to the relative durability 
of steel and iron rails, but did not obtain 
much information. Some members thought 
steel the most durable, others thought iron 
would wear equally as long. Of course a 



good quality of steel and of iron is assumed. 
If the iron will wear as long as the steel, 
no street railroad can afford to use steel. 
The best cash offer I can get to-day for old 
steel worn out after four years and two 
months' service is $10.00 per ton. I could get 
$18.00 per ton for old iron ! I would say that 
the above-mentioned steel rails developed 
no imperfections in the wear. They wore 
quite uniformly excepting at the joints, 
and actual measure of a number showed 
that 50$ of the head had worn off during 
that time, but the joints had lost much 
more metal, and it was this great wear at 
the joint that caused me to perfect my 
patent fastening. (If you will pardon the 
egotism, it is the best fastenirjg for the 
ordinary street rail in use to-day. The 
only objection ever offered was that the 
nut would rust fast to the bolt and interfere 
with repairs when they became necessary. 
Experience has demonstrated that the 
grease applied to the bolt effectually pre- 
vents this rusting, and I have yet to hear 
of one that cannot be unscrewed. The 
tracks laid with this fastening ride so 
smoothly that passengers, as well as em- 
ployees, notice and speak of the absence of 
all jars in passing over the road, and this 
will prolong the useful life of tne rail at 
least Wc) 

From a point of view, considering the 
question of the rail shape, as affecting trans- 
portation in the cars, the centre bearing 
rail is undoubtedly the best, it is more 
free from mud, etc. , and offers less resist- 
ance to be overcome in propelling the cars. 
The track is more stable for the weight of 
the car and its load is not carried upon one 
edge of the stringer, but from a "paving " 
point of view, the advantage is on the side 
of the step rail. Loaded vehicles seek the 
lines of rails from a greater distance, and 
nothing can be provided to maintain this 
traffic cheaper than the metal rail. Tins 
wear is so great with us that although we 
have eighty cars passing in sixty minutes on 
rush trips, the tram wears about as fast as 
the head. It is, therefore, good economy to 
maintain the paving in such condition that 
the heavily loaded vehicles can everywhere 
get into the tram, rather than cut grooves 
into the stone alongside the rails. This is a 
matter frequently overlooked, although 
well worth consideration. 

Augustine W. Wright. 

Chicago, April 9th, 1885. 



138 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Mat, 1885. 




American Street Railway Association. 

Officers, 1884-5. 

President.— Calvin A. Richards, President Metro- 
politan Railroad Co., Boston, Mass. 

First Vice-president.— Julius S. Walsh, President 
Citizens' Railway Co., St Louis, Mo. 

Second Vice-president.— Henry M. Watson, Presi- 
dent the Buffalo Street Railway Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Third Vice-president, — Edward Lusher, Secretary 
and Treasurer the Montreal City Passenger Rail- 
way Co., Montreal, Canada. 

Secretary and Treasurer.— William J. Richardson, 
Secretary the Atlantic Avenue Railway Co., Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. 

Executive Committee.— President, Vice-presidents 
and William H. Hazzard, President Brooklyn City 
Railroad Co., Brooklyn, N.Y ; James K. Lake. Super- 
intendent Chicago West-Division Railway, Chicago, 
111. ; Charles J. Harrah, President the People's Pas- 
senger Railway Co., Philadelphia, Pa.; William 
White, President Dry Dock, East B. & B. R. R. Co., 
New York. N. Y.; B. Du Pont. President Central 
Passenger Railroad Co., Louisville, Ky. 



Completed Construction of New Roads. 

[The following is a record of the discus- 
sion on the Report of the Completed Con- 
struction of New Roads at the last Conven- 
tion of the American Street Railway 
Association. The full text of the report 
itself will be found on page 8 of our 
November issue.] 

Mr. Wright said : I am not entirely clear 
upon the question of best material for rails. 
I would be glad to have the practical 
experience of this Convention on that 
subject. 

D. K. Clarke, says : " It does not seem to 
be certain that the steel rail is the most 
durable." I have a piece of steel rail here 
(exhibiting rail) that has had two years' 
service, taken out and the ends cut off. 
That does not speak very well for that rail. 
In August, 1879, in my own track, I laid 
down half a mile of steel rail, and my first 
duty upon returning will be to take it up. 
It is worn out. 

Mr. Richardson inquired : Is that made 
(indicating a depression in the rail) by an 
iron chair ? Did it make that abrasion in 
the steel? 

Mr. Wright answered : Yes, sir. I have 
brought a rail joint chair from Chicago to 
show the wear of joints. This chair has 
had four years' wear in my track (pro- 
ducing chair). The rail has cut into the 
chair a quarter of an inch with a corres- 
ponding wear on the bottom of the rail. 
At the last Convention, I was asked as to 
the relative durability of steel and iron, 
and I stated, from my steam road experi- 
ence, that it was six to one, that a steel' 
rail would outwear six iron rails. I have 
talked with some steam railroad men since, 
and, I think there are very few steam rail- 
road men who can give the actual tonnage 
that steel rails will carry. Requirements 
of a rail on a steam railroad and on a horse 
railroad are different. Upon a steam rail- 
road, Prof. Dudley, of the Pennsylvania, 
advances this theory : The force acting 
upon the steel rail upon the steam railroad, 



can be divided into two general heads. 
Gravity, of course, tends to break the rail, 
whether the train is in motion or standing 
still, which is a constant force. You can 
conceive that force great enough to break 
the rail. The action upon the driver he 
divides into two heads. There is an adhe- 
sion between the head of the rail and each 
car wheel, necessary to overcome the journal 
friction. Unless that force is greater than 
the journal friction the wheel slides. If 
greater, the wheel revolves. That is very 
light ; it is estimated at six pounds per ton 
on an ordinary steam railroad track. Then 
there is the force that the locomotive exerts 
in propelling the train, the adhesion of the 
driving wheels upon the rail, which must 
exceed the sum total of all the friction of 
the train, as well as its own friction, to 
overcome its own dead weight. Mr. Chan- 
ute, of the Erie, experimented with a loco- 
motive, and raised it off the rail. He 
painted it with white lead, and found that 
the driver, with five feet diameter, bore 
one-quarter of a square inch on the rail 
head. The weight on that driver was ten 
thousand pounds. The Pennsylvania Class 
K engines have sixteen thousand pounds 
upon a driver ; but are seven feet in diam- 
eter, say sixty thousand pounds to the square 
inch. Upon the steam road, you are pass- 
ing beyond the ultimate strength of iron. 
Iron won't stand that strain ; it requires 
steel. A mild steel, such as Mr. Wharton 
makes, will outwear the harder steel. The 
Wharton rail will outwear the hard steel 
rail. A mild steel rail is the best for street 
railroads generally. I would be glad to have 
some statistics from the gentlemen present, 
as to the actual wear. 

Mr. Moxham, of Cleveland, said : Mr. 
President ; The matter resolves itself into 
either one of two things : pure technicality, 
absolute practice. I should like to follow 
Mr. Wright into the technicalities ; but it 
would be making a long story, and that we 
would not have one-half the information 
that we could get by referring to practice. 
Mr. Wright urges, because statistics have 
proved that some iron rails will outlast 
some steel rails, that we must come to a 
general deduction. Before you can make a 
comparison of any sort, you must define 
what you are comparing. * * * * I have 
for fifteen years manufactured iron ; but 
have given it up ; been forced to by the 
competition of steel. I could make an iron 
rail that would very nearly compete with 
steel in durability ; simply because it is hard 
to find the exact point of division between 
iron and steel. Experts have endeavored 
to find this dividing point, but so far have 
failed. Making an iron which in certain 
cases has been proved to be, theoretically 
and practically, the best iron that could be 
made, analyzing it and finding what I had, 
I could not determine whether I had iron 
or steel. But it is not a question of a 
special quality of iron. When we speak of 
an iron tram rail, we mean that quality 
which is furnished commercially ; and there 
is as much, or a greater difference between 
that ordinary quality and a specially made 
iron, as there is between a good steel and a 
poor iron. Even assuming the special qual- 
ity of iron to equal the ordinary steel, its 
price is so much greater that this consider- 
ation would decide the matter in favor of 
steel ; or we may institute again a com- 
parison between the poorer qualities of 
both. Mr. Wright has shown us a sample 
which, according to his supposition, lived 
but two years. Let us accept the supposi- 
tion that a steel rail only lives two years. 
(I do not think that there is a street rail- 
road man here that has used steel to any 
extent that does not know that the ordinary 
steel rail will last indefinitely longer than 
that.) Either that the steel was of poor 
quality or had been subjected to unusually 
hard conditions of wear. I will assume 
that the steel was of poor quality. We will, 
therefore, compare that to iron of poor 
quality. I have known, and, perhaps Mr. 
Littell will bear me out, that iron rails have 



been put into use in Louisville, and have 
lived six months only. If we assume that 
an iron rail of poor quality lasts only six 
months, and the steel rail of poor quality 
two years, there is four to one in favor of 
the steel. It is possible to make an iron 
that will last as long as a steel rail. This 
leads to this suggestion : Whether this 
material that is equal to steel, that is, a 
special class of iron , is the iron we speak of 
when we speak of iron rails. It is not. It 
is, therefore, a worthless discussion, if we 
are to take an iron that would cost so much 
money that we cannot put it into a tram 
rail. The question is unworthy of any 
prolonged discussion. We hear that soft 
steel is preferable to hard. I do not see why 
the street railroad man cannot rest in per- 
fect confidence with the quality of steel 
generally furnished ; it is made precisely of 
the same kind of steel that is put into the 
" T" rail. We all know of the great expe- 
rience and knowledge that has been brought 
to bear upon that part of the question by 
railroad engineers. It being considered 
cheaper and better for the larger business 
of steam railroads, it is better to stick to 
that for the incidental demands of street 
railroads. The quality of rails can be safely 
left to those who have made it a study. 

Mr. Wharton said: As to that particular 
sample which has been offered by Mr. 
Wright, as showing a steel rail of two 
years' service in Philadelphia. I think I 
can explain what that rail end is. I have 
been laying for the Philadelphia Traction 
Company, a number of miles of cable rail- 
road. In taking up the old railway, there 
were a great number of steel rails which 
had been down, not two years, but, to the 
best of my knowledge and belief, ten years. 
I am sure, that two years is not correct. 
But even if that were correct, these rails 
were laid upon a poor foundation; in some 
cases, upon old timber. It is a great mis- 
take, for a railroad company ever to put 
good rails on bad timber. If you put down 
steel rails, give them a fan - chance. These 
rails put down on old timber, soft and 
spongy, are liable, to be battered out at the 
joints. These particular rails, of which 
this is a piece, the end having been cut off, 
were thus battered down at some of the 
joints, and I recommended that it would be 
economy if the Company would allow us 
to cut that portion of the rails off from the 
end. That was done, and these rails are 
now under the new cable railway; the ends 
only being cut off, giving a good railway 
that will, probably, last ten years more in 
service. 

Mr. White said: I think that Mr. Whar- 
ton furnished to our corporation the first 
steel curve furnished to any street railway 
in the United States; and also, the same 
corporation contributed a large share to- 
wards the expense of making rolls for the 
purpose of running steel rails; something 
like thirty-six hundred dollars. He fur- 
nished us, also, the first steel rails that were 
ever used by a street railroad company in 
this country. We have about a thousand 
tons now in use, all made by the Pennsyl- 
vania Steel Company. The first curve was 
laid at the corner of Avenue D and Four- 
teenth Street, and mutually used by the 
Central Park, North and East River Rail- 
road Company and one line of our cars. 
About a year and a half ago that was re- 
newed, and it had a continuous service of 
sixteen years, or very nearly. The first steel 
rails we laid were laid on our Grand Street 
road, which was and is a road of very large 
traffic; the largest, with the exception of 
Broadway, just opposite the Fifth Avenue 
Hotel. These rails were bought at an 
enormous price. The first portion was laid 
at the beginning of or during the war. We 
had a rail sixty-three pounds to the yard. 
Since that we have had sixty pounds. 
That rail will never wear out. The defect 
in the service is only in one regard — the 
steel being soft, the traffic has worn off the 
head of the lip, and we have to keep con- 
tinually spiking and re-spiking to get more 
service out of it. The question in my mind, 



Mat, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



139 



when I bought the last rails, ran in the line 
of the experience of our Chicago friend. I 
said that complaint was made, and it was 
discovered by actual test, that in the com- 
petition of prices, they were making the 
steel a little softer, and that we would not 
get the service out of it. I did not state 
that I thought we had service enough; and 
I do not think that the rails will last as long 
if made softer. He said he did not know 
that that was so ; that the process was a 
homogeneous one, and was pursued by all 
reputable works, and what was made by 
one reputable concern was as good as that 
made by any other; that there was no dif- 
ference in quality. I have taken up this 
year about ninety tons of iron rails, which 
have been in constant service for about 
thirteen years on our roads, and been re- 
newed but once since the corporation has 
had its existence. That is on Avenue D 
and Lewis street. Those were made at 
Pottsville, and they are a good rail, and 
much called for. Our corporation has 
never bought a cheap rail. We do not 
want cheap stock of any kind. There is 
very little wear or tear to steel rails. 
Heavy trucking will make and carry off 
slivers of the iron rails, which does not oc- 
cur with the steel . An iron rail honestly 
made is worth the money, even to-day, and 
a steel rail honestly made is infintely pre- 
ferable at current prices. There is not to 
be understood to be any comparison of the 
cost or service, according to my judgment, 
between an iron rail and a steel rail at the 
same price. Economy lies in taking the 
steel. I would make one criticism on Mr. 
Wharton's report. The time is coming 
when we will consider the necessity of a 
pocket casting longer in its outgoing end to 
receive the rail entered on. As to the 
plates which we use to support our joints, 
the entering end of the plate could be, at 
least four inches longer than we now use 
them. 

Mr. Wharton remarked : If Mr. White 
notices my report, he will find that I made 
no allusion to this matter. 

Mr. White replied : The report states 
that it should be made with pockets. I 
make the suggestion, not respecting the 
size, but the length to admit the new rail. 
It should be longer at the exit than it is at 
the entrance — a proper bearing to increase 
the service. 

Mr. Patrick, of Pittsburgh, said : We have 
both iron and steel rails on our line in 
Pittsburgh. For the last five years, we 
have used the Pennsylvania Steel Works 
forty-eight pound rail. We also use the 
Cambria Steel Works forty-eight pound 
rail, and we have used our own iron. The 
rail you use here is different in its con- 
struction from ours. We have a five-inch 
rail, with three-inch roadway and two-inch 
tramway. Our gauge is five feet and two 
and a half inches ; yours four feet and eight 
inches. You are not required to put down 
a rail for the accommodation of the public, 
and consequently, the wear is made much 
heavier on the tram than with ours. The 
gentleman is right, that that character of 
rail is not liable to wear out. The rail we 
put down is half an inch on the roadway, 
and two inches on the tramway, leaving 
three inches for the public. The public, as 
a rule, follows the track having the vehi- 
cles running along the roadway of our line. 
We find the steel rail in the central part 
of the city has lasted us five years. It is 
now about worn out ; that is, the roadway. 
The trams are not worn out. The iron rail 
made at one of our works there in the city has 
lasted about the same time. The question, 
then, is, which is the cheaper to put down, 
the steel or the iron ? If I have to pay ninety 
dollars a ton for the steel rail (which I did 
pay for the rail now in use), and forty-five 
dollars a ton for the iron rail, there would be 
very little question as to which is the cheaper. 
I can now buy the steel rail for thirty-six 
dollars a ton, and I cannot buy the iron rail 
for less than forty dollars a ton. Hence, 
if they had an equal life, steel would be 
cheaper. But if the steel rail is made from 



thirty-five to forty carbon, it will stand 
longer by one-third than the best iron rail 
we can put down. The only trouble is, 
that if there is a very heavy frost and a very 
hard winter, a forty carbon steel rail is lia- 
ble to break. The rails used on the Penn- 
sylvania road, is a thirty-five carbon rail. 
The iron wheel we are using weighs about 
two hundred pounds to the wheel. We 
wanted it lighter, to make the car as light 
as possible. We made cast steel wheels, 
weighing one hundred and twenty-five 
pounds to the wheel, saving a considerable 
amount in weight, say 300 pounds to the 
car. It was about the first of March. They 
were forty carbon. From March to Decem- 
ber they were run and there was not any 
perceptible wear on the wheels. It is an 
admirable wheel. We had a very heavy 
frost last December. One morning the car 
was started out on the track as usual, and 
after going about two squares, the rim of 
the wheels run off, leaving the spokes. 
Some say it was shrinkage from the cold ; 
some that it was defective construction ; but 
it was done. 

Returning to the matter of rails : A steel 
rail, such as we have, with the three-inch 
roadway for tram work, is worn out by our 
wagons, and the life of it is about five 
years. The life of the best iron rail we have 
had is about five years. The life of some 
of our iron rails has been, as a minimum, 
about three years. 

Mr. Wharton said : I think a very good 
illustration of the comparative service of 
the steel rail as against the iron rail would 
be shown by an examination of the tracks 
in Fulton street, of this city. When the 
track was relaid, about eight years ago, the 
centre-bearing steel rail, forty seven pounds 
to the yard, was put down. That rail is 
there to-day. It is very little worn. It is 
solid on the timber. The surface is as good 
as it ever was, and the rail has a prospect 
of being good for eight or nine years more. 
It is a street used by heavy trucks to a very 
great extent and a great many heavy stages 
and omnibuses are constantly passing over 
it, turning in and out, and wearing the 
sides of the rail. Mr. Sharp, the President 
of the Twenty-third Street Railway, oper- 
ating that road, can undoubtedly corrobo- 
rate me. When you compare iron with 
steel rails, it is hardly fair to bring up any 
particular instance. I will, however, bring 
up a case, as it has been done by others 
here. In the year before the Centennial 
Exposition, in Philadelphia, the roads were 
very desirous of renewing and putting 
their tracks in order. Among others, the 
Hestonville Railroad Company wanted to 
relay their tracks, and they got iron rails 
made at Pottsville. At the same place 
many excellent and good rails have been 
made. Iron rails are very uncertain ; they 
do not mean anything in particular. Now 
this special lot of iron rails was put down 
across the bridge over the Schuylkill, and 
in about two weeks' time I had to take 
them up and put down other iron rails. 
My men said to me: "Mr. Wharton, we 
wish you would go out and look at those 
rails, they are worn out." I said: "It is 
impossible ; for they have been thex-e only 
two weeks. " They replied : ' ' Yes, but they 
are worn out; go and look at them." I 
took two or three men with me, as I want- 
ed to show them they were mistaken. 
When we got the^e we found slivers of iron 
from the top of tha rails, varying from an 
inch to three feet long, scattered all over 
the bridge. I got them to gather them up 
by the armful, and throw them into the 
river. I got a second lot of iron rails to re- 
place them. I made the mill renew the 
rails. They did it without a great deal of 
fuss. I put down the second lot of iron 
rails. They were not much better than the 
others ; they lasted three months, and I had 
to take them up for the same reason. I 
put down a third lot, and the Company 
commenced to get tired. The third lot of 
rails lasted a good while longer; and the 
railroad company let up on the whole busi- 
ness, and let them go although, practically 



the rails lasted only about a year, when 
they were replaced by steel rails. When 
you speak of an iron rail, it does not mean 
anything in particular. The steel rails are 
there yet. 

Mr. Ladd said : — " I have had some little 
experience with iron and steel rails, on a 
road operated by steam, while acting as Su- 
perintendent of the New Bedford & Taunton 
Railroad. In 1869 we put into our track 
twenty tons of John Brown's steel rail, and 
they have been in constant use fifteen 
years. I examined them a year or two ago 
very carefully, and did not notice any 
abrasion ; in fact, they were, seemingly, in 
as good condition as they were on the day 
they were placed in the track. These steel 
rails have been there fifteen years, and are 
just as good now as ever. I think that is 
evidence enough that an iron rail is not 
worth as much as a steel rail. There is also 
quite a difference in the quality of iron 
rails. The New Bedford & Taunton Rail- 
road was built in 1840. Its rails were im- 
ported from Wales, and were of excellent 
quality. Some of them remained in the 
track for five and twenty years, and the 
old rails, when removed, brought in the 
market two and a half dollars more per 
ton than any other old rail, on account of 
the extra quality of the iron used in their 
construction. 

The New Bedfoid & Fairhaven Street 
Railway was built in 1872. The rails were 
iron, manufactured at Pottsville, Penn., by 
Mr. Hay ward. They have now been in use 
twelve years, and we have not removed, on 
account of wear more than a half dozen of 
them. The track from New Bedford to 
Fairhaven was laid with a rail weighing 
thirty-five pounds per yard, and the rest 
with a forty-five pounds per yard rail. For 
the last two years, we have put down steel 
rails, weighing fifty pounds per yard, and 
we believe them to be better and cheaper in 
the end." 

Mr. Wharton : How many months do you 
run sleighs instead of horse cars ? 

Mr. Lusher : We run over the rails from 
eight to nine months. There are three or 
four months, in which we do not run over 
the rails, but, as a general thing, we use the 
rails from eight to nine months. The 
scraps are very valuable, indeed, and are 
very much sought after. 

Mr. Wm. Richardson said : The road 
which my friend White refers to, as hav- 
ing laid some rails fourteen years ago, was 
laid with fifty pound iron rails, or what 
was then supposed to be the best quality of 
rails. They have been replaced with steel, 
which has been used since that period, and 
these rails are said to be good to-day. I 
think the travel of Grand Street is fifty per 
cent, greater with trucks and other vehicles 
than when the iron rails were there. The 
width of the street is as trying to the rails 
on the track, as it is on the Broadway and 
Seventh Avenue road in Broadway, with- 
out any exception, unless on Broadway, a 
very short distance below the Fifth Avenue 
Hotel, where, because of the narrowness at 
that point, all vehicles have to follow the 
track. As to Fulton Street, it is certainly 
as heavy and tiying in its traffic on that 
part of the street, where the Bleecker 
Street and Fulton Ferry Railroad runs, as 
it could be on any portion of Broadway. 
So far as trucks and other vehicles can test 
the severity of the use of rails, the places 
specified afford a more thorough test than 
can be found on any other street railroad 
in the country, and possibly, as great as it 
would be on many steam roads. One thing 
has been suggested by Mr. Wright, that is, 
the test made by the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road. In Pittsburgh, they found that iron 
rails would last, switching in and out with 
their trains and running over them, about 
six months ; while steel rails would last 
for three years and six months. Pos- 
sibly no more thorough test can be 
made than in a place of that kind. Hav- 
ing made the motion to adopt the report, 
and approve its conclusions, it seems 
now the proper time to have specified 



140 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[May, 1885. 



any objections to be made to that report. 
As a whole it is a most important paper ; 
valuable to every street railroad man in the 
country. I can give no better advice than 
this, that before making a contract for the 
building of a road with William "Wharton, 
Jr., & Company (limited), or any other con- 
tractors for the building of street railroads, 
you should carefully study that paper. But 
as to ties. Yellow pine ties, as well as 
stringers are suggested. At the North, 
where chestnut ties are accessible, we can- 
not have anything better than chestnut. 
We can get a much larger size tie than we 
can afford to get of yellow pine, and it costs 
about two-thirds as much . I certainly will 
not go back on chestnut. I doubt if I 
would on white oak, as in preference to 
chestnut ties, where buried in the ground. 
As to laying a track with a pitch in it of 
four or five inches, or an inch to the foot, 
in the straight track, I would not do it in 
any case, all the Common Councils in the 
country to the contrary notwithstanding. 

Mr. Wharton remarked : I do not know 
what the gentleman alludes to. 

Mr. Richardson replied : I allude to the 
part where I understood you to say that it 
was desirable to have the tracks on a level ; 
and at any rate, where, under the circum- 
stances, it might require it, never to have 
one rail more than a few inches higher than 
the other. 

Mr. Wharton said : My whole intention 
was to convey the idea that the straight 
track should be level, and the curves also ; 
but that it was sometimes impossible to get 
the curves level, when we should do the best 
we could under the circumstances. The 
particular part to which Mr. Richardson al- 
ludes, refers to curves only. " Great care 
should be taken in laying the curves to 
have them of regular curvature, uniform 
gauge, and with no abrupt changes of sur- 
face. Ordinarily, a curve laid with the 
inner and outer rails on the same level will 
give the best results in service, but there 
are instances when, from the grade of the 
streets, it will be found necessary to ele- 
vate one rail higher than the other. The 
outer rail may then be elevated a few inches 
above the inner without any disadvantage, 
and, possibly, in some cases to advantage ; 
but the inner rail should never be higher 
than the outer, if it can possibly be avoided, 
although a slight difference in this respect, 
where absolutely unavoidable, can be al- 
lowed, if the curve is very carefully and 
accurately laid down." 

Mr. Richardson said : I stand corrected. 
On streets where there has been a slight 
deviation in the track, I would sooner put 
a foot difference between the tracks than I 
would in the tracks. About the gauge of 
tracks. If I did not misunderstand the 
gentleman, he said that the gauge had 
been fixed by local ordinance with a view 
to accommodating the width of the vehi- 
cles used in the respective cities. Am I 
correct ? 

Mr. Wharton said : I do not wish to con- 
vey the idea that it was established by that 
only. I will read : " As the gauge of street 
railways is almost always established by 
the local authorities to conform with the 
legal gauge of the ordinary vehicles of 
such city, there is, in consequence, no uni- 
versal or standard gauge for them. Your 
Committee is, however, of the opinion that 
from four feet eight inches to five feet two 
inches gauge will give the most satisfactory 
results, as a general rule " I have been in 
different cities and conversed with parties 
getting up specifications for new railways ; 
and that was one of the governing causes 
which determined very largely the gauge of 
the street railway. It was one of the first 
things brought up. 

Mr. Richardson said : That is exactly as I 
understand it — that the gauge of railways 
in different cities has been fixed with a 
view to the accommodation of the width of 
the vehicles that were to run in them, other 
than the cars. It struck me very much as 
n the case of the old gentleman who said 
hat he had "noticed that by a wise dis- 



pensation of Providence, large rivers al- 
ways run by great cities." I think that the 
gauge was fixed in this city, and greatly 
throughout the country, in the first place, 
by the fact that the New York and Harlem 
Railroad here, and the Brooklyn and 
Jamaica Railroad in Brooklyn, adopted the 
four feet eight inches gauge of track. Then 
came on the other street railroads, each 
following the four feet eight and one-half 
inches gauge of track : and which has been 
thoroughly fixed in this city and Brooklyn, 
growing out of these facts. It has been so 
strongly fixed, that it could not now be 
changed to any other gauge, however much 
it might be of advantage to the railroads to 
change. It would require the concurrent 
action of so many companies. The fashion 
has been followed generally in that way in 
Philadelphia. They have a gauge of five 
feet and five feet two and one-half inches. 
We have nothing here in the way of a law, 
so far as I know, to regulate the gauge of 
tracks, and that accounts for the manner 
and the extent to which the centre-bearing 
rail has been used. Too much cannot be 
said as to the advantage of using that form 
of rail for economy of operation, both in 
reference to the cars and the rails. The 
only regulation that has been made, so far 
as I know, is the legislative provision that 
that form of rail should be used that is 
most in accordance with public conve- 
nience. The railroad companies considered 
that to be for the public convenience, and 
have preferred to provide for the easy 
riding of street cars rather than for other 
vehicles. They consider that they have 
consulted the public convenience by having 
that form of rail which is easier for the 
rider, than for the man who drives the 
omnibus or wagon. Sometimes there has 
been opposition on the part of property 
owners to the centre-bearing rail being laid. 
On one occasion on the Fifth Avenue line, 
we were gradually changing the flat rail, 
and a great deal of trouble was made about 
it. We succeeded in getting a resolution 
through the Common Council, allowing us 
to use the centre-bearing rail on the grades. 
That street proved to have so many grades, 
and to be so up-hill and down-hili, that by 
the time the centre-bearing rail was laid, 
there was very little that was not centre- 
bearing. [Laughter.] As to the form of 
rail, of what earthly use is that lip on the 
rail? What was it put there for? Who 
originated that idea to prevent this spread- 
ing tendency? The timber is chamfered 
away to make room for it, and if that very 
lip was above instead of below, it would 
help vehicles to turn out of the track. 
What you want, is a perfectly flat under- 
surface, which shall have an even edge. 
The lips that were formerly cast or rolled 
in the centre-bearing rail are everywhere 
discarded, and we have a flat, even sur- 
face. As to the tendency to wear on this 
joint-plate, it would certainly indicate, to 
my mind, that the timber was in such 
condition that it gave way under the rail, 
which made a continual ramming on the 
plate ; so that this depression was caused 
to an extent that it "would not be on solid 
timber. As to the joint-plates of eighteen 
inches in length, to which Mr. Wharton 
referred, they are certainly the very best 
thing we can get ; laying them one foot 
under one rail, and six inches under the 
other rail, so as to give the greater support 
to the rail on which the car is coming. 

Mr. Richardson said : The report as a 
whole, is so good, so instructive, so thor- 
oughly beneficial to the horse-car interests 
of the country, I cannot say too much in 
indorsement of it. It is a hand-book of in- 
struction for those who are about to lay 
tracks. One thing, in conclusion, in re- 
gard to what the length of the rail ought to 
be. Mr. Wharton speaks of thirty feet. I 
would say get them just as long as you can 
get the mill to roll them, and have just as 
few joints as possible. 

Mr. Littell said : I would like to ask the 
Chairman one question in regard to laying 
a curve. Should the curve be of the same 



gauge as the track, or should there be a dif- 
ference ? 

Mr. Wharton replied : The best way to 
do it is to put the curve down to the regu- 
lar standard gauge. 

Mr. Kemp, of Troy, said : Why is this 
lip on the bottom of the flat rail? In our 
city we have tried to use the centre-bearing 
rail, and after having a resolution passed 
unanimously by the Common Council per- 
mitting its use, we are still obliged to live 
up to the requirements originally laid 
down, that we should use the Philadelphia 
pattern . Last Summer I was about to order 
two hundred tons of rail, to be laid down 
in a part of our city where we have a single 
track, and where the authorities would not 
allow anything but a single track. On our 
track is carted all the ingots made at the 
Bessemer Steel Works, at Troy. They have 
wagons loaded with about five tons of these 
ingots, and when they get on our track 
there is a regular procession of them. As 
the cars come down and meet them, they 
are obliged to turn out. In doing so, the 
wheels of the carts crowd on the flanges of 
the rails. The question came up by the 
party who desired to sell us rails, in regard 
to that lip which Mr. Richardson said is 
useless. The party trying to sell the rails 
insisted that the spikes could hold the 
rails. We were very much afraid to rely 
solely on the spikes, because, as every 
wagon turned out, it appeared the rails 
parted. I submitted the matter to the 
scientific men of the Polytechnic Institute 
and I told them to give me their opinion 
whether this lip was of any use. I told 
them, that in order to use the lip, we were 
obliged to chamfer off the edge of the tim- 
ber, and that enough timber was cut off to 
allow it to fit snugly. They decided it was 
of some benefit to us. if it was crowded down 
in the timber, and that it would hold to a 
considerable extent. I decided I would 
keep the lip on the rail ; but I want to get 
rid of it, if it is of no earthly benefit. 

Mi-. Wharton said : The question of lay- 
ing street rails, like many others, has pro- 
gressed. When I first became connected 
with the business, it was very common, it 
was universal, not only to have the lip on 
the inner edge of the rail, but on the outer 
edge also ; and both of them very much 
deeper than they are at present. In fact, I 
have noticed, and the gentleman from 
Brooklyn will also remember, that the 
earlier forms of centre-bearing rails had 
that lip. The spike-holes were of the usual 
size, and the rail working a little up and 
down, finally enlarged the holes, so that 
they were cut entirely round. They re- 
duced the size of the lip. I believe that I 
was the first one who absolutely insisted 
upon having the rails rolled without the 
outer lip on the rails. I quite recently have 
had rails made without that lip. I have 
been always advocating them without any 
lip. I can imagine in some particular in- 
stances and under certain circumstances, 
it may be valuable to hold the rail in posi- 
tion. I would take the risk, on every rail- 
road in which I was ever interested, to dis- 
pense with the lip and give the rails a full 
bearing over the five inches. It would be 
well to put the spike-holes nearer together 
and have extra spike-holes, so that when 
the holes in use get too large, or the spike- 
heads are worn away, you would have an 
entirely separate and new set of spike-holes 
through which to drive fresh spikes into 
new and sound timber. I think the lip is 
an expensive notion, and I do not see where 
you get the good of it. In Philadelphia 
they stick to the lip, partly because they do 
not care to make a change, and partly be- 
cause they do not know any better. In 
Philadelphia we always plane the portion 
on which the lip rests, so as to provide for 
it, as nearly as possible, a good solid bear- 
ing. I do not advocate it at all. I think 
it is a mistake. 

Mr. Richardson said : I would like to say 
that I have not the slightest doubt, if the 
gentleman wants anything to protect his 
rail, he will be obliged to have it much 



May, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



141 



deeper than that [indicating the lip * on 
the rail produced by Mr. Wright]. If he 
has the width of the timber corning down 
a few inches further, it might do what the 
Polytechnic professor thought it would do 
in this case. The next best thing is cut- 
ting, that is, planing it just the size you 
want to fit it. There is not enough of it to 
prevent the rail from spreading. I would 
suggest, in addition to spikes, to have good 
solid paving, coming well up to or above 
the rail on the outside. That will do more 
than all the lips on the inside. 

Mr. Wharton said : In regard to the ties 
which Mr. Richardson alluded to, I have 
never seen in the construction of railroads, 
that the hewed ties furnished were to any 
degree of uniform size. They are univer- 
sally some large and some small ; some 
straight and some twisted. The reason why 
I mentioned yellow pine is, that in this 
part of the world they are the cheapest in 
cost, the easiest to get, and they are the 
best ties. They can be obtained of uniform 
size, and give a uniform bearing to the rail, 
when they are placed at regular distances 
apart. They have been proved upon steam 
railroads to be the best, and we presume 
them to be the best on horse railroads. It 
is a very serious matter to have ties of 
varied surfaces, because the track is held 
up better with large ties than with small 
ones. Instead of not endorsing chestnut or 
white oak, I would say that I think they 
are better than yellow pine ; but they do 
not come in this part of the world sawed to 
uniform dimensions and of regular size, so 
as to be as cheap as yellow pine sawed ties. 

Mr. Parsons, of Philadelphia, said : It is 
not often that I have had the chance of 
finding fault with Mr. Wharton. But as I 
have the opportunity now, and also for the 
purpose of deriving a little instruction, I 
find fault with him, and would like to ask 
for some information. In the first place, 
in Brooklyn and New York, Mr. President, 
they make more money than we do in 
Philadelphia, and they build their roads 
according to their own ideas. In Philadel- 
phia, we have to conform to the city regu- 
lations. Mr. Wharton says that the rails, 
as originally laid in Philadelphia, have 
undergone many changes. I do not agree 
with him. 

"Mr. Wharton replied : I did not say that 
the rails in Philadelphia had undergone a 
great many changes. Unfortunately, they 
have not, I said "street rails;" by that I 
did not allude to Philadelphia. They have 
a great many railroads, and there are a 
great many rails in Philadelphia ; and I 
take great pride in that city. I alluded to 
the street rail, as changed. Unfortunately, 
however, they have not changed very 
much. 

Mr. Parsons continued : Street railways 
in large cities are better constructed now 
than they were originally ; they are more 
substantially built, and to a great extent 



Co.. I 

9, 1884. ) 



Office of the 

* North Chicago City Railway 

Chicago. November 19, 
Mr. W. J. Richardson, Secretary American Street 
Ttaihray Association. 
Dear Sir :— At the last annual meeting, the ques- 
tion came up as to the advantage of having a lower 
"lip" on the bottom of rails to prevent them 
from sliding outwards on the stringers. Some of 
the gentlemen present thought this lip of no bene- 
fit. I do not agree therein. Trautwine, in his En- 
gineer's Pocketbook, p. 181, speaking of the detrus- 
ive strength of pine and spruce, says : "We have 
very little experimental data on this subject. What 
there is on timber is in the direction of the. fibres, 
and. consequently, does not apply to beams which 
are exposed to shearing at right angles to the direc- 
tion of the fibres * * * The resistance to pine 
and spruce parallel to the fibres (which is much the 
weaker direction"!, is said to be from POO to 800 lbs. 
per square inch." The ordinary width of stringer 
being five inches, and rail thirty feet long, we have 
30 ft. x 12 in. x 4Va in. =1.020 square inches at 500 lbs. 
per in. =810,000 lbs. as the force required to split 
the stringer off. All the lateral strain on our tracks 
tends to force the rails outward, and I consider it 
advantageous to have this strength of material pre- 
venting the rails from movingupon the stringer, and 
relieving the spikes. Of course I assume a good fit 
as between the rail and the stringer. I thought the 
above might be of interest to you to insert as a foot- 
note under the discussion. It would be a mistake to 
leave off the lip on the rail. 

Respectfully, AUG. W. WRIGHT. 

Supt., Track and Construction. 



differently. Instead of using wooden 
beams, tie-rods are used, making the tracks 
more substantial and less liable to spread, 
but we still have exposed to all the street 
traffic the spike, which, as we all know, 
soon wears off on the head ; and as a conse- 
quence, the rail becomes loose if it cannot 
be fastened down securely. I think that 
the lip is of great advantage, if it is prop- 
erly fitted into the string-piece ; but as the 
spike becomes loose, the rail gets a wavy 
motion. It seems to me that we should 
therefore, make some changes in the con- 
struction of our rail. For that reason, I 
am very anxious to hear from those present 
using the "girder rail," which has a smooth 
joint, and where there are no spikes ex- 
posed to the heavy street traffic, and no 
way for the rail to get loose. If there are 
any companies represented here that have 
used the girder rail, I would like to know 
what their experience has been in the 
matter ; and also as to its cost. In addition 
to the heavy expense of repair in the pres- 
ent form, you will never have a solid bear- 
ing or a firm road. 

Mr. Humphrey said : I have been highly 
gratified with the discussion relating to 
street railways in the large cities. As I 
represent a small road, it does not apply so 
much to us. We have a narrow gauge 
road. When we started, and had been going 
along for a few years, some of those whom 
the politicians call "Mugwumps" [Laugh- 
ter], found fault with our road, and said 
that the street railway would last ten 
years, and then we would have to take it 
up. Now, I have learned from the discus- 
sion here, that our rail ought to last thirty 
years; and I consider my stock in the road 
raised up to one hundred and twenty-five ! 
[Laughter.] There is another point not re- 
presented here. The "T"rail laid in the 
city, and also outside — in the suburban 
portion of the city. The road that I repre- 
sent has seven miles; five miles are laid the 
same as a steam road. I did not know but 
that there were other companies repre- 
sented here that have a certain portion of 
their road outside the city and not paved, 
and from whose delegates I could get some 
information. What I want to get at is the 
way to take care of that. I thought this 
question would come up here. I am greatly 
interested in the report, and think it is a very 
valuable paper ; but the discussion seems 
to be confined almost entirely to the large 
cities. I should like to get some informa- 
tion on this subject. 

Mr. Rodgers, of Columbus, said: My 
friend, who has just taken his seat, said he 
came from one of the smaller towns : and 
he hoped to have the experience of persons 
representing larger interests, and of very 
much more extensive experience in the 
construction and erection of street 
railways, than his own. The time for the 
discussion is limited, and, therefore, I pro- 
pose to occupy but a moment. I arose 
more for the purpose of asking an expres- 
sion from those who have had considerable 
experience with the girder rail; or, rather 
in regard to the forms of rail generally. I 
have observed in use largely here, and in 
other cities, the centre-bearing rail: and I 
presume there is no question as to the 
desirability of that rail, where it may be 
used accordingto the city regulations. So far 
as the girder rail is concerned, it is a matter 
of considerable interest to those who are 
operating railroads in localities where 
repairs are difficult to make and expensive. 
I can say, in reference to the company that 
I represent, that we have made some re- 
pahs with the girder rail. For a short dis- 
tance we have laid some of the rail, and it 
has been used now for something over a 
year. The experiment has been entirely 
successful. It has answered our purpose 
very well, and gives general satisfaction to 
the riding public. So far as the city au- 
thorities go, there has been no objection 
made to it by them. I should be very glad 
to hear expressions from those who have 
used, in other places, the same rail ; and 
especially, as to its use in the larger cities, if 



it has been introduced in such. The rail we 
have used is the fifty-two pound rail, on an 
old Macadamized road. I have found no 
difficulty with it in any respect. It has 
operated very successfully, and I should be 
very glad to hear from others who have had 
any experience in any form of girder rails. 
The question was asked as to the cost of 
construction. My impression is that the 
cost of laying the track is considerably less; 
at least, we have found it so. I am not 
prepared to say, however, what the differ- 
ence in the expense is ; but it certainly is 
laid at less expense than the other track 
laid in the ordinary way. In our case, it 
has certainly been laid at less expense. 

Mr. Holmes, of Chicago, said : In my 
opinion the allusion to the girder rail is a 
most important one. I do not believe it is the 
only rail we should use. That rail has been 
used in San Francisco for over nine years; 
and having made some very protracted 
visits to that city, I have studied into the 
use of it, and am certain that the people of 
San Francisco have no idea of giving it up. 
The construction with that rail is very much 
cheaper, and there is no possible objection 
to it on account of the public, any more 
than there is with any other, and it gives 
such smooth, easy riding. I really believe 
that in five years' time it will be the rail of 
the country. 

At the request of the Convention, Mr. 
Longstreet, of Providence, exhibited a 
model of a girder rail track which had 
been patented by Mr. Brayton and himself, 
and of which some 300 tons had already 
been laid in Providence. The model was to 
scale, and showed the method of construc- 
tion. The rail was supported by, and 
keyed to, cast-iron plates two feet long by 
six inches wide, resting on concrete foun- 
dations, and held together by tie-rods of 
iron. No wood or spikes were used in the 
construction, and the expense was shown 
to be below the cost of a substantial tram 
rail track. 

Mr. Littell said: Mr. President, I do not 
want to consume, unnecessarily, the time 
of the Convention, but I wish to say that 
we have put down seven hundred tons of 
girder rails. We laid them in 1881 ; and in 
1883 we laid six hundred tons of centre- 
bearing rails like them. We like the rail 
very much, and our people like it. It makes 
a very smooth road. 

Mr. Moxham said: Before the subject is 
dismissed, it might be proper for me to say 
that I have made a special and careful study 
of this question. Mr. Holmes has alluded 
to the San Francisco rail. I have con- 
cluded, from all I have been able to gather, 
that that rail was the first used in the 
country; I am a little inclined to think in 
any countiy. The next and more important 
effort seems to have been in England and 
on the Continent. In England they have 
gone to the extreme in the use of the girder 
rail. In this country there has been a great 
deal done in various forms of girder rails. 
Mr. Longstreet has given the matter a great 
deal of thought. There is no one system, 
no one rail, but a number of them to choose 
from. I believe, with Mr. Holmes, that the 
girder-rail is the coming one for the purposes 
of street railways. 

On motion, the report of the Committee 
was adopted. 



Our News Column. 

We take special pride in calling attention 
to the great quantity of Street Railway 
news in this issue of our paper. In nine 
cases out of ten, the items are official; and 
in most other instances they are supplied 
us by traveling agents of street railway 
supply houses, from notes taken while on 
the ground. 

We have clearly demonstrated (1), that 
there was an opening for a Street Railway 
Journal; (2), that this Street Railway Jour 
nal has filled that opening. 



142 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Mat, 1885. 



— TH E — 



Street Railway 

JOURNAL. 



MONTHLY, $1,00 PER YEAR. 



E. P. Harris General Manager. 

P. G. Monroe General Western Manager . 

Robert Grimshaw, M. E Editor in • hief . 

G. B. Heckel, Associate Editor. 



American Railway PublishingGo. 

32 LIBERTY ST., NEW YORK. 

8 LAKESIDE BUILDING/, CHICAGO. 
S. L. K. Monroe, Sec'y and Treas. 



BRANCH OFFICES: 

Eastern District, 8 Exchange Place, Boston,Mass. 
H. M. Swetland, Manager. 

South-Eastern District, 419 Walnut St., Phila- 
delphia, Pa. G. B. Heckel, Manager. 

Southern District, 68 Alabama St., Atlanta, Ga. 
E. V. Cavell, Manager. 

South- Western District, 504 Temple Building, 
St. Louis, Mo. N. Hunt, Manager. 



Luminous Railway Cars. 



" Know ye the land where the Halsey and Myrtle 
Have emhlems on cars that are run on their line ; 
When the rage of the driver, the love of the turtle 
Now melt into sorrow, now madden to crime ? " 
—Bride of Abydos, i.-l 

Our venerable and esteemed contem- 
porary, at once the Phoenix and the 
Methusaleh of American railroad literature, 
is not satisfied with having given to the 
world the brilliant idea of luminous harness 
for street railway service, but has added to 
the literature of railway illuminations the 
following : 

" The Swiss railway companies now cover 
a portion of their carriages with a phos- 
phorescent peparation which makes them 
visible at night." 

The Phoenix proves itself to have the 
piercing vision of the graceful lynx, and 
the deep wisdom of the silent sphinx. It 
has discovered and announced a hint which 
should make the fortune of the first line 
adopting it. 

No longer 

" That orbed maiden, with white fire laden, 
Whom mortals call the moon " 

shall reign the night and illume the noisy 
street or dusky track. 
Rich and rare cars, fair beyond compare, 

" Blue, darkly, deeply, beautifully blue " 

and luminous with golden sheen, shall re- 
joice the home-wending citizen, when 

" Night's candles are burnt out, and jocund day 
Stands tip-toe on the misty mountain tops," 

and attract the yokel from a distant land, 
in no less measure than now does the 
Greatest Show on Earth. 

How inspiring ! In day time, the down 
car 

" Fills 
The air around with beauty " 

as it climbs the first grade ; and then passes 
over the summit where live the "nobs." 



" So sinks the day star in the ocean bed, 
And yet anon repairs his drooping head, 
And tucks his beams, and with new spangled ire 
Flames in the forehead of the morning sky." 

It recalls, the while, those sweet lines 

" Spake full well, in language quaint and olden, 
One who dwelleth by the castled Rhine, 
When he called the flowers, so blue and golden 
Cars, that on earth's firmament do shine;" 

and makes us young again. 

The Luminous Car! Bright essence of 
Pearl Street sagacity, I see thee now (" in 
my mind's eye") as thou rollest by St. 
Mark's Place, 

" Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow, 
Such as the painter's eye beheld, thou rollest now." 

How sweet ! In the house opposite, in 
the twilight, sits an aged man, serenely 
waiting for the summons. His gaze, too, 
seeks down the long vista, the glowing 
fleck which betokens the 6:40. 

" UDto dying eyes 
The horse car slowly grows a glimmering square." 

—Princess. 

The patriarch smiles ; he gently waves 
bis emaciated hand, blessed with good 
doing. He has seen the luminous car and 
has no more wish nor need to live. His 
eyes close for aye, and, like the car itself, 
his soul is 

" Gone, glimmering through the dream of things 
that were." 

Of this car it might be truly said : 

" Rich and rare were the paints she wore, 
And a bright gold light on her front she bore." 

No more shall the growling "cit." com- 
plain of the car which at once cheers him, 
transports him from place to place, and 
affords him symbolism and a subject for 
philosophical reflection. No ! he shall 
rather say, with Eliza Cook : 

" I love it— I love it, and who shall dar, 
To chide me for loving that old hoss car." 

The Luminous Car ! Indeed, 

" She [rides] in beauty,, like the night 
Of cloudless climes and starry skies ; 

And all that's best of dark and bright 
Meet in her dashboard, and her eyes 

Thus mellowed to that tender light, 
Which Heaven to gaudy day denies." 

The Luminous Car ! Think of the good 
it will do at night ; at once a " guide, phil- 
osopher and friend." 

" Thus, when the lamp that lighted 
The traveler, at first goes out, 
He feels awhile benighted, 

And looks around in fear and doubt. 
But soon, the prospect clearing 

By cloudless starlight on he treads, 
And thinks no lamp so cheering 
As that light [the horse car] sheds." 

Moore — I'd Mourn the Hopes. 

The Luminous Car 1 Think of the inspir- 
ation it will afford the early milkman and 
the night patrolman. When 

" Morn, 
Waked by the circling hours, with rosy hand 
Unbarred the gates of light." 

their souls have been prepared for poesy; 
and if 

" The horse car came down, and the milk wagon 

poled, 
And its panels were gleaming in purple and gold." 

instead of the milkman giving the reckless 
car driver in charge to the policeman, he 
would turn to the latter, and pointing to 



the glowing rear dashboard of the luminous 
car, would feelingly quote : 

" She was a form of life and light, 
That, seen, became a part of sight ; 
And rose, where'er I turned mine eye, 
The morning car of memory." 

— Giaour. 

"We shall have a special luminous dona- 
tion car of our own, made by contributions 
from all the car builders and inventors in 
the country. It will be 

" The princeps copy, clad in blue and gold." 
Then when 
" The sentinel [cars] set their watch in the sky " 

we shall softly roll homeward, shedding 
azure radiance around us, and emitting an 
aurea as we go. 

We shall keep our special donation Lum- 
inous Car in first-class condition at the 
expense of the donors, their heirs, execu- 
tors, administrators and assigns, forever ; 
for it hath been sweetly, truly said, that 

" The [car] is fairest when 'tis [painted] new, 
And [varnish] brightest when [it's free from 
streaks."] 

And yet, while in the Luminous Car 
there is poesy, mystic symbolism, the con- 
cord of sweet rays and the epitome of 
bright hopes, is there consolation therein ? 
Were not the old ones better? Ah me 1 

" I remember, I remember 

The horse cars dark and high, 
I used to think their painted tops 

Were close against the sky. 
It was a childish ignorance, 

But now 'tis little joy. 
To know I'm further off from heaven, 

Then when I was a boy." 

Though there will be aptness and truth 
in the quotation, 

" Blossomed the lovely cars, the forget-me-nots of 
the angels ;" 

though we may with telling fitness, in re- 
ferring to the grand concourse of theatre 
cars up Fulton Street at 11:15, recall to 
our best girl the charming lines : 

* * " Now glowed the firmament 
With living sapphires," 

etc., we doubt whether we shall be much 
happier — unless the man-who-hugs-his-girl- 
up-in-the-corner is suppressed by an un- 
poetic conductor. 

We wish it distictly understood (and in 
saying this we speak entirely in the interest 
of our semi-centenarian though still poetic 
neighbor), that the Luminous Car principle, 
present and to come, will be no less adapted 
to the gorgeous Pullman than to the de- 
spised bob-tail ; no less to steam roads than 
to those urban ways on which the effulgent 
vehicles are propelled by the refined mules 
of Louisville. Head-lights on steam roads 
need, in fact, be unnecessary ; the cars 
themselves will announce their coming ; 
and our proposed eighteen-hour train be- 
tween New York and Chicago will appear 
like a glowing streak of light having a 
length of about 600 miles, or the exact dis- 
tance traveled between sunset and sunrise, 
or from 18 to 6 o'clock. 

As we live we learn. 

" 'Tis the sunset of life gives me mystical lore, 
And [incoming trains] cast their shadows before." 



May, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



143 



The Value of Street Railways. 

Rapid transit lines, stage.routes, elevated 
and underground railways, but more es- 
pecially street railways are most potent in 
influencing the destinies of cities, because 
they work into the economy of society 
under the subtle yet constantly operative 
law of the division of labor. 

"My time is worth more than my street- 
car fare " is the correct result of many men- 
tal calculations constantly made, because 
an organized system for transportation can 
accomplish the task for the people of even 
a small town — much more that of a wide- 
spread metropolis — cheaper and better than 
they can do it for themselves. Instance, a 
plumber and his assistant about to execute 
a job at even so short a distance as half or 
three-quarters of a mile ; it is obvious that 
the unlucky (?) patron would prefer to pay 
for the " time " plus the street carfare than 
to liquidate the bill including time spent in 
walking one or two miles. 

From this extreme example to the case 
of the poor sewing woman carrying home 
the results of her long and pitiful indus- 
try and including almost every conceivable 
condition of business and industry, the real 
fact remains that "the time is worth more 
than the cost of the fare." 

This is the suggested thought : That in 
the division and subdivision of the multi- 
tudinous employments of the toilers — and 
the people of a city are fearful workers — 
of a greater or a lesser city, " the com- 
pany " can do its part of the general 
work in transporting cheaply and conven- 
iently the great multitude better, in every 
sense, than the people can do it for them- 
selves. Second : That without this cheap 
and convenient system of internal trans- 
portation, working within and in co-oper- 
ation with the other greater or lesser divi- 
sions of labor that the modern great city 
could not exist. Cities of a million popu- 
lation now are few in number and those sev- 
eral cities in the near future with five mil- 
lions population would never exist except 
in the imagination of sanguine and false 
prophets, but which by the aid of street 
transportation will be facts to be learned 
from the geography of our children. 

T. A. 
♦*-»- 

Crowded Cars. 

" All that board the platform are but a handful to 
the tribes that struggle in its bosom." 

Once in a while comes from the traveling 
public a wail of woe as to crowded cars, 
and the suggestion that the French system 
be adopted — that of limiting the number of 
passengers carried to the actual seating 
capacity of the conveyance, and furnishing 
numbered cards to those in waiting at the 
termiuals or stations, so that the first come 
is the first served. 

There are some good points about this 
1)1 an where the line is short and the 
"headway" also, and the climate some- 
what regular, but for long lines and infre- 
quent cars, and the capricious weather of 
most American towns, it won't work; par- 
ticularly on the last car ! 

We will just suppose the case of a man 
with wife and child, arriving in a pouring 



rain in time to catch the " last car," and 
being confronted with the sign " full; " or 
being handed one ticket. Shall he ride 
home and leave wife and child ? or send his 
wife home alone and he and the child sleep 
in the waiting room; or how ? 

Still there is no doubt about it that the 
extreme impatience and haste of passengers 
often produces unreasonable crowding and 
not only causes discomfort, but opens the 
door for quarrels and pocket picking, and 
contagion. 

There might be imposed a certain limit of 
crowding under ordinary circumstances: 
as for instance where the cars run on short 
headway, the weather clear and likely to 
continue so, and the driver knows that no 
advertised trains or public entertainments 
will be missed by a few minutes' wait on 
the part of the excluded ones. 

There is, too, a probability tbat more 
fares would be collected. Some few peo- 
ple might walk instead of riding: but then 
again there are many who will not try to 
ride on certain lines during the crowded 
hours; and the conductors would miss fewer 
fares of those who did get on. 



A Handsome Lithograph. 

"We have received and have to return 
thanks for a sheet of vignettes of the Offi- 
cers of the American Street Railway Asso- 
ciation from its organization in 1882 
to the present time. It is a compli- 
mentary souvenir (and, be it said, a 
very neat one), published by J. M. 
Jones' Sons, of West Troy, N. Y. The 
sheet is heavy paper, 22x30 inches, and 
contains around the edges square ' ' cabinet " 
portraits of each member ot the Executive 
Committees for the three years, the Secre- 
tary and Treasurer, and the Vice-presidents; 
and across the centre, on round plaques, 
portraits of the four Presidents. Under 
these is a perspective view of a street 
railway barn, and a summer car passing 
a close car at full speed. The pictures are 
in black and brown tint, on white surface, 
and the whole piece is worthy of a good 
frame, and place over the office desk. 



In Low Latitudes. 

One would think that in the enervating 
climate peculiar to territory south of Mason 
& Dixie's line, people would need no edu- 
cation, as far as riding on street cars is 
concerned ; but to one who has traveled to 
any extent 'neath southern skies, and vis- 
ited southern cities, it must appear strange 
that even where there are street car lines, 
the majority of the people walk in prefer- 
ence to riding. 

A solution of this seemingly paradoxical 
problem may be that the poverty of the 
Southerners since "the late unpleasant- 
ness " causes them to save every penny for 
the absolute necessities of life, and never to 
pay out a nickel for riding from one given 
point to another, when that nickel might 
be saved by hoofing it. However that may 
be, I cannot but incline to the belief that 
this is false economy; the money expended 
with cobbler during the course of the year 
might be more than proportionally reduced 



by being deposited in the fare boxes of ye 
festive bobtails. 

Up to the present time comparatively 
few southern cities have any surface trans- 
portation facilities outside of the regulation 
" carriages," or fevet boxes. 

With commercial traffic always on the 
increase, one would think that a line built 
wherewith to connect most depots and 
hotels, would pay in almost any city with a 
regular population of anything from five 
to ten thousand inhabitants ; yet even in 
such towns as Raleigh and Wilmington in 
North Carolina, and Portsmouth and Roa- 
noke, Va., we find a sad lack of cheap 
transportation facilities. Montgomery, 
Ala., is another, and in all of these towns 
much business is done, two of them being 
State Capitals. However, I am glad to say 
that a line has recently been projected in 
Montgomery, and will probably be built and 
opened for business in the near future. 
How many other towns of any importance 
are still without street railways in this land 
of sun and hoe cake, remains to be seen, 
but one thing strikes me as significant, and 
that is wherever we find a street railway 
we find projections for more. At Chatta- 
nooga, where there is but one, another is to 
be immediately built, and the Chattanooga 
street railway is to be extended in the 
spring, to the mountain, one and one-half 
miles from its present terminus. At Nash- 
ville, I had the pleasure of meeting Mr. D. 
Dederick, Superintendent Line Street R.R., 
and the patentee of a new turn-table, of 
which nothing but clever words have been 
said. Mr. Dederick is also Superintendent 
of the Cherry & Jefferson, Broadway & 
Vanderbilt, and the Church & Spruce Street 
Railroads. Twenty-three close cars are run 
over these four lines, of which 19 were 
built by the John Stevenson Co., equipped 
with its gear and super springs ; and the 
remaining four cars were furnished by the 
Brownell & Wight Car Co. of St. Louis ; 
besides the above, the Company owns 3 
summer cars, built by the Laclede Car Co. 
And right here does it not seem remarkable 
to Northerners that out of a total of 25 cars 
run by one company in a southern city, but 
3 are summer cars, while winter cars used 
during the heated term in higher latitudes 
are intolerable, and not to be endured? In 
justice to Nashville, hewever, I must say 
that its inhabitants claim for it cooler 
weather during the dog-days than many 
northern cities are blessed with. How true 
this may be I do not care to say, but frqm 
personal experience in both zones, I pre- 
fer summer rustication in the classic Cream 
or Garden Cities, rather than in that of the 
rocks. 

After a delightful run through Eastern 
Tennessee over the admirably equipped 
N. C. & St. Q. R.R. to Chattanooga, and 
from there via the East Tennessee, Virginia 
& Georgia, through Cleveland, we find a 
welcome at the Hatter House at Knoxville. 
Here, the street railway is held in high re- 
gard ; an interview with Mr. T. L. Beaman, 
Secretary, Treasurer and Superintendent of 
the Knoxville Street Railway Co. — at pres- 
ent the only street railroad in that enter- 
prising place — elicits the fact that two 
more lines are about to be laid ; one from 
Market Square to Mechanicsville via Asylum 



144 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[May, 1885. 



Street, about one mile in length ; and the 
other from Gay Street, by way of Crozier 
and Hardy Streets, to the Fair Grounds, 
distance above the same as the other. The 
first is incorporated for $20,000, with officers 
(so far) as follows : 

Dr. Tadlock, President, W. H. Simmons, 
Esq., Secretary and Treasurer ; Superin- 
tendent not yet decided upon, but rumor 

says that I was asked " not to give 

it away," so please excuse details. 

Mr. Beaman has recently patented a rail, 
embracing the finer points of the T, centre 
bearing and side bearing ; and it was darkly 
hinted by outside parties, that this rail is 
to be adopted on one of the new lines. 

Leaving Knoxville in the evening, or 
rather a trifle after midnight (for any time 
afternoon is "evening" here), I reached 
Bristol in time for breakfast, proceeding at 
once toward Norfolk, over the N. &W. R'y. 
At Petersburg, Va., a halt is made to pay 
my devoirs to Mr. Geo. Beadle, sole pro- 
prietor of the Petersburg Street R.R. The 
growth of this line has been rapid : Pro. 
jected in October '82, chartered in November 
of same year, and opened for traffic the 
following September ; it is readily seen that 
but little time was lost in its construction. 
The total cost of the road was $50,000, in- 
cluding 9 cars, two " second-handers," and 
seven furnished by the Jones Car Co. of 
Schenectady, N. Y. ; all bobtails. Mr. Beadle 
is the inventor of the fare-box (now made 
by Wales Mfg. Co. of Syracuse) used on his 
road. In discussing the relative merits of 
horses and mules, Mr. Beadle gave it as his 
experience that the festive mule will with- 
stand the heat, and the effects of starting 
cars on heavy grades better than the horse 
does. I noticed that the cars were 
equipped with the Higley gear, of which I 
may have occasion to refer at a later day. 
A visit to the stables convinced me that the 
refined habits of the Louisville mule were 
by no means unknown here, and the abom- 
inable odor of uric acid was conspicuous 
by its absence. Thanks to the courtesy of 
Mr. Frank Beadle, a son of Mr. Geo. Beadle, 
and Superintendent of road, my brief so- 
journ in Petersburg, of historic memory, 
was rendered most enjoyable, and the cor- 
dial invitation extended to me to " come 
again" will assuredly be accepted in the 
near future. It was with feelings similar 
to those experienced on leaving old friends, 
that I again boarded the cars for the sea- 
board, via Richmond. And here I find 
another projection, that of a road from the 
corner of 8th and Broad Streets via 8th, 
over the free bridge to south end of Hull 
Street, Manchester, a distance of two miles. 
The charter for this line was granted as 
early as '82, but lack of funds and enter- 
prise prevented the projection material, 
izing. However, times move with the sun- 
and there is to be no more delay ; it is ex- 
pected that the road will be open for busi- 
ness sometime this summer ; the estimated 
cost will be in the neighborhood of $50,000, 
including equipment. 

Major Bolton, President of the Richmond 
Street R.R., and Chief Engineer of the 
R. & D. R.R. system, was away from the 
city, so I was disappointed in one of our 
objects in visiting the old Confederate 
capitol. 



And here I must leave you for the 
present ; let me record the fact, however, 
that wherever it goes, the Street Railway 
Journal has an assured welcome, the only 
complaint being that it "don't come often 
enough." E. V. Cavell. 

Green Cove Springs, Fla. 



Street Railways and the Daily Press. 

Eds. Street Railway Journal: — 

At the last Convention of the American 
Street Ry. Association, the president of a 
prominent company expressed his regret 
that the daily press had not been notified of 
the convention, that they might have had 
reporters present to give to the public the 
utterances of those gentlemen in conven- 
tion assembled representing the chief street 
railroads of the American Continent. 
Inasmuch as I entered a protest against the 
admission of the representatives of the 
daily press, I take this opportunity of ex- 
pressing more at length my reasons therefor. 
For what purpose is a street railway 
company organized ? I answer for one of 
two reasons. Either to develop an other- 
wise inaccessible property, or to derive a 
profit from the transportation of people. 
The latter incentive has been in the great 
majority of instances the avowed purpose, 
and, in the words of M. M. Kirkman, " In 
the operations of railroads the objective 
point of endeavor is the revenue that 
accrues from the business. It is for this 
that the proprietors contribute money for 
the construction of railroads; it is for this 
that they are operated." 

A certain district having been built up, 
and the people experiencing great incon- 
veniences in getting to and fro on business 
or pleasure, some energetic individual 
thinks it will be to his pecuniary interest to 
furnish transportation. He talks up the 
matter, and probably with great difficulty 
interests others in the project. A charter 
is obtained from the State Legislature, and 
subsequently an ordinance from the local 
authorities, granting permission to con- 
struct the tracks, in certain streets, 
upon certain conditions. In other words, 
a contract is entered into as between the 
company on the one hand and the people, 
through their representatives, on the other 
hand. The latter expect to receive full 
value for the rights and privileges granted 
the company. Individuals are induced 
to subscribe for the stock, and in due 
course of time the road is constructed. 
The people at once derive the benefits 
incident to the operations of the road. 
Not so the stockholders. The records 
will show that many of the pros- 
perous roads of to-day passed many a 
weary year without earning the expected 
dividends upon the investment. "Hope 
deferred maketh the heart sick" is a trite 
but not the less true proverb. As dividends 
failed to materialize, the original stock- 
holders would in many instances be forced 
to part with their stock, unless their 
financial condition was such that they could 
wait for the good time coming. The 
expenses of operating a railroad are in a 
measure independent of the traffic. The 
cost of motive power, cars, horses, build- 



ings, vary in a great degree with the traffic. 
Not so the track expenses. The track will 
cost nearly as much if used by one car as if 
used by a hundred. Actual count at a point 
in Chicago showed that the sixteen feet of 
street pavement maintained by a horse 
railroad was used forty times while the 
balance of the street was used once. 

But our street railway having entered 
upon its service to the public, affording 
convenient and frequent conveyance to and 
fro along its lines at the lowest possible 
cost, tends to create traffic and reacts to the 
public good. The value of all the property 
in its neighborhood is increased; new life is 
instilled, and buildings commence to spring 
up on every hand. Business seeks a location 
along its lines, because the people are drawn 
thither from each side. In constructing 
the street railroad, therefore, the projectors, 
although actuated by selfish motives, " have 
built better than they knew." Over a 
century ago that wonderful man, Adam 
Smith, wrote: "Every individual is con- 
tinually exerting himself to find out the 
most advantageous employment for what- 
ever capital he can command. It is his 
own advantage, indeed, and not that of 
the society which he has in view. But the 
study of his own advantage naturally, or 
rather necessarily, leads him to prefer that 
employment which is most advantageous 
to the society." 

The street railroads give employment to 
many thousands of deserving men. Permit 
me to quote the Hon. Moody Merrill, of 
Boston, who said, upon taking the chair at 
the first street railroad convention, 1882: 
"There are now organized and doing 
business in this country and Canada, four 
hundred and fifteen street railways. These 
companies employ an army of about 35,000 
men. They run 18,000 cars, which with 
the horses attached would make a solid line 
of cars reaching from Boston to Albany. 
More than 100,000 horses are in daily use, 
and, calculating that the average life of a 
horse in street railway service is four years, 
it makes the annual consumption of horses 
25,000, a fact of much importance to the 
farmers of the country, east, west, north 
and south. To feed this vast number of 
horses requires annually 150,000 tons of 
hay and 11,000,000 bushels of grain. These 
companies own and operate over 3,000 
miles of track — nearly enough to span the 
country from Boston to San Francisco. The 
whole number of passengers carried 
annually is over 1,212,400,000, or a number 
nearly equal to the entire population of the 
globe. The amount of capital invested in 
these railways exceeds $150,000,000, with 
absolutely no security, but the faithful and 
satisfactory service rendered the traveling 
public by the companies themselves." 

As the street railway business is growing 
rapidly these figures must be increased for 
to-day, and the indirect value of these 
railways to the country at large is seen to 
be immense, and in the ramifications of the 
interest benefit the merchant and the manu- 
facturer, etc., etc., but especially the 
former. 

Returning to the supposed railway whose 
fortunes we were following. After weary 
waiting, perchance for years, the increased 
traffic, which is largely due to the con- 



Mat, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



145 



struction and operation of the said street 
railway, permits the payment of a regular 
dividend. The stock begins to be in de- 
mand and the price is appreciated. In- 
stantly the public begins an outcry against 
the monopoly, forgetting in its wilfulness 
the years that passed without dividends. 
The cry is at once for more and better cars, 
etc., etc., etc. The interests of the corpor- 
ation and tbe public appear to differ. The 
corporation is managed in the opinion of 
its officials for the best interests of the com- 
pany, and these are always best for the 
public, did the public but judge intel- 
ligently. The daily press with a few excep- 
tions, far between, instantly takes up the 
popular cry and its columns are filled with 
attacks upon that dread monster, "mon- 
opoly." The corporation had no organ by 
which to make its side of tbe case heard 
and the verdict went by default. It is this 
unfair spirit, evinced day by day upon the 
part of the daily press, that caused my 
objection to its presence at our convention. 
It would not allow us credit for any good 
qualities, but would hasten to curry popular 
favor by seizing upon anything and every- 
thing that it could distort into reprehensible 
views or actions. 

"What would be the condition of the cities 
of the world to-day without the street rail- 
road ? The value of property would be de- 
preciated many millions of dollars, and the 
inconvenience to the masses would be simply 
indescribable. No other system compares 
with it in cheapness and regularity of 
service, and it transports the myriads of its 
patrons with unexcelled frequency and 
cheapness. Under the summer's sun, in 
winter's biting blast, in sunshine and in rain 
it never fails. Augustine W. Weight. 



Mileage, Feed, &c. 

Eds. Street Railway Journal : — 

In answer to a " A Reader " in your 
last issue asking information about mile- 
age, feed, &c, I submit the following 
method as followed by this company. 

We use for feed— hay, corn, oats and 
bran. The corn is crushed, not ground, a 
portion of the hay is cut and mixed with 
the corn . Eight working horses are allowed 
to each car, and each team runs 19 miles 
daily. The horses are fed two hours before 
work, and are on the street 4 hours out of 
24. The amount of feed we allow a work- 
ing horse daily is as follows : 

Corn (crushed) 15 lbs. 

Hay (cut). . . : 6 " 

" (long) 7 " 

Bran % " 

Straw for bedding 3 " 

We feed oats to fresh horses and those 
that are "off their feed" from various 
causes. Jno. B. Parsons, 

President. 
Lombard & South Streets ) 
P. Ry. Co.,Phila. J 

[We have to thank Mr. Parsons for his 
trouble, and ask others to give their usage. 
We wish the Street Railway Journal to 
be a medium of exchange among street 
railway men. Each one, by putting ques- 
tions and giving information, encourages 
others to do the same. — Eds.] 



Shoeing Horses. 

Eds. Street Railway Journal : 

I fail to see what is new in the "best sys- 
tem " of shoeing horses in the use of street 
railways, as offered us in your March issue 
by Mr. Thos. Leggett, unless it be as a novel 
advertisement. 

He has no " shoe to sell or axe to grind! " 
His interest is only for the horse ! But 
still it is a strikingly plain fact that his 
alleged "new system" is only the well 
known old plan of a particular horse-shoe 
manufacturer, and he is most careful to ex- 
plain that it is a certain pattern of this man- 
ufacturer's shoes that he uses ! 

If Mr. Leggett has anything new and 
truly worthy to impart on this subject, let 
us have it by all means ; but why foist upon 
us "best systems" that are novel or avail- 
able only as a new form of advertisement 
for some manufacturer? No doubt, "if 
the horses had a voice in the matter, they 
would demand a change ; " but I suspect 
they would confine their demands to their 
own needs, and not to urging the wares of 
any manufacturer who sees his pet system 
of shoeing gone out of adoption, unsup- 
ported by the test of experience, and in 
favor of better methods. 

For I submit, that it is well known, cer- 
tainly here in the East, that the toe system 
of shoeing has not proved sufficient to keep 
horses' feet in the best condition possible 
with their work on street railways, and that 
this system is an abandoned one. While 
it is indeed desirable to give the frog and 
heel part of a horse's foot all the free action 
possible, it is not true, that, in allowing 
such parts to pound pavements wholly un- 
protected, no injury will be done them ; 
for their natural action is exceeded or car- 
ried too far, and results in breaking the bar 
between the frog and heel, and in bruises 
and undue wear. 

It is generally recognized here, that since 
the whole (and not the toe alone) of a 
horses foot is subjected to the unnatural 
work of pounding pavements, ail parts of 
the foot should be protected in proportion 
as the work they are put to is in excess of 
their natural use. So, then, we use a full 
shoe extending back and protecting the 
heel ; and we consider that nothing less 
than a full shoe can be used. The shoe 
should, of course, be light ; and yet it 
should be thin enough to give the heel all 
necessary movement, and the frog all the 
pressure upon the ground that it can stand, 
at the same time protecting both heel and 
frog from undue wear. 

And I will add, that I recommend no 
particular manufacturer's shoes. 

Rmlroader. 

[The foregoing is a bona fide communica- 
tion from a street railway man. We sub- 
mit that he has not disproved any of Mr. 
Leggett's statements, nor proved any of 
his own. Suppose Mr. L. takes the matter 
up again and gives us some data ; then let 
Railroader take the advise that he offers 
to Mr. Leggett and does not take himself : 
" If he has anything new and truly worthy 
to impart on this subject, let us have it by 
all means." — Eds.] 



Street Car Horses. 



Car horses, said the foreman of the Third 
Avenue Street Railroad Company to a 
Tribune reporter, are injured in a variety 
of ways. They run the greatest risks 
during the hottest part of the summer and 
the coldest of winter. These two periods ag- 
gregate about four and a half months. The 
month of September was the hardest month 
of last year for car horses. An intensely 
warm term came on the heels of a cool 
period and the result was the prostration of 
a large number of car-horses in this city as 
well as in many other parts of the country. 
Leaving intensely hot and cold weather out 
of the question, the most perilous season 
for the car horse is dry, windy weather. 
The cobble stones over which he travels are 
then as smooth as polished glass. Not a 
particle of any foreign substance can 
get a foothold on them, and the sharply 
shod hoof will slip from them with the 
same ease as the human foot will slide off 
the smooth side of a banana skin. Some of 
the roadbeds offer even more than the usual 
facilities for accidents of this nature. They 
are constructed on the shape of a water- 
shed, sloping from the centre to the tracks. 
On these the car horse has a hard time in- 
deed in wintry and windy weather. Com- 
paratively few accidents happen in wet 
weather. Unless they happen to break a 
limb, only a small percentage of horses 
which slip and fall suffer permanent injury. 
With rest and care they generally recover 
from sprains and strains. Out of 1,700 
horses the Third Avenue Company loses 
but one a week, according to its foremen. 
The latter has ninety-three hostlers under 
his eye, besides a large number of men em- 
ployed in other capacities. Each hostler 
is expected to groom twenty horses per 
day, and to feed and bed them. 

The stables are as clean as it is possible 
to keep them. The horses are in keeping 
with their surroundings. Horses are pur- 
chased at all seasons, but the best are 
bought in the fall. The seller is willing to 
take much less at the beginning than at the 
end of winter. The company has a stand- 
ing price of $155. Some splendid specimens 
of horseflesh have been bought for this 
figure. Gray is the color preferred. Horses 
of this color are said to suffer less from the 
heat than blacks and bays. From eight to 
ten horses are used in a snow sweeper, and 
one team possessed by the company attract 
much attention as they rattle through the 
avenue. The ten grays whirl the huge 
sweeper along as if it were a light road 
wagon. Several of these horses stand 
seventeen hands high. Every new purchase 
is subject to an attack of pinkeye. This is 
attributed to change of climate and sur- 
roundings. Most of the horses come from 
the West, and they are found to require 
from a week to two weeks to obtain their 
" sea legs." It is a common opinion that the 
lot of the car horse is not a happy one. In 
comparison with the fate of a large number 
of horses which receive but little sympathy, 
the car horse is to be greatly envied. He 
is not overworked ; he is well fed, well 
housed, and is seldom ill-treated with 
impunity. 



146 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Mat, 1885. 



Mr. Holmes on the Traction Company's 
Troubles. 

Mr. C. B. Holmes, Superintendent of the 
Chicago City Railway Company, was 
recently interviewed by a reporter on one 
of the Chicago dailies, and expressed him- 
self as follows on the subject of the Phila- 
delphia Traction Company's mechanical 
difficulties : 

' ' The first piece of cable road constructed 
in Philadelphia was put in one year ago 
last summer, and was something like a 
mile in length. The projectors of the road 
had previously visited this city and we 
made them familiar with our methods of 
construction and our various appliances ; 
but they expressed the conviction that our 
expenditure of money had been too great, 
and they endeavored to construct an 
equally effective road at a cost of about 
half the money. 

"Their first construction cost them, I am 
told by their engineer, something in the 
neighborhood of $146,000, and it proved an 
utter failure. It was taken up and thrown 
away. Last season the same company con- 
structed from twelve to sixteen miles of 
cable track, which was in some respects an 
improvement on the first experimental 
mile put in a year before, but the construc- 
tion was altogether too light and had no 
ability to resist the lateral pressure of frost, 
which is simply enormous. If our con- 
struction here had been made in the same 
w r ay, it would have given us even more 
trouble than they had, as our frost goes so 
much deeper and its pressure is so much 
greater. 

"I notice in the papers that the cost of 
this road is stated to be $600,000, but it is 
my impression, received from various 
sources, that the expenditure was much 
greater — probably over a million. This 
construction had no ability to resist the 
great lateral pressure, and as soon as the 
frost came the slot closed. The engineer of 
the construction told me that they had 
taken up the pavement, inserted wedges in 
the slot, and forced the slot open, and had 
attempted to hold it open by inserting 
bolted rods between the slot-iron and the 
stringers upon which the rails are placed. 
But this afforded only temporary relief, for 
as soon as the temperature changed again 
the slot not only closed but drew the rails 
themselves toward the slot, so that in 
operating the cars with horses a large num- 
ber of wheels and axles on the cars were 
broken. 

" This information," said Superintendent 
Holmes, "was given me by the President 
of one of the companies in Philadelphia. 
We have never had the slightest trouble 
with our construction here in Chicago in 
the way of the slot closing, as we made 
special provision to guard against that, it 
being the thing to fear most. That feature 
of the construction was made perfectly 
secure. As is known to all the citizens of 
Chicago, the iron-work and the concrete 
which inclose the iron-works were made 
with special reference to intense frost. 

"Statements have been made in the 
Eastern papers that the cable line here had 
been troubled with its slot closing up. 
These reports are wholly without founda- 



tion. The only thing that could have given 
rise to any such impression was the fact 
that in the construction of the road we 
received a few car loads of slot-iron that 
had a ragged edge from imperfect rolling. 
The parties who furnished this iron in- 
structed us to return it at their expense, 
but we had 1,500 men at work, and the 
streets torn up, and we could not afford to 
wait for new shipments of iron, but were 
obliged to use this, purposely placing the 
slot-irons closer together than a finished 
state would permit, and afterwards chip- 
ping off the ragged edges. That was all, or 
nearly all, that was done before the cars 
commenced operating. A few spots were 
finished afterward, but with this exception 
there has been nothing to give any im- 
pression whatever that our slot bad ever 
closed on us. 

"There have been a few cases, especially 
in the early days of the system, when in- 
experienced drivers have held on to cables 
too long and thereby cut them, but ex- 
perience has relieved us of all trouble of 
this sort. We have had two cases when 
minor portions of the machinery have 
proved of insufficient strength under the 
intense strain at times brought to bear 
upon them, but we have strengthened 
these parts by adopting much heavier 
machinery. In February one section of 
this heavy machinery was placed in 
position, and to-day we have received and 
are hauling to the works the last of this 
heavy machinery. When occasion arises, 
or as soon as it is possible to do so, we shall 
remove the last portion of light work and 
insert this heavier construction in it place. 

" The last winter has been an unprece- 
dented one in severity of frost and volume 
of snow, but it has been of use to us in 
enabling us to discover wherein were the 
weak points of our construction, and so 
completely remedy them. The weak and 
imperfect construction adopted in Phila- 
delphia should not weigh against the true 
merits of the cable system. 

"It is absolutely necessary," said Mr. 
Holmes, in conclusion, "that the construc- 
tion should be strong and stable to insure 
comfort to the public and to the operators. 
When this is done, there is no system yet 
devised which will compare in excellence 
with the cable system for transportation in 
large cities." 



Additional Transportation Facilities in 
New York City: 

Eds. Street Railway Journal: — 

The present need for additional transpor- 
tation facilities in the City of New York 
will be conceded by any one who has occa- 
sion to come down town between the hours 
of 6 and 10 o'clock a.m., or to go up-town 
between the hours of 4 and 7 o'clock p.m.; 
and the future necessity thereof will be 
made even more manifest by reference to 
the following statistics and estimates : 
Population of New York City. 

Increase. 

In 1850.... 515,547 

In 1860. . . . 813,669 298,123 58 per cent. 
In 1870. . . . 942,292 128,623 14 " 
In 1880. . . . 1,206,299 264,077 28 

Increase in 30 years. . . . 690,752 



— being an average of 33 per cent, in each 
decade upon the population at the begin- 
ning of each. As the second decade in- 
cluded the period of the civil war, and the 
third covered the great financial and indus- 
trial depression following the panic of 
1873, it will be safe to estimate a like 
decennial increase of 33 per cent, during 
the ensuing thirty years, which would 
make the population : 

In 1890 1,604,380 

In 1900 2,133,800 

In 1910 2,837,950 

— the latter being over 2£ times the popula- 
tion in 1880. 

The number of passengers transported 
per annum upon city surface and elevated 
railways has been for the years ending 
September 30th of each year, as follows : 



Years. 



1855 
1860 
1865 

1870 
1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 



On Horse 
Roads. 



18,488,459 
36,455,242 
82,054,516 
115,139,553 
165,997,602 
166,401,018 
160,924,436 
160,952,832 
142,038,391 
150,390,391 
155,800,993 
166,510,617 
176,625,434 
187,413,242 



On Elevated 
Roads. 



920,571 

2,012,953 

3,011,862 

9,236,670 

45,945,401 

60,831,757 

75,585.778 

86,361,029 

92,124,443 

96,702,620 



Totals. 



18,488,459 
36,455,242 
82,054,516 
115,139,553 
166,918,173 
168,413,971 
163,936,298 
170,189,502 
187,983,792 
211,222,348 
231,386,771 
252,871,646 
268,749.877 
284,115,862 



The above figures indicate how rapidly 
travel increases when additional, and es- 
pecially when superior facilities are fur- 
nished. It is worthy of note that the 
transportation facilities on the elevated 
railways reached their maximum in 1881 
as the following record shows : 

Miles run by trains in 1881 . . . .' 6,117,238 

1882 5,917,051 

1883 5,919,931 

1884 6,056,766 

Despite which their traffic increased from 
1881 to 1884 by 21,116,842 passengers, or 
28 per cent. 

With the increase in population, the ad- 
ditions must go farther and farther from 
the centre of business, necessitating a con- 
stantly increasing ratio of travel to popu- 
lation. 

The increase of travel from 1870 to 1880 
was 96,082,785 being 83 T % per cent, of the 
amount in 1870, upon which basis the 
amount of traffic would be — 

In 1890 388,103,940 

In 1900 712,558,834 

In 1910 1,308,261,919 

The increase from 1880 to 1884, without 
any increase in the transportation facilities, 
has been 72,893,514 being 34^, per cent., 
upon which basis the travel would be 

In 1890 450,000,000 

In 1900 956,000,000 

In 1910 2,031,000,000 

In view of the increase of population, its 
greater distance from the business centre, 
and the additional facilities of a superior 
quality to be furnished by the New York 
Cable Railway Company's system of cable 



May, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



147 



roads, it is safe to estimate the travel at an 
average of the two estimates, say 

In 1890, 420,000,000, an increase 

over 1884 of 136,000,000 

In 1900, 835,000,000, an increase 

over 1884 of 551,000,000 

In 1910, 1,670,000,000, an in- 
crease over 1884 of 1,386,000,000 

which certainly indicates that plenty of 
traffic awaits the new enterprise, and 
clamors for its completion. 

If the cable roads should all be built by 
1890, and should attract only 75 per cent, 
of the increased travel, they would carry 
102,000,000 passengers. 

The east side axial line (Lexington Av- 
enue) would have, within two blocks on 
either side, the following existing traffic to 
draw from without any allowance for in- 
crease : 

In 1884 Third Avenue elevated 

carried. . . . , 47,695,400 

In 1884 Second Avenue elevated 

carried 10,249,263 

In 1884 Second Avenue surface 

carried 19,397,072 

In 1884 Third Avenue, surface 

carried 31,395,490 

In 1884 Fourth Avenue surface 

carried 15,038,579 

Total 123,775,864 

of which elevated 

roads carried ... 57 , 944, 723 
and surface roads 

carried 65,831,141 

123,775,864 

while the increase in this territory will be 
at least 9,000,000 per annum during the 
five years from 1885 to 1890, if facilities are 
furnished, for which there is now no ade- 
quate provision. 

A reasonable estimate would allow the 
Lexington Avenue cable line one-fourth the 
aggregate traffic of this district in 1886, 

say 33,000,000 

and one-third the increase in 

1887, say 36,000,000 

and one-third the increase in 

1888, say 39,000,000 

and one-third the increase in 

1889, say 42,000,000 

and one-third the increase in 

1890, say 45,000,000 

These figures but partially indicate the 
value of the cable railway projected on 
Lexington avenue to this district of the 
city. Wm, P. Shinn. 
•— » 

Answering Questions. 

We have received a letter containing 
some questions which have been unsuccess- 
fully submitted to others for answer, and 
which involve considerable work. We 
wrote the sender (a non-subscriber) that we 
should answer them in our columns. He 
replied asking if it would not be equally 
convenient to answer by mail. 

It might be just as easy and convenient 
for us to answer the questions by letter, but 
we see no reason why we should do so. Our 
time is sold to this Publishing Co., and we 
have a certain interest in the profits of the 
business. To take from one to five hours 
to answer questions which have already 
been sent back by three persons would be 
unreasonable. We should prefer taking the 



same time and answering the questions in 
editorial columns, where they will benefit 
others than the querist, especially as those 
others contribute to the support of the 
papers by their subscriptions. 

Our correspondent will pardon our frank- 
ness ; but our regular business is that of 
scientific expert, and such questions should 
be accompanied by a check of $20.00, to 
order of our Company, if immediate and 
personal attention and reply is wished. 

While the hospital physicians treat cases 
free at clinics, for the benefit of the students 
who have paid their fees, they always 
charge for attendance at the house and for 
private treatment at their own offices. The 
cases are parallel. 



Collection of Fares — I. 

The Atlantic Avenue Railroad Company, 
of Brooklyn, exclusively uses an alarm-re- 
gister with which to check the collection 
of fares, known as "Richardson's Time 
Alarm-Register." It is the invention of 
Mr. W. J. Richardson, the secretary of the 
company, and has been in continuous use 
on the lines of that company over a year. 
It is said to have been so satisfactory that 
there are now being made improved re- 
gisters, outwardly similar to those now in 
use, with which to equip the new cross- 
town line. This line, it is expected, will be 
in operation about June 1st, and will run 
from Hamilton Ferry, at the extreme 
southerly end of the city, to the Brooklyn 
terminus of the great East River Bridge. 

This alarm-register is used exclusively for 
recording adult and half fares. Where there 
are many different rates of fare, as is notably 
the case with the Concord (N. H.), road,* 
the use of this register is not recommended, 
as it was not designed for that purpose. 
The five-cent or adult register will record 
one thousand fares, and the three-cent re- 
gister one hundred and fifty; both sets of 
dial bands being so constructed as to pre- 
clude the possibility of tampering with 
them in any way. The dials are obscured 
from the conductors' view. 

Every conductor is obliged to have two 
dollars in change, and just that amount 
with him when he goes to work. At the 
end of every half-trip, he must deduct the 
amount of money he starts with, namely, 
two dollars, and turn the balance of the 
money into the office. The conductor as- 
certains the number of cash fares received, 
by dividing the balance by five, after hav- 
ing deducted the amount of cash received 
in three cent fares. These calculations 
must be made at least sixteen times a day, 
and on one line as many as twenty- two 
times a day. 

By this system, no excuse should be made 
by the conductor for not turning in just 
the number of fares his register shows him 
to have recorded. Unless by such a sys- 
tem as this, conductors never will count 
their money, and they are thereby induced 
to get into a loose habit of keeping their 
cash and accounts. By this system, they 
are required to count their money, and turn 
into the company's office the balance over 
and above the amount of two dollars. 

* See page 171, report of the American Street Rail- 
way Association, 1S84-5. 



The five-cent or adult fare-bell is large 
and gives a clear resonant ring. In con- 
nection with the register is tne watch 
movement, which carries at all times the 
standard time of the company. The at- 
tachment of this movement to the register 
has had the effect of almost entirely doing 
away with "loafing" or running behind 
time. 

The register being wholly under the con- 
trol of the conductor, in case of a fire with 
hose across the rails, preventing the further 
progress of the cars, the conductor's ac- 
counts are never mixed, as is necessarily 
the case ofttimes, with the stationary re- 
gisters. The conductor likewise cannot 
charge that his register has been tampered 
with, either in his possible absence from the 
car, or by malice or from any other reason, 
on the part of the passengers or others. 
Fares can be collected with it more quickly 
than with any other register uaed. 

It is the judgment of Mr. Richardson that 
no register, portable or stationary, is worth 
anything unless it is supplemented by a 
thorough detective system ; for perfection 
in an alarm-register is only to be attained 
by the invention of a machine that will fit 
inside of a man and make him honest. Till 
then all systems of checks will be but helps 
to keep men honest. C. B. L. 



Street Railway Insurance. 

The formation of a street railway fire 
insurance company is being seriously con- 
sidered by the managers of some of the 
leading street railway companies of 
America. The rates on the depot buildings 
and equipment owned by these companies 
has long been fixed outrageously high. 
There has been, as it were, a combination 
made by the insurance companies, equiva- 
lent to a "strike" against the street rail- 
way companies, by which they have 
arbitrarily placed the rates on the property 
at a figure to suit themselves, and in no 
sense justly proportionate to the character 
of the risks. Those companies that have 
not entered the "tariff" combination, are 
equally high in their rates of insuring this 
class of property. 

It is conceded by the managers of all fire 
insurance companies that the moral char- 
acter of the risk of street railway property 
is of the highest order ; for incendiarism, to 
them, for the purpose of making money, 
can never be a temptation. Should the 
running of a railroad be unprofitable, and 
the owners desire to dispose of the stock, 
they could do it to better advantage, and 
make more money, by selling their property 
to the highest bidder, than they possibly 
could by a resort to incendiarism. 

As to the arbitrary action of the com- 
panies, take, for instance, the cities of New 
York and Brooklyn. The "tariff com- 
panies," so called, forming the combina- 
tion, have fixed the rate for all street 
railway, brick buildings, at one and a half 
per cent. , and all frame buildings at two per 
cent. Wherein, we ask, is the justice of 
any such rating of property as this ? We 
have in mind two pieces of property ; the 
first, a one-story brick stable, that is about 
as liable to burn as rails under water ; the 
other, a large depot building with several 



148 



the;tstreet railway journal. 



[May, 1885. 



floors, surrounded by lumber yards. The 
rates on both pieces of property are the 
6ame, simply because the companies have 
determined that the rates shall arbitrarily 
be set, as before stated. 

The insurance statistics of street railway 
property, covering the business of nearly 
two hundred companies all over the 
country, from their dates of operation, 
show that not one dollar in three of pre- 
miums paid has been paid back by the fire 
insurance companies in losses. The insur- 
ance companies have no way of deter- 
mining the losses on special lines of 
property, as, for instance, street railway 
property, except as each company shall 
determine what the rates shall be according 
to the business done by it, covering any 
special line of property. While the losses 
in one company may have been consider- 
able, in another company they may have 
been little or nothing. The company that 
has lost largely will fix its rate accordingly ; 
and i he company that has lost but little or 
nothing will grade its rate according to 
that fixed by the company which has the 
highest rate. 

Such a company as is proposed to be 
formed, should have almost a monopoly of 
the fire insurance of street railway prop- 
erty in America. The company should be 
controlled by representative street railway 
men, to be assisted by an underwriter, as 
inspector, of large and extended experience. 
The company, though provided with an 
absolute capital of say, not less than half a 
million, should be based upon and con- 
trolled by the essential idea of mutual in- 
surance, 

It is an indisputable fact, that mutual 
insurance of all kinds, whether life, fire, 
marine or casualty, have been uuiveisally 
and invariably successful, while uniformly 
able to insure at less cost to the insured 
than joint stock companies. 

The expense of conducting the business 
of stock companies is a very considerable 
item in the cost of insurance, by reason of 
the payments to agents in soliciting busi- 
ness, as well as the cost of maintaining 
several high salaried officers. 

The Street Railway Association of the 
State of New York will have interested 
with it the managers of some of the lead- 
ing street railway companies in America in 
the organization of such a company as has 
been outlined. This company expects to 
be the insurance company of American 
street railways ; and it is confidently be- 
lieved that the saving it will be able to 
effect to those companies that insure with 
it will not be less than 33 i per cent., and 
possibly 50 per cent. 

William J. Richardson. 



Notes. 

The Chicago City Ry. Co. is building 70 
open cars. 

Lincoln (la.), is going to extend its street 
railway track. 

The Holyoke St. R.R. Co. (Mass.), may 
buy two open cars. 

Syracuse, N. Y., just opened a new line, 
H. J. Hart, Superintendent. 

The Naumkeag Co. of Salem (Mass.), is 
building two new open cars. 



The Kansas City Cable Railway Co. 
(Kan.), is not in operation yet. 

The Lynchburg (Va.), St. Ry. Co. ex- 
pects to add two summer cars. 

Charleston, S. C, is to have a new street 
railway ; I. S. Riggs, President. 

South Chicago, 12 miles from Chicago, 
is building a new street railway. 

The organization of theSayre, St. R.W. 
Co., of Say re, Pa., is not yet completed. 

The Bellaire, Chillicothe & Canton 
is a new Ohio Street Railway Company. 

Brockton, Mass., is to have another 
street railroad running to South Abington. 

The Madison St. Railway Co. (Wis.), 
will lay about two miles of track this year. 

The Fonda & Fultonville Railway 
Co. (N. Y.), is abandoned and the rails torn 
up. 

The Wheeling & Elm Grove R.R. (W. 
Va.), may extend its road \% miles in the 
fall. 

The Washington & Georgetown R.R. 
Co. (D. C), will add five more double box 
cars. 

The Acushnet St. Rah, way Co., New 
Bedford (Mass.), has not yet commenced to 
build. 

The Wilmington City Railway Co. 
(Delaware), is doing nothing but ordinary 
repairs. 

The Keokuk Street Railway Co. (la.), 
will lay two miles of additional track this 
summer. 

The La Fayette St. Ry. Co. (Ind.), ex- 
pects to build one mile of road during the 
summer. 

The Lombard & South St. Pass. Ry. Co. 
(Phila ), intends running 6 cars more than 
last year. 

The Charles River St. R.R. Co. will 
build IJ2 miles of track and buy 10 cars 
and 100 horses. 

The Peoples' Pass. R.W. Co. (Phila.), ex- 
pects to increase the average of cars run, 
probably by 20. 

The City R.R. Co. of Poughkeepsie 
thinks of improving its track but can't tell 
to what extent. 

The North Hudson County Railway 
Co. (N. J.), will open its cable railway for 
business July 1. 

The Akron St. Ry. and Herdic Co. 
(Ohio), is arranging to build three miles of 
road this season. 

Kentucky Street Raiilway Co., Louis- 
ville. — Mr. Z. Phelps has recently resigned 
and sold his interest. 

The Citizens' Street Railway Co., 
Springfield (111.), will lay a half-mile of 
new track this spring. 

The Central Park, North and East 
River R.R. Co. will probably increase the 
number of its cars and horses. 

The Frankford & Southwark P. R.R. 
Co. (Phila.), expects to add two to four 
cars as the occasion requires. 

New Bedford (Mass.) — We understand 
that 36 new cars have been ordered for the 
new street railway in this town. 

The City and Suburban Ry. Co., of Sa- 



vannah, Ga., proposes to lay part of its 
present track with steel rails. 

The Toledo Consolidated Street Rail- 
way Co. (O.), will put new rails on four 
miles of their track this summer. 

The Pittsburgh, Oakland & E. Liberty 
P. R.R. is relaying its tracks and expects to 
put a cable in in the near future. 

The Peoples' Railway Co., Spring- 
field (Mo.), will add three new cars and an 
additional mile of track this season. 

The Salem & Danvers Street Railway 
Co. (Mass ), will build three miles of road 
to connect Danvers with Peabody. 

Oswego, N. Y., is to have a street rail- 
road. Amount necessary to build all sub- 
scribed ; work to commence at once. 

The Trenton (N. J.), Horse R.R. Co. con- 
templates enlarging its stable and car house 
and adding more horses and cars. 

The Union Rattan Company, of 125 
Chambers Street, has a new broom design- 
ed especially of street railway stables. 

The Metropolitan R.R. Co., Boston, 
which is always making additions, as bus- 
iness increases, is building 50 new cars. 

The Citizens' Street Railway Co., 
Little Rock (Ark.), expect to construct from 
one to two miles of track this summer. 

The Lewis & Fowler Manufacturing 
Co., Brooklyn, reports that it was never so 
busy as now ; being 30 days behind orders. 

The New Williamsburgh & Flatland 
R.R. Co. will repair about 20 blocks of 
tram rail with 50 lbs. centre-bearing steel. 

The Stillwater & Mechanicsville St. 
R.W. Co. (Minn.), has to add more cars 
and horses to accommodate the travel. 

The Southern Railway Co. ,of St. Louis, 
intends putting down one mile of track 
with the Johnson rail and will re-lay one 
mile. 

The Rochester City & Brighton R.R. 
Co., adds 10 new cars this spring: has 
some extensions to make and old track to 
relay. 

The Highland St. R.R. Co. (Boston), is 
building a new brick stable for 200 horses, 
at Grove Hall, for the West Roxbury Park 
travel. 

The Philadelphia City Pass. Ry. Co. is 
leased to the West Philadelphia Pass. Ry. 
Co. for the term of 900 years from January 
1, 1884. 

The Coney Island, Sheepshead Bay& 
Ocean Avenue R.R., is going to make 
alterations, of which we are promised par- 
ticulars. 

The Benton, Bellefontaine Railway 
Co., St. Louis (Mo.), has put on two new 
cars and will make a half-mile extension 
this season. 

The Charleston City Railway Co. 
(S. C), intends to double its track where it 
is now single track, with the centre-bear- 
ing street rail. 

The Springfield Street Railway Co. 
(Mass ), is relaying apart of its track, using 
Kyanized lumber, and Jones is building 3 
open cars for it. 

The Second Avenue R.R. Co., New York 
City, is building an addition to its depot, 



May, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



149 



185 x 200 feet ; and will start its First Ave- 
nue line about May 1st. 

There is now a street railway from Pitts- 
burgh to Wilkinsburg, Pa. ; and there is 
some talk of building one from Beaver 
Falls to New Brighton. 

The Cream City R.R. Co., Milwaukee 
(Wis.), will have some new summer cars 
this season. They will extend their double 
track about one-half mile. 

Four hundred men are at work on the 
upper portion of the 42nd and Manhattan- 
ville line, New York City, and double cars 
will run to 40th Street shortly. 

Thos. Brower, former Superintendent 
of Rochester & Brighton Railroad, Roches- 
ter, N. Y. , is back again in his old position 
after an absence of two years. 

Pittsburgh now has a People's Park 
Railway with ten cars, 75 horses and 
mules. Pres., Wm. McCreery ; Treas., Jas. 
Boyle ; Supt., Wm. J. Crozier. 

The Washington St. & State Asylum, 
R.R. Co. (Bingham ton, N. Y.), will extend 
its line to the Insane Asylum, a distance 
of 13^2 miles, using cable power. 

The Prospect Park and Coney Island 
Ry. Co. is now improving and reconstruct- 
ing its road-bed with new ties and stringers 
and new steel centre-bearing rails. 

April has been a more satisfactory and 
prosperous month, with street railway 
lines all over New York City and in Brook- 
lyn, than was the month of March. 

The Minneapolis St. Ry. Co. is having 
built by the Jno. Stephenson Co., 16 new 
cars, 16 feet long, all to be equipped with 
" Small's " Automatic Fare Collectors. 

The Hestonville, Mantua & Fair- 
mount Pass. R.R. Co., has within the last 
yearadded 10 new open cars and expects 
to rebuild its old cars as soon as possible. 

The 5th Ward R.R. Co., Syracuse (N. 
Y.), intends adding two cars, July 1, to in- 
crease its service double (from 10 to 5 min- 
utes headway) during a portion of the day. 

Mr. John Stevenson says that his com- 
pany is running full time but affairs are 
not as lively yet as was expected, and there 
are few signs of immediate improvement. 

The East Cleveland R.R. Co. (O.), are 
building five open cars in their shops. They 
will build one mile of new track (electric 
conduit) to Fairmount Reservoir this 
spring. 

The Federal St. & Pleasant Valley 
P. R. Co. (Pittsburgh), is laying about 75 
tons of new curves, frogs and steel rails 
and will probably make some additions to 
its rolling stock. 

The Brooklyn Street Railway Co., 
Cleveland (O.), are using the Demorest 
Duplex Register with much satisfaction. 
They will extend their tracks one and one- 
half miles this season. 

The Coney Island and Brooklyn R.R. 
Co. is discussing, but has not decided upon, 
the desirability of changing motive power 
below the city line, from horses to locomo- 
tive, cable, electricity or any other device. 

.There is a new cross town line from 
Hamilton Ferry, Brooklyn, to the Bridge, 
belonging to the Atlantic Avenue Co. and 



to be started about June 1. The Atlantic 
Avenue line will add largely to its facili- 
ties. 

The Cable Cars are not yet running in 
Tenth Avenue, New York, but wdl start up 
shortly. This company has just purchased 
100 sets of hand-made harness from J. F. 
Leahy, the manufacturer, 245 Tenth Ave- 
nue. 

All the conductors, inspectors, starters, 
etc., on the 42nd St., Manhattanville and 
St. Nicholas Avenue Railway, New York, 
are (says Superintendent Smith) to wear 
handsome uniforms of police cloth with 
special buttons. 

Bayonne, N. J., must wait yet a little 
longer before it gets an independent line ; 
also Montclair, as the Railroad Bill in the 
last Legislature failed to be reached in the 
Senate before adjournment. It passed the 
Assembly unanimously. 

Middlesex R.R. Co., Boston. The in- 
crease in the business requires this com- 
pany to make extensions of tracks and 
further increase in stable accommodations, 
which will be done this year, as has been 
done about every year in the past. 

The new Horse Car Spring patented by 
I. H. Randall, M. M. of the Metropolitan 
Railroad, Boston, Mass., and made by 
Andrews & Clooney, New York (Lewis & 
Fowler Manufacturing Company, Brooklyn, 
Agents), is being praised very highly by 
those companies which are trying them. 

The Metropolitan R.R Co. Washing- 
ton (D. C), proposes to relay its track with 
centre-bearing rails, to the amount of 200 
tons, and to add 18 open cars for summer 
use ; also to build a new brick car house 
256 X 58 feet, two stories high, and a frame 
car house 120 X 37 feet for its branch road. 

The Houston, West Street & Pavonia 
Ferry R.R. Co. (N. Y. City), will soon put 
on 10 new one-horse cars to shorten the 
headway from the Grand Central Depot to 
Avenue C. and 10th St., and will transfer 
there to the cars now running from Green 
Point Ferry (E. 10th St.) to Pavonia Ferry, 
Chambers St. 

There is a well authenticated rumor that 
Mr. Bidgood, late Superintendent of the 
Sixth Avenue line, New York City, is about 
to take the Superintendency of the Fourth 
Avenue line. Mr. B's numerous friends 
rejoice that he has returned from his 
Southern trip much improved in health. 

The Steinway Avenue & Hunter's 
Point R.R. Co., of (Queen's Co., has just 
completed 8 new open cars, built by its Mas- 
ter Mechanic, Mr. Hess ; all are equipped 
with the " Randall " gear. The enterprise 
exhibited by the General Manager of this 
company, Mr. C. J. Campbell, is highly 
commendable. 

Robt. McCullough, General Manager of 
the Benton & Belief ontaine Street Railway 
Co., of St. Louis, is about trying " Small's" 
Automatic Fare Collector on one of his cars. 
As Mr. McCullough is recognized as an 
authority in St. Louis on R.R. matters, he 
must see merit in this device. 

The Lewiston & Auburn Horse Rail- 
way got a charter from the Maine Legisla- 
ture, March 7, authorizing it to operate 



about three miles of its road which runs 
to Lake Grove on the borders of Lake 
Auburn, out of the city, by steam. This 
will be done this season. The road carried 
to that summer resort last year 40,000 pas- 
sengers in 11 weeks. 

The Steinway & Hunter's Point R.R. 
Co., of Long Island City, N. Y., has just 
increased its capital stock from f'60,000 to 
$250,000 and merged in it the Astoria & 
Hunter's Point R.R., the Steinway Avenue 
and Bowery Bay R R., the Broadway & 
Bowery Bay R.R., and the Jackson & 
Steinway Avenue R.R., all with the con- 
sent of the Commissioners, as per their de- 
cision of April 7. 

The recent decision of Judge Shipman, 
in the United States Court, in case of Fair- 
haven and Westville R.R. Co. vs. Augustus 
Day of Detroit, will be of interest to parties 
using the " Day Patent Track Scraper." 
Suit was brought by the patentee for 
royalty for the use of the patent which the 
street lailway had paid once in good faith 
to other parties. The decision was in 
favor of the Fair Haven and Westville road 
after continued litigation. 

The Woodland Avenue Road. Cleveland, 
O . , running on the east side of the river, 
and the West Side St. R.R. Co. are now con- 
solidated as theWoodland Avenue and West 
Side St. R.R. Co. and carry passengers 8 
miles for one fare of 5 cents or a ticket. 
This makes the largest plant in Northern 
Ohio and covers the entire west side of the 
city, besides running through the most im- 
portant business streets of the east side, 
passing from east to west side market 
houses. 

The Houston, West Street & Pavonia 
Ferry R.R. runs from the Grand Central 
Depot to the foot of Chambers Street, 
via 34th Street, 23rd Street, 10th Street 
and Houston Street ferries. Judge Richard 
Kelley (President of the Fifth Avenue 
National Bank) was recently elected 
President of this road and the new admin- 
istration. It is proposed to divide this long 
line and make two independent lines, with 
transfer of passengers at 10th Street with- 
out charge. 

New Haven is particularly fortunate in 
having not only one but five different horse 
railway companies operating lines in the 
city, each having cars on its own track. 

Fairhaven and Westville R.R. Co. is 
operating a line from Fairhaven to West- 
ville. It has seven miles of track, employs 
sixty men, and has twenty-two cars, mostly 
Stevensou, and one hundred and fifty-eight 
horses. In repairing cars it is using the 
' ' Bemus Car Box " to replace the Higley 
Gear ; also uses a new patent switch, which 
straightens the track ahead of the cars. 

The Daft Electric Light Company is 
equipping a surface road in Baltimore, 
known as the Baltimore & Hampden Line 
— two-and-a-half miles in length — with 
their electric motors. A third rail has 
been laid which is to be used as the posi- 
tive conductor. The dynamo machine to 
supply the current is on its foundations 
and all that is now required to complete 
matters is the motive power. One motor is 



\ 



150 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Mat, 1885. 



already built and tested, and the remainder 
will be ready in two weeks. They are con- 
structed to draw two cars each. It is ex- 
pected that they will be in operation inside 
of three weeks, and their success demon- 
strated. 



Cable Railway Notes, 

The New York Cable Railway Company 
proposes to use these patents. 

The 125th Street and 10th Avenue route 
will probably try another system. 

The National Cable Railway Company 
controls the A. S. Hallidie grip patents. 

The National Cable Railway Company 
reports being in negotiation with companies 
in Baltimore, Washington and Cincinnati 
and has sold a license for Omaha. 

There is a Commission, now sitting in the 
Tribune Building, appointed by the Su- 
preme Court to consider the applications to 
the court for permission to construct roads 
upon all the routes laid out. 

The 155th Street Elevated Railway, New 
York City, has as yet done nothing. Its 
projectors expect to obtain the consent of 
nearly all the property owners. The re- 
quired consent of the Board of Aldermen 
has been obtained. 

The grip used on the Brooklyn Bridge 
appears to be no good. Whereas a good 
s; stem should take three cars with on*e 
grip, on the Bridge one grip is needed for 
each car. By a proper system the car 
should start at once with the grip at the 
Brooklyn end and not use locomotives at 
all. 

The Chicago Cable Company claims to 
have run right along during the past win- 
ter when the steam roads were completely 
blockaded up with snow. Some say that 
its stock has depreciated since using the 
cable ; others say the reverse ; we call for 
the figures. 



In Brooklyn, a cable railway company 
has been reorganized and a commission ap- 
pointed. The Nassau Cable Railway Com- 
pany is the company's name. The com- 
mission reported that a cable road was not 
needed. This report has not yet been acted 
upon by the Court. 

In Philadelphia an experimental grip and 
tube are being fooled with. A mile and a 
quarter was laid from Columbia Avenue to 
the Park, and had to be thrown out. Now 
15 miles are down, of the Bonzano wrought 
iron tube, and this has so far proved a fail- 
ure, from all that we can hear. It will 
probably cost more to experiment and re- 
construct than for a license to use some 
well tried system. 

The National Cable Railway Company 
made a proposition some time ago, to put 
its system on the Brooklyn Bridge and carry 
passengers for 2 cents each, instead of 
nearly 4. The reduction of fare by the 
Bridge people is claimed to be the direct re- 
sult of this proposition. The Cable Rail- 
way people would have sold sixty car tickets 
for a dollar and let foot passengers go free. 

The Kansas City Cable Road made a 
trial trip with the Board of Directors on 
the 2d inst , and it was in every way suc- 
cessful. By the time we go to press, they 
will probably be running regularly. This 
road is built on the two-cable system owned 
by D. J. Miller, who is constructing the 
Third Avenue Railroad Cable line in New 
York City, and which so far seems to pos- 
sess great advantages over the single cable 
system, there being at least six railroads in 
New York City and vicinity which are await 
ing the opening of the Third Avenue line 
about June 1st, which, if as successful as 
predicted and as Kansas City is, they will 
at once adopt and commence to build. 

The New York Cable Railway Company, 
if the Commission reports favorably and 
the court approves the report, and then the 
Board of Aldermen will give its consent, 
will go in vigorously, commencing with 
Lexington Avenue, to supply the future 
wants of New York City pretty liberally. 
The movement by rail in New York City 
was 284 millions of passengers in 1884, 
and will probably be 420 millions in 
1890. and 830 millions in 1990 ; so there 
must be 136 millions to be provided 
for in six years. The great bulk of the 



people see no more people in the street 
now than formerly. They don't recognize 
the increase, though in 4 years there has 
been an increase of 72 millions carried by 
the street railroads in New York City. The 
elevated roads have had an increase of 
about 21 millions in 3 years ; about 40 mil- 
lions since 1880. 



Car Ventilation. 



[We take the following from our other 
paper, the Journal op Railway Appli- 
ances, because it contains so much that 
is here applicable.] 

One master car-builder writes, thanking 
us for opening out the subject of car venti- 
lation, and another one says that we have 
" merely opened a bottle of discontent. 

Better a bottle of discontent than a vial 
of wrath auda cave of pestilence. Cars 
as now built and run are foul and un- 
heal thful, very largely because they do not 
give their passengers clean, pure air of 
proper temperature and the right degree of 
moisture. 

A little more moisture in the air would 
add greatly to the comfort and health of 
passengers and to the revenue of the road. 
It would not, perhaps, increase the receipts 
of physicians, but it is not the promise of 
car builders to help the doctors along, any 
more than for the doctors to help the un- 
dertakers. 

Seems to us that the time has about ar- 
rived when each sleeping car or long run 
passenger coach should have in it a buffet 
containing remedies for the headaches and 
sore throats occasioned by alternate over- 
heating and under-cooling, and by entire 
neglect to provide moisture in the atmos- 
phere. 

It seems ridiculous — and it would be more 
so if it didn't cost lives and money — that 
cars cannot have an equable temperature, 
a graded degree of moisture, and a full, 
draftless supply of clean air ; unflavored 
with bouquet de stogie and aroma de baked 
bean. 

Is there any reason why a passenger 
should be made to breathe second-hand air ? 



WANTED.— A situation with some Street Railway 
Co. as track foreman. Am strictly temperate 
and have had long experience -several years with a 
prominent contractor, and have good recommenda- 
tions. Address, TRACK FOREMAN, 
Care Street Railway Journal, 3a Liberty St., N.Y . 



The "BROAD WELL CAR STAKTEK," 

having been subjected to practical tests, is now 
placed on the market at a very low price. 

C. B. BROADWELL, 

169 Laurel Street, - New Orleans, La. 




i 





F 




■I 



48 & 50 North Sixth St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



EXTENSIVE MAKERS OF PATENTED CAR SEATS AND SPRINGS. 

SPECIAL PATTERNS FOR STREET CARS, 

Also manufacturers of General House and Office Furniture of the Most 

approved patterns and designs. Estimates, circulars, and samples 

furnished on application. 



THE STREET RAILWAY LUBRICANT 

"VICTOR" 

Will last FOUR TIMES AS LONG, and is CHEAPER and MORE ECONOM- 
ICAL than Oil. Samples free on application. 

HENRY F. ROHBOCK, 

109 WOOD ST., PITTSBURGH, PA. 

Used by Pittsburgh Transverse Railway Co. 

JOSEPHINE D. SMITH, 

Successor to the late Willard H. Smitb, 




Manufacturer of Railroad Centre Lamps ^ Reflectors 



AND ALL KINDS OF SHIP AND MARINE LAMPS. 

350 <Sc 352 ZF>ea,zl St., l\e-wr "^orls:. 



May, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



151 



C. M. MOSEMAN & BRO. 

HARNESS for Horse Railways a Specialty. 



ALSO 



BITS, ROSETTES, NUMBERS, 

FIGURES, LETTERS, COLLARS, 

HORSE CLOTHING, Etc. 

Always on Hand or Made to Order. 
No. 128 CHAMBERS STREET, 

3iTET7s7- -STORIES. 
THE 

BELLE CITY FEED GUTTER 

IS THE 

Strongest, Most Durable, 

and on the whole 
it is the 

TEST FEED CUTTER 

IN THE WORLD. 

For Street-car Barns it 

as no equal. Write for 

Reference, Circular, &c, to 




li 



ffiEELHQTTVrSCl 



RACI-E, WIS., U. S. A. 



F. W. DEVOE <& CO. 

(Established 1 852), 

FULTON ST., cor of WILLIAM, NEW YORK, 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

COACH hnd CHR COLORS 

GROUND IN JAPAN. 

For these colors we received the highest award, the Ho'd Medal, at fie National 
Exposition of Railway Appliances in Chicago, last year. 

SPECIAL SHADES MADE TO ORDER. 

We furnish special body colors to Pennsylvania R.R., New York Central 
New York & New Haven, Lehigh Valley, New Jersey Central and other large 

Railroads. 

FINE VARNISHES AND JAPANS 

Wood Tillers, Wood Surfacers, Wood Stains, Hard Oil Finish, 

Manufacturers of FINE BRUSHES for painting, varnishing, striping, etc. 

ARTISTS' MATERIALS. 

Tube Colors, Artists' Brushes, Drawing Paper. 

ENGINEERS' GOODS. 

Mathematical Instruments, Theodolites, Transits, Cross Section Papers. 

Illustrated Catalogues of 250 pages and 800 Illustrations on request. 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

WHITE LEAD, COLORS IN OIL, DISTEM°ER COLORS, PURE READY 

MIXED PAINTS, 



I \ \l 175 



L 



BERRY'S PATENT HAMES. 




Lightness, Strength, 
Durability, Quick- 
ness and Sim- 



They have the advan- 
tage of easy adjustment 
No buckles or straps are 
used. They can be ap- 
plied in an instant, being 
fastened to the collar. 
The collar is divided and 
there is no strain upon 
the collar or the eyes of 
the horses. 

In case of accident the 
whole harness can be re- 
moved at once. 

They are adapted to 
the use of Fire Depart 
ments, Horse Railroads, 
Express Wagons, Teams 
and Light Carriages, and 
are in use in ever one 
hun dred cities and towi i s 
in the United States and 
Canadas. 



WE ALSO MANUFACTURE THE 



REGAN PATENT SNAP. 

They are made of the best gun metal and malleable iron, with a brass spring 
which is inclosed in a water-tight socket and made rust and dust proof. It is an 
impossibility for it to become detached. Write for illustrated catalogue and 

prices. CHARLES E. BERRY, Cambridge, Mass. 



HAMES, ALL KINDS. 




Street Railway, 

CONCORDS, 

C O lv£ Ivd O IT , 

as desired. 

Manufacturers of 



ALL STYLE 



Saddlery Hardware 

Send for Catalogue. 

,Pratt & Letchworth 

BUFFALO, 

N. Y. 




STREET RAILWAY CONCORD HAMES. 



152 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[May, 1885. 



STREET RAILWAY WHEELS AND TURNOUTS. 

Graded Stable Gutter with Straight or Curved Cover 




Descent % in. per foot. Pieces 5 feet lengths. Short pieces furnished to suit 
any length. Spouts to connect with Sewer, &c. 

BOWLER & CO., Cleveland, Ohio. 

Pryor's Novel Horseshoe. 




Shoe can be replaced easily by any one at the. rate of 200 a day. 

If a horse is subject to calking himself, the calk* can be removed. Elastic 
layer can be placed between the two parts. Specially adapted for Horse 
Railway Service, and costs about half the price of ordinary shoeing. 

Send for circular. DAVID J. PRYOR, Roxbury, Mass. 



EUROPEAN COLIC CURE. 




A speedy and sure cure lor Colic -has saved hundreds of horses where all 
other remedies have failed. Horse need not be run or trotted around to start 
the wind. Let him stand or lie down as he feels inclined and he will be ready 
for work almost immediately after recovery. A cure guaranteed in ninety-nine 
cases in a hundred. Endorsed by the leading street railway companies of the 
country, some of which we append. 



Decatur, III., Oct. 2, 1884. 
Messrs. Jones & Roach, Chicago, 111. 

I have used your Colic Cure for my 
horses and mules on my street car 
lines and found it the best and surest 
medicine I have ever used. I have not 
lost a horse since I commenced its use. 
It gives relief in a short time after it is 
taken. I can cheerfully recommend it 
as a sure relief if given in time. I keep 
it constantly on hand. 

Truly yours, 

FRANKLIN PRIEST. 
President Decatur Street R. R. 



out it. I hope you will meet with the 
success your cure deserves. 
Truly yours, 

VALENTINE BLATZ, 
Per H. Lieb, Manager. 



Messrs. Jones & Roach: 

Gentlemen : I cheerfully recom- 
mend your European Colic Cure for 
horses as being the best that I have 
ever used. When once introduced no 
horse owner can well afford to be with- 



Office of North Hudson County ) 

Railway Co. V 

Hoboken, N. J., Oct. 4. 1884. ) 

Gentlemen: It gives me pleasure 
to say that I can heartily recommend 
your European Colic Cure to all horse 
owners, from a personal knowledge of 
its curative qualities. I have used it in 
our stables, containing about six hun- 
dred horses, and have always found it 
to be beneficial. Yours very truly, 
ALBERT SAILLET, 

Foreman and Vet-rinary Surgeon 
for the North Hudson County Ry. Co. 



Sample Bottles Furnished Street Railway Companies Gratis. 
For further information, prices, etc., address 

JONES & ROACH, 259 Fremont Street, Chicago. 



Josiua Hunt, Chairman. 



Oliver Williams, Tr-as. 



THE BRYDEN 

FORGED HORSE SHOE WORKS 

(Limited), 

Catasauc[ua, Lehigh County, Penn., 

Are making a plain, narrow-webbed shoe, with beveled surfaces 
for Horse Railroad work. It is "FORGED" from the very best 
Iron, and is tougher and harder than any shoe heretofore made, 
and will be sold to consumers at a small advance on the prices 
charged for ordinary mill shoes. They also make a Calked Shoe 
with a Square Toe, just the same as hand made, and the company 
warrants them to wear as long as the very best hand work. 



Among others who are using this Shoe, are the 
Third Avenue Railroad Co., New York. 
Eighth Avenue Railroad Co., New York. 
Twenty-third Street Railroad Co., New York. 
Christopher Street Railroad Co., New Yoik. 
Brooklyn City and Newtown Railroad. 
Bushwick Railroad Co., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Crosstown Railroad Co., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Coney Island and Brooklyn Railroad Co., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
North Hudson County Railroad Co., Hoboken, N. J. 
Jersey City and Bergen Railroad Co., Jersey City, N. J. 
Ridge Avenue Passenger Railway Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Citizens' Passenger Railway Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Buffalo Street Railway Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 
New Orleans City and Lake Railroad. 



Also fully prepared to furnish any kind, weight or shape of shoe desired. 
Estimates on cost of producing such special patterns will be furnished on receipt 
of model, with estimate of the probable number of kegs required. 



The Rates of Freight are as Low from their Factory West and East 

AS THE LOWEST. 

A Mild Tough Steel Shoe supplied at a small advance over Iron Shoes. 



Pennington's Grooming Machine 




The brush is caused to revolve by gear wheels actuated by a flexible shaft. 
Both bands free to handle brush. Swings and turns in any direction. Direc- 
tion of motion quickly changed. The cheapest and best Grooming Machine yel 
invented. Motion supplied by hand, steam or animal power. Rights to use or 
manufacture. For full particulars and rates apply to 

ELLIS PENNINGTON, 

204 Walnut Place, - Philadelphia, Pa. 



May, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



153 



I. J. Car Suring anfl Suitor Co., 

Cor. WAYNE and BRUNSWICK STS., 

JERSEY CITY, N. J., 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



RUBBER CAR SPRINGS 

OF EVERY STYLE AND SHAPE, 

CUSHIONS, BKAKE PADS, EUBBEE MATTING 
and STEP PLATES, HOSE, DOOR STOPS, &c. 

Being one of the oldest manufacturers in the business, we have a MOST 
COMPLETE assortment of moulds. 

WRITE FOR PRICES. 

FRED. J. KALDENBERG, 

SUCCESSOR BY PURCHASE TO THE 

NEW ENGLAND CAR SPRING CO. 

(ESTABLISHED 1851), 

MANUFACTURER OF SUPERIOR QUALITY 

VULCANIZED RUBBER OAR SPRINGS, 

AND ALL KINDS OF 

KUBBER HOSE, VALVES, ETC. 

FACTORY AND OFFICE : 

213 to 229 E. Thirty-third St., New York, 

(Bet. 2d and 3d Aves.) 
TELEPHONE CALL, NASSAU 696. 

Correspondence Solicited. 

Downtown Office: 125 Fulton St. 

P. O. Box 91. Send for Price List. 




J. M. JONES' SONS, 



AGENTS, 




WEST TROY, 



NEW YORK. 



Established 1869. 



LEWIS' 
Improved Sectional Diamond and Plain 



is the 



LIGHTEST, 
STRONGEST, 
CHEAPEST, 
HANDSOMEST, 
EASIEST 

CLEANED AND 
MOST DURABLE 
MAT FOR RAIL- 
WAY CARS 
EVER DESIGNED 

Used extensively 
all over the World. 



SAMUEL LEWIS, Patentee & Sole M'f'r, 

12 to 18 LORIMER STREET (near Broadway), 

BROOKLYN, E. D.,N. Y. 




Fare Boxes and Change Receptacles for Street Cars, 

WALES MANUFACTURING CO., 

76 & 78 E.Water St., Syracuse, N. Y., U. S. A. 

Our Boxes are constructed with great care and of the best material. The 
case or wood, is of cherry, neat in design, and the front of Money Drawer and 
front edges of box are of metal, nickel plated in the best manner. The front of 
Box is very easily detached in one piece, and the inside or glass chute is quickly 
removed for cleaning. In addition to the glass chute through which the money 
passes, there are two additional glass plates, J4 of an inch thick, one in front and 
one in back of box, so that in case the outer plate should be broken, the money 
is still protected. The Money Drawer is metal, and securely fastened by two 
safe drawer locks, the keys of which can only be removed when the drawer is 
locked, thus proving a safeguard to the collector. 

This Fare Box, in many respects is superior to any other. 
No Street Car is complete 

without our Change Recep- 
tacle for the convenience of 

its patrons for passing 

money to the driver for 

change. No wind or cold 

enters the car by it when 

making change, as is the 

case with all other Change 

Gates or Slides. 
Descriptive and illustrated 

catalogue on application. 

Get Our Prices, before 
Buying. 



Box No. 3. 

Front or Passengers' 

View. 





Change 
Receptacle. 



Box No. 3. 

Back or Driver's 
View. 



154 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



]May, 1885. 



ORIENTAL METAL MANFG CO. 

48 CONGRESS ST., BOSTON, MASS. 

C. L. VAN WORKER, President. 
A Trial of Our Street Railway Journal Bearing solicited. 

THE AJAX METAL CO. 

WE CLAIM FOB, AJAX METAL. 

25 to 50 per cent, more mileage. 

" greater tensile strength. 

" greater crushing strength. 

'• less friction and wear upon 

journals. 
" less hot journals than any 

known Bronze named or un- 
named. 
Costs no more than copper, and tin or gun metal. 

AJAX METAL CO., 




2040 No. Tenth. Street, 



PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



THE STANDISH FOOT-POWER HAMMER 

Is specially adapted to making light forgings, 
for welding in dies having impres ions cut to the 
shape of the work required. They are superior 
to power hainn/ers, as the hammer is under ;<s 
perfect control as the Smith's hand hammer, 
and are used in the carriage business for weld- 
ing Dashes, Shifting Rails. Top Props, shaping 
and forming ALL SMALL WORK equal to drop 
forging, and are in use by the principal manu- 
facturers of the United States. Send for circu- 
lars. Address. 

The Capital City Machine Works, 




COLUMBUS, O. 



Patented July 10, 1883. 



25 Second-hand, One-horse Street Cars, single 
and double enders, 14 and 16 feet over all. Kun- 
ning gear in good order. Lamps and fare boxes 
complete. Eeason for selling, change to 2-horse 
cars. Apply to 

HUMPHREYS & SAYCE, 

Railway Builders, Manufacturers' Agts. for Steel Rails, 

ALL WEIGHTS, T AND STREET PATTERNS, 
SPIKES AND TRACK FASTENINGS, 

No. 1 Broadway, New York. 



I Manufacture all sorts of Appliances for 



SUCH -A.S 



Car Wheels, Oil Boxes, Pedestals, 
BRAKE SHOES, KNEES, SWITCHES AND WROUGHT IRON 

GROOVE RAILS FOR CURVES, 

Sno-w IFlo-ws and Sweepers, <Ssc. 



Estimates Cheerfully Furnished. Correspondence Solicited 



DAYID W. BINNS, 
27 to 39 Walworth St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 



Chaplin's Patent Roller Bearing for Horse-cars 




ESTABLISHED 1847. 

A. WHITNEY &, SONS, . 

CAR WHEEL WORKS, 

PHILADELPHIA, PENN. 

CAST CHILLED WHEELS, 

A.2SLES AND BOXES 

FOR EVERY KIND OF SERVICE. 

Street Reilway Wheels of all Sizes. 



THE BEMIS CAR BOX CO., 



Light Draft, Easy 
Hiding, Durable, 
Economical. 

Brasses are -war- 
ranted for 10 years 
and Journal for 20 
years. 




Requires oiling or 
inspecting but once 
in 12 months. 

Boxes are posi- 
tively dust proof. 



THE BEMIS PATENT JOURNAL BOX 



May, 1885. J 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



155 



WM. P. CRAIG, 

Street Railway Builder and dealer in Railway Supplies. 

OLD KOADS RE-LAID, GRADING, PAVING, &c. 

Special attention given to laying Switches, Curves, Turnouts, Connections and 

Turn-tables; also Building Tracks for Excavation, Grading, 

Mining and Factories. 



Office, 95 LIBERTY STREET, 



NEW YORK. 



Section No. It 
40 Ws. per Yard 



STEEL STREET RAILS. 

The Pittsburgh Bessemer Steel Co., Limited, 

48 Fifth Ave., Pittsburgh, PA. 



M. M. White & Co., 

531 WEST 33d STREET, 



Manufacturer and Patentee. 

Send me full size section of rails to be used at points A, B, C, D, E, G. 
No. 625 TENTH AVENUE, NEW YORK. 




Licensed 
under U. S. 
Letters Pat- 
ent to manu- 
facture and 
sell curved 
steel groove 
rails for the 
States of New 
York and 
New Jersey 



.&!!&"&!!&$ 






Steel Groove Curves bent to suit 
any radius ; Channel Plates, all 
kinds ; Knees all sizes ; Pedestals 
and Boxes, all kinds ; Brake Shoes; 
Ayres' Patent Automatic Switches, 
Plain Switches, Frogs and Cast 
Rails for curves, and all kinds of 
castings. 




NEW YORK. 




OWNERSSAND BUILDERS OF 
H. DOUGLASS' 

Patent Automatic Switch 

FOR STREET RAILROADS. 



PENNSYLVANIA 

STEEL COMPANY, 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Steel Rails 



Of IT patterns, weighing from 16 to 76 lbs. per yard. 
CENTRE BEARING Street Patterns, 42 to 60 lbs. per 
yard, TRAM Street PatterDs 45 to 47 lbs. per yard, 
and Street Patterns for STEAM ROADS. 



WORKS AT 

STEELTON, DAUPHIN CO., PENN. 



NEW YORK OFFICE, - 160 Broadway. 

Philadelphia Office, 208 South Fourth St. 



PATENT JOINT FASTENING. 

The accompanying cut shows 
a cross section through joint. 
A is the rail, JB the joint chair, 
C the stringer, D the patent 
screw fastening, E the nut, F a 
slot in chair allowing rails to 
contract and expand. The chair 
cannot settle and the rail ends 
are held level with each other, 
preventing the many evils of 
ordinary construction. 

For Further Particulars Address 
AUGUSTINE W. WRIGHT, 
NORTH CHICAGO CITY RAILROAD, 

CHICAGO, ILL. 




156 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[May, 1885. 



LAKE & McDEVITT'S 



For Horse Railways, Omnibus Lines, Etc. 




The Advantages 



ROPE TRACE 

are its ready application 
to Horse-Car service, or to 
any other purpose where 
cheap harness is required. 
It only costs about half as 
much as leather traces, 
while at the same time • 
one set of Rope Tugs will 
(when used on horse cars) 
take the place of three or 
more sets of leather 
traces, as the Tugs remain 
attached to the car all 
day, no matter how many 
changes of stock are 
made. The relief horses 
having hooks attached to 
their names, all that is 
necessary is to unhook the 
tugs from the working 
team back in the fresh 
horses, hook on the tugs, 
and the change is made. 
Railroad men will at once 
perceive their adaptabil 
lty and economy from the 
above facts. They will 
also last longer than leath- 
er traces, and require but 
very little care. From 
their durability and cheap- 
ness they are also espec- 
ially adapted for all kinds 
of farm use and heavy 
teaming, as farmers, etc. 
can easily repair them. 



Patent No. 171,883, December 31, 18T5 



In use on the Chicago West. Div. R'y. ; Louisville City R'y Co. 
Pittsburg and Birmingham, Pittsburg, Pa. ; Central City R' 
Superior Street R'y, Cleveland, O. ; Cincinnati City R'y Co. 
Galveston City R'y ; Springfield City R'y, Springfield, 111. ; Toledo St. R'y, Toledo, 0. ; "Adams St. R'y, Toledo, O". ; ' Attanta'Street R'y, and others, in'all on about 100 
Street R'ys in United States and Canada, and a large number of other prominent Street R'y Companies throughout the Country. 1SP° Send for descriptive Circu- 
lar containing testimonials, prices, etc., to 

LAKE & McDEVITT, 161 South Robey Street, Chicago, 111. 

CLARK'S PATENT POWER GROOMING MACHINE, 

S I 2ST CS- H. E OB DOUBLE. 




TO STREET RAILWAY COMPANIES AND OTHER STOCK OWNERS. 

This machine for grooming may be driven by any known power, and can readily be placed for use in any scable or out-building. It can be operated by an ordin- 
ary groomsman; its work is perfect; its action simple and effective. Stock owners will readily realize the importance of the machine. The perfection and rapidity 
of 'its work, and the benefits derived by its use, commend it to those interested in the care and use of all classes of thoroughbred and work stock. The most vicious 
animal readily submits to its use. Machine Grooming is found to be less expensive than hand grooming, saving in food and medicines, and materially increasing 
the value of the animal. 

The Curry Comb and Hand Process Superseded! Economy of Labor! Perfection of Work! 

Three Hundred Head of Stock Thoroughly Croomed with Each Machine every Ten Hours. 

Tiiis Grooming Machine is in daily use in some of the largest Street Railway Companies' stables, and has always given perfect satisfaction. Among those using 
it are the City R'y Co., Chicago, 111.; Detroit City R'y Co., Detroit, Mich.; Central City R'y, Peoria, 111.; M. W. Dunham, Wayne, 111 ; West Division Street R'y Co., 
Chicago, 111.; Lindell Street R'y Co., St. Louis, Mo.; Pleasant Valley R'y Co., Allegheny City, Pa.; Marshall, Field & Co., Chicago, 111.; Leroy Payn, Chicago, 111.- 
Saginaw City R'y, Saginaw, Mich. ; Pittsburg and Birmingham R'y Co., Pittsburg, Pi.; and a number of others who have given testimonials as to the perfect work; 
ing of the machine. WSg™ For prices, circular and other information apply to 

161 SOUTH ROBEY STREET, CHICAGO, ILL. 



May, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



157 



J. W. FOWLER, 

President. 



DAN'L F. LEWIS, 



Treasurer. 



LEWIS <fe FOWLER M'F'G CO 




BROOKLYN, N. Y. 

PATENTEES AND MANUFACTURERS OP 



IMPROVED 



33 



"ALARM 

Passenger Register^ 

STATIONARY 

OB 

PORTABLE. 



SOLE AGENTS AND MANUFACTURERS OP 




"SMALL'S PATENT AUTOMATIC FARE COLLECTOR" 



^ 



POIS 



F-A-IRDE 




:b o:^: 



o^i2s 



-A-XjSO 



"RANDALL'S" PATENT CAR AXLE AND BOX. 



Sectional View. 



Front View. 



End View. 




EH 

H 



EH 

m 

ft 




O 

M 
EH 
O 

M 

M 
EH 




158 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Mat, 1885. 



F. H. ANDREWS. 



F. T. LERNED, GEN'L ACT. 



B. A. CLOONEY. 



ANDEEWS & CLOONEY, 



OFFICE : 

545 

I; 33d St.. 

NEW YORK. 




Manufacturers of 



Elliptic, Spiral, 
Volute, Gar and 
Engine 

SPRINGS 



Of Every Description. 



? j 



v rs — 



(7 (TT seetcin. on \^L line J3 

1 1 III — -NV 




Street Railway Turn-table. 



-A-lso, 



WORKS: 

535 to 551 

West 33d St., 



AND 



538 to 552 

West 34th St, 

m mi 




Car Wheels, 

Axles, 
Brake Shoes, 
Pedestals, 

Boxes, 
Brass Bearings 

Castings 

of all Descriptions where great 
Strength is Required. 



SWEEPERS, SNOW PLOWS, 

TURN-TABLES, 

Track Work, Automatic Switches,, Etc. 

STEEL GROOVE RAILS AND MACHINERY. 




Street Railway Crossings. 



Street Car Springs. 



SEND FOE 1LLUSTKATED CATALOGUE. 



May, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



159 





±3 Barclay Street, 



^TeTxr "STorls, 



PATENTEE AND MANUFACTURER OF 



Graduated Street Car Springs. 



UEESJSJ^ CONIO 



Patented, April 15th, 1879. 



ADAPTED TO THE 

STEPHENSON, 
BEMIS, 
RANDALL, 
HIGLEY, 
BRILL, 
JONES, 
BALTIMORE, 

—AND— 

ALL OTHER BOXES. 




No. 0, for 10-ft. Light Cars. 
No. 1, for 10-ft. Oars. 
No. 2, for 12-ft. Cars. 





^•11^ ;^i No. 3, for 14-ft. Cars. 
||S No. 4, for 16-ft. Cars. 



No. 5, for 16-ft. Cars. 

(Single Pedestal.) 



ST.SCJ** 




No. 1, Cushion, for 16-ft. 
Cars. 

No. 2, Cushion, for 12 and 
14-ft. Cars. 




STEEL CONE CITY CAR SPRING. 



Patented April 15, 1879— August 5, 1884. 



The unprecedented popularity of the 

"VOSE GRADUATED RUBBER CONE SPRING" 

for Horse Cars has induced the inventor to bring this 
class of Springs as near perfection as possible, and after a 
series of experiments and tests now presents for favor what 
he claims to be the MOST PERFECT SPRING FOR 
HORSE CARS ever offered. It is exceptionally Soft and 
Easy with the Empty Car or with the Greatest Load. It 
is believed to be the Most Durable, being constructed 
upon a principle that seems to insure that the Spring must 
Actually Wear Out. The very Finest Quality of Crucible 
Cast Steel will always be used in these Springs. 




160 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[Mat, 1885. 



JOHN STEPHENSON COMPANY 



LIMITED) 



TRAMWAY CARS 




LIGHT, ELEGANT, DURABLE. 



Every Description. 



Best Materials. 



Minimum Prices. 



ORDERS QUICKLY FILLED. CAREFDL ATTENTION TO SHIPMENTS. 



All Climates 



OCT 2 18 9o' 




Vol. i 



I NEW YORK: 1 
I 32 Liberty Street./ 



JUNE, 1885. 



[ CHICAGO: 

(12 Lakeside Building, 



} NO. 8. 



A Model Car. 

The car here illustrated * is the one 
which took four first-class medals aud au 
honorable mention at the New Orleans Ex- 
position. The awards were for the following 
f eatvires : 

(1.) For the cab as a combination of ex- 



Honorable mention was made of the 
brake, affording the driver special facility 
for stopping the car. 

The Super spring system of running gear, 
which is an essential element in the make up 
of this car, received the first premium for 
street car running gear at the Chicago 
Exposition. 



"light"? Where is the grip or traction to 
come from? That was the trouble with the 
early locomotives of Stephenson and others ; 
they had not weight enough to get any 
"grip" on the rads. The tractive power of a 
steam or compressed air dummy depends 
uXDon the piston area and stroke, the average 
steam pressure in the cylinders, and the 




cellencies with elegance of finish. First 
class medal. 

(2.) On the system of ventilation. Every 
window in the car, including end corners 
and doors, has glass sashes letting down to 
the belt rail, affording free sweep of air in 
every direction ; and the roof is ceiled with 
perforated panels having a moveable air 
space between the ceiling and roof, with 
exit at the verges for the warm or fold air, 
which passes off without objectionable 
currents. First class medal. 

(3.) Sashes made with metal channel bar 
stiles, filled with a 'core of rubber having a 
slot or groove for holding the glass quiet. 
The stiles are of such small dimensions as to 
leave the field of vision nearly unob- 
structed. First class medal. 

(4.) Passenger's telephone, by which seat- 
ed passengers can signal the Conductor, at 
whatever part of the car he may be. First 
class medal. 



The Stephenson Company, New York. 



A MODEL TEAM CAB. 

Is there a Satisfactory Light Motor for 
Street Railways 1 

The president of a Southern street radway 
company having several miles of country 
track, for which they purchased a dummy 
engine, writes us, in a letter on other mat- 
ters, as follows: 

"The dummy is not in use, not being of a 
satisfactory kind. "We are looking anx- 
iously for an economical light motor, and 
trust the many promises in this direction 
will be realized at an early day. "We desire 
others to do the experimenting." 

[The Frankford & Southwark E. E. Co., 
PhQa., has had for twenty years and more, 
that we can remember, a steam dummy line 
running about six mdes to Frankford. Dum- 
mies using compressed air in connection with 
a hot water reservoir, are in successful opera- 
in various parts of Europe. Merryweathers 
of London budd a great many steam tram- 
way dummies. 

Why should a motor necessarily be 



diameter of the drivers, and a pressure of 
about one-fifth of the weight on the drivers 
is enough to make them grip. — Eds.] 



The Paper for Street Railway Men. 



The following from the President and 
Purchasing Agent of a prominent Southern 
street radway company speaks for itself : 
Eds. Stkeet Bail way Joubnal; 

Your May number of the Steeet Bail way 
Jouenal, which I have received and care- 
fidly read, is without doubt a capital paper, 
containing, as it does, so many interesting 
items and articles of value to aU interested 
in street radway investments and the man- 
agement of them. I take pleasure in giving 
you this unsolicited testimonial to your ably 
edited journal, and most cordially recom- 
mend it to all presidents, superintendents 
and other officials of street radway compa- 
nies. • Jno. G. Eiggs, 

Pres. Charleston City Ey. Co. 

Chableston, S. C. 



162 



THE STREET EAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[June, 1885. 




American Street Railway Association. 

Oeficers, 1884-5. 

President.— Calvin A. Richards, President Metro- 
politan Railroad Co., Boston, Mass. 

First Vive-president.— Jvdlus S. Walsh, President 
Citizens' Railway Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

Second Vice-president — Henry M. Watson, Presi- 
dent of the Buffalo Street Railway Co , Buffalo, N. Y. 

Thwd Vice-president.— Edward Lusher, Secretary 
and Treasurer the Montreal City Passenger Railway 
Co., Montreal, Canada. 

Secretary and Treasurer.— William J. Richardson 
Secretary the Atlantic Avenue Railway Co., Brook- 
lyn, M. Y. 

Executive Committee.— President, Vice-presidents 
and William H. Hazzard, President Brooklyn City 
Railroad Co., Brooklyn, N. Y.; James K. Lake, Super- 
intendent Chicago West-Division Railway, Chicago, 
ill.; Charles J. Harrah, President the Peoples' Pas- 
senger Railway Co., Philadelphia, Pa.; William 
White, President Dry Dock, East B. & B. R. R. Co.; 
New York, N. Y.; B. Du Pont, President Central 
Passenger Railroad Co., Louisville, Ky. 



Electricity as a Motive Power. 



[The following is the discussion on the re- 
port on Electricity as a Motive Power at the 
last convention. The full text of the report 
will be found on page 28 of our December 
issue. ] 

Mr. Wright said : I have believed for 
years that electricity was the coming motive 
power for street railways, and I have re- 
garded everything connected with its devel- 
opment with a great deal of interest, and 
closely watched all attempts in various quar- 
ters of the globe to utilize this force. The 
Siemens and Halske process used one rail to 
ctarry the current, and another for the re- 
turn. That was unsatisfactory, because 
passing horses in several instances got on 
both rails and the current passed through 
hem. At the Paris Exposition they changed 
the construction, and carried the current 
by a wire overhead, on which ran a trolley 
completing the connection with the dynamo. 
A gentleman who was at the Paris Exposi 
tion told me there was- one great difficulty 
with it, however, the trolley would get off 
the track. At the Portrush road, in Ireland 
they have, seventeen inches above the 
ground and twenty-two inches from the 
track, an iron " T " rail to carry the current 
and then it passes through the motor to the 
rails, which are insulated, and back to the 
generating machine. At each road crossing 
this "T" rail had to be left out, and the 
current carried across by buried insulated 
copper wires ; of course, if the car happened 
to stop in one of these openings it could not 
start again. To obviate this trouble, they 
had a brush at each end of the car, with 
which to make connection and take up the 
electricity. At the Brighton railroad, Eng- 
land, they built a wooden box in the centre 



of the track, and carried the electricity 
through copper bands. The contact there 
was made by chains that dropped from the 
motor and came in contact with these copper 
conductors. Thomas, of Cincinnati, had a 
very ingenious method. In his system, the 
electric current from the stationary dynamo 
is conveyed along the tracks by two copper 
wires placed in an iron tube between the 
tracks. The tube is open top and bottom ; 
the former to allow contact with the wires 
from the motor, and the latter to allow water 
and dirt to drop through and keep the wires 
clean. The Siemens-Halske overhead wire 
would not be permitted in our crowded 
streets. The courts are compelling the tel- 
egraph companies to take down the wires 
they now have, and will be loth to permit 
other wires to be put up. Edward Bentley, 
of the Patent Office, said some time ago that 
"on a large scale, electricity as a motor, is 
only useful in transferring power to con- 
venient localities, as when a machine which 
generates a current is driven by a distant 
waterfall ; but the transmission of power 
into electricity and then its re-translation 
from electricity into power entails serious 
losses. The electric motor must remain 
subordinate to steam, water, or original 
force, until a new and cheaper source is dis- 
covered." It is, probably, known to the 
gentlemen of this Convention that the ap- 
plication of electricity for railroad purposes 
is not new, but in the earlier days, they used 
a battery. The following quotation will 
serve to illustrate : ' ' Professor Page, of 
Salem, in 1845^ revived and gave to the sub- 
ject a new impetus by the invention of a 
new form of electric engine based upon the 
principle of the axial force of electro-mag- 
netism, which proved to be the most perfect 
electric motor ever invented up to that 
time. A few years later Professor Page pro- 
pos d electricity as a motive power for rail- 
roads, through the instrumentality of his 
own electric engine. The engine proved so 
successful and attracted so much attention, 
that the idea gained favor to such an extent, 
as to induce Congress to appropriate and 
place at Professor Page's disposal a sum of 
money — thirty thousand dollars — adequate 
to construct and operate an electric locomo- 
tive in accordance with his plans. Such a 
locomotive was built in 1851, and used to 
propel a train of cars betweeu the cities of 
Washington and Bladensburgh, a distance 
of five miles. As was natural, such an 
undertaking created great excitement and 
discussion in the scientific world, both at 
home and abroad, more especially because 
of the governmental sanction and assistance 
lent the enterprise. The great mathemati- 
cian and scientist, Dr. Joule, and many 
others, very properly contended that the 
system would be too expensive, and that 
electricity, as then generated, could not be 
used as a motive power with sufficient econ- 
omy to warrant its adoption on a commer- 
cial scale. In fact, it was this very discus- 
sion which led Dr. Joule to that long and 
laborious investigation of the mechanical 
equivalent of heat, which now forms the 
basis of all our works on thermo-dynamics, 
and without which we should be groping in 



the dark. It was on the 29th day of April, 
1851, that Dr. Page made the trial of his 
locomotive. It ran at the rate of nineteen 
miles per hour, making the trip of five 
miles in thirty -nine minutes. The locomo- 
tive itself weighed ten and one-half tons, 
including the batteries, and carried seven 
passengers. There were many stops and 
delays on account of the breaking of his 
battery cells, which were carried upon the 
locomotive, the jars fulfilling the office of a 
steam locomotive boiler and furnace, zinc 
and sulphuric acid in the former case consti- 
tuting the fuel. The sulphuric acid and 
zinc were consumed or burned in the pro- 
duction of electricity. This is the princi- 
ple upon which it was sought to operate all 
the electric engines thus far referred to. 
Electricity was here called upon to serve as 
a prime motor, utilizing the energy stored 
in sulphuric acid and zinc. The folly of 
such an effort is manifest, since one pound 
of zinc costs twenty-five times more, and is 
not capable of being transformed into as 
much dynamic force, as one pound of coal. 
Although Dr. Page's hopes were not reali- 
zed, as far as refers to the commercial as- 
pect of the enterprise, he, nevertheless, ac- 
complished a great feat, and, to the day of 
his death, he contended that the time would 
surely come when electricity would be eco- 
nomically used as a motive power upon rail- 
roads." A French syndicate made an 
experiment in regard to manufacturing elec- 
tricity ; and tested the system of transmit- 
ting electricity in Paris. " In these experi- 
ments," to give another quotation, "it ap- 
peared that 6.21 horse power was put into 
one dynamo-machine, revolving at the rate 
of five hundred revolutions per minute, and 
connected by wires to another machine, 
making 365 revolutions per minute ; the 
ength of wire corresponded to 5.28 miles. 
The latter machine gave out 2.03 horse 
power upon the brake. This amounts to a 
useful duty of 32. 7 per cent., the rest being 
lost." It is but fair to state that a much 
larger percentage of useful effect is claimed 
for electricity. Dr. Wellington Adams, of 
St. Louis, has experimented in electricity. 
I have an interesting paper, in which he 
states : " Considering this question of elec- 
tric transmission of power from its two 
principal standpoints, first, as regards the 
electric current developed from the mechan- 
ical power, the steam engine, for instance ; 
and second, as regards the amount of me- 
chanical power reclaimed from this current 
at the distant point, through the instrumen- 
tality of an electro-dynamic motor, the effi- 
ciency of the system is seventy per cent., 
allowing seven per cent, for loss by leakage 
in, and resistence of, the connecting con- 
ductor. The amount of energy lost by the 
two conversions from mechanical motion 
into electrical energy, and from electrical 
energy back again into mechanical motion, 
is a fixed quantity, and practice has demon- 
strated this to be thirteen per cent, from 
the first, and ten per cent from the second 
process, when the most efficient types of 
electric generator and motor are used. The 
other element of loss, that by leakage in 
and resistance of the connecting conductor 



June, 1887.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



163 



will naturally vary with the conditions in 
each individual case, and will depend entire- 
ly upon the size and insulation of the con- 
necting conductor. In general, it will, in 
my opinion, be best to base a calculation 
upon a seven per cent, loss in the conductor, 
allowing five per cent, for resistance and 
two per cent, for leakage. " I have heard 
that Mr. Edson has experimented at Menlo 
Park, in an effort to obtain electricity 
directly from the coa], without passing 
through the steam-engine process ; and I 
think that whenever a cheaper method of 
manufacturing electricity is obtained, it will 
possess advantages which cannot be found 
in any other direction. Other experiments 
seem to demonstrate that the adhesion of 
the wheel upon the rail is increased by the 
electric current. In this lies the advantage 
of the cable system ; their motive power is 
independent of adhesion of the wheel to the 
rail. We are dependent upon adhesion in 
any other system, except that of the cable 
and animal power. Without direct experi- 
ment, I que tion if the adhesion on a street 
rail is more than one-quarter of that upon a 
"T"rail, while the resistance to progress- 
ion is greater. Experiments which I have 
made would indicate that this resistance is 
from three to five times greater ; in other 
words, that the engine or motor would have 
to be from twelve to twenty times as heavy 
as a locomotive engine upon a clean "T" 
rail, wheu you depend upon adhesion to 
propel your car. That the electric current 
increases the adhesion has, it is claimed, 
been demonstrated by experiments, and that 
is a very great advantage. I think that the 
day is coming when electricity will be very 
generally used as a motive power. 

Mr. Hasbrouck said : A number of gen- 
tlemen from New York and Brooklyn, in- 
cluding myself, went to Menlo Park to wit- 
ness the performance of the electric railway. 
There is a track about two miles long, with 
some pretty short curves. My friend, Mr. 
Wharton, who was there, said he was fright- 
ened, and expected that the car would get 
off the track. I told him I did not feel 
frightened, and did not know anything 
about it to make me so. All I know of elec- 
tricity is about as much as the boy's father 
did about steam, who said to his son, while 
looking at the engine on a steamboat : "You 
see that thing, and you see this ; well, that 
connects with this over here, and this con- 
nects over there, and that makes the steam- 
boat go. " 

Mr. Wharton said: There is no doubt 
that the advance made in electricity will call 
forth greater effort for improvement in the 
systems of propelling cars. On the partic- 
ular occasion alluded to by Mr. Hasbrouck, 
when we took a ride at Menlo Park, it was 
upon a poorly constructed road, part of it 
around sharp curves and across trestle work, 
and Ave ran a portion of the time at forty 
miles an hour. We started off with the 
electric motor behind us, the car being 
pushed in front of it, which I did not like 
very well. As to going rapidly, that can be 
no doubt successfully done by electricity. It 
appeared to me then to be a question prin- 
cipally of economy. A large stationary 



steam engine was used in the engine house, 
and nobody could tell us how much of its 
power was required to propel the electric 
motor and the car, which was a small one, 
similar to a one-horse car on a street-rail- 
way. We went rapidly, and often too 
rapidly, to be safe or pleasant. The gauge 
of the track I think was three feet six 
inches, and some of the curves were of very 
short radius. We were pushed one way, 
and pulled the other, by the electric motor. 
In Philadelphia lately an experimental rail- 
road was put down, about 1,000 feet in 
length. It was worked during the three or 
four days previous to the close of the Elec- 
trical Exposition. This railway consists of 
an ordinary track of two " T" rails, with a 
third "T" rail in the centre, which con- 
veys the electric current in one direction. 
This passes through the dynamo on the car 
and through one of the car wheels, and re- 
turns by one of the other rails. It worked 
successfully. It does appear to me that in 
some way or other electricity will be utilized 
for this purpose. 

Mr. Wm. Richardson inquired : What 
system was that in Philadelphia ? 

Mr. Wharton : The Electric Dynamo 
Company's, of which Mr. W. W. Griscom 
is the President. 

Mr. Hasbrouck remarked : Mr. Cyrus W. 
Field was in attendance. He prophesied 
that in two years he would have it in opera- 
tion on one of the elevated roads of New 
York. 

Mr. C. A. Richards said : I speak of this 
matter with no ordinary interest. I know 
nothing about the machinery necessary for 
the application of electricity as a power, but 
for a number of years, I have been an inter- 
ested reader of all matters connected with 
the subject. I have followed, so far as I 
could, the investigations of science as pub- 
lished. I have asked myself the question, 
' ' What is it to be, and what is to come of 
it ? " No man living can tell what electric- 
ity is. There is no one, there is no scientist 
in the world — no matter how deep his 
research — who can tell. It is something 
that pervades the atmosphere ; it is around 
us ; it is everywhere, and we know nothing 
about it. It seems to me, that when the 
Creator desires to confer a new blessing on 
the world, it is never done at once. Com- 
pare it, if you please, with our human lives. 
We come into the world helpless, poor and 
naked ; but there are tender hands to lead 
us on. They care for us, and as life goes 
on, we are educated, until we arrive at per- 
fect manhood ; so the Creator presents this 
power of electricity to us. When we say as 
we frequently do, that this or that invention 
is in its infancy, go with me in my thoughts, 
as I have gone to the infancy of manhood. 
I believe, sir, we are but on the border line ; 
we but stand within the shadow of this great 
power, and I think it presumptuous in any 
man to tell us what the future will be. Trace 
with me, for a moment, what we have seen 
since we were boys. I scarcely look upon a 
face in this room but that can go back with 
me to the birth of the telegraph ; when 
Morse, in his crude way, even on shipboard, 
stretched a wire from one part of the ship to 



the other, and then and there this great 
power was conceived and had its birth. Soon 
after that we found intelligence flashing 
around the world, and to-day it and it alone 
has changed the force of nations. Trade no 
longer seeks the same channels. Intelli- 
gence, which is the guiding star of our lives, 
flashes around us everywhere ; from where 
the sun rises to where it sets ! What follows ? 
Another man, taking this child by the hand, 
leads it on ; and what does he present ? 
Why, sir, you may write me a letter from 
one distant clime to another ; you may give 
me every means that shall tell me that it is 
you at one end and I at the other ; but when 
I stand and listen and hear the audible 
tones of your voice, something tells me that 
the child is being led, is growing, and has 
taken a further step toward manhood. 
Who shall tell me, who dares to rise and as- 
sert that the next thing shall not be a motor ? 
To ignorant minds like ours, you may use 
all the scientific terms that you please ; you 
may take us to Philadelphia, or elsewhere, 
as I have been, and show us some engine, or 
a car, running on a track, and say that its 
motive power is electricity — it receives its 
power from here and is imparted there, and 
the car runs. I stand aghast ! I know 
nothing, but I see one thing — that a step is 
being taken toward its manhood. I firmly 
believe that this idea, being born and given 
by the Creator to the world, that now all 
the scientific men and all the scientific intel- 
ligence and knowledge of the world is at 
work upon it. Not with the brain of Morse, 
who conceived it ; not with the energy of 
Bell, who used it ; but each and all lending 
their aid in its grand development. And 
now, sir, who shall dare tell me, when I 
walk at night under its light, which almost 
equals the sun at noonday ; when I can 
speak to my friend so many miles away, and 
when I can stand here now, if need be, and 
hear the voices of dear ones at home, who 
shall dare tell me that we shall not have a 
motor impelled by that power? What is a 
motor to us ? It is simply the power to drag 
our cars. To-day, for the most of us here, 
it is horses. A step has been taken with 
steam, and that is the cable ; and the next 
step, gentlemen, as sure as God reigns, is 
going to be electricity ! As I stood in Eng- 
land before the first steam engine that was 
made, and when, as I looked upon its un- 
couth and grotesque form, seemingly but 
the child in its very infancy of machinery ; 
and then, when the first train passed by me, 
with its mighty rush and roar, driven by its 
great throbbing locomotive, I felt that I had 
on the one hand the infant child, and on the 
other the full grown man. We come here 
and listen wisely and intelligently to my 
friend here, who has preceded me on this 
subject. I was an earnest listener to his re- 
marks and to the study that he had given 
to the subject, and the earnestness that he 
evinced, in the matter. But, my dear sir, 
you and I, and all of us, are in the shadow 
yet of this all-pervading aud yet unseen 
power. I have been urged to use cables 
upon my road ; to use engines ; to put steam 
upon it ; to find all sorts of substitutes for 
the horse, but I said no ; I am settled in my 



164 



THE STEEET EEILWAT JOURNAL. 



[June, 1885. 



conviction, and while, perhaps, with a na- 
tive shrewdness, I let others experiment 
and spend their money, I simply say, 
"Wait." Wait in silence and with endur- 
ing faith. There, gentlemen, is my text 
trpon electricity. I trust you will pardon 
me for the time I have taken ; but all I 
have to say on electricity as a motive power 
is — Wait ! [Applause. ] 

Dr. Elijah Whitney said : Mr. President, I 
would like to say a word. While I approve 
most heartily of the remarks that have been 
made, and of the suggestions advanced, I 
wish to say, first, that we live in an age of pro- 
gress. It is not wise to take great exceptions 
to the progress that is being made around 
us ; and, I had almost said, within us. We 
know not what we may be. The conditions 
of our knowledge of the mode of the appli- 
cation of electricity for the purpose of a 
motive power is no more obscure than it 
was when we first learned the condition of 
the application of steam as a motive power. 
We might compare the question as presented 
here to-day with that which was presented 
early in the history of steam. That pro- 
duced as much of a marvel in the community 
as does electricity to-day. We knew, per- 
haps, more about steam, how to produce it, 
but no more how to use it and apply it than 
we know to-day about electricity, and how 
to apply it. But we have learned something 
on both these points. One of the marvels 
of electricity is, that we do not know exactly 
what it is. The gentleman who has just 
taken his seat has asked whether any one 
coidd tell what it may be. I would say that 
electricity is that fluid which pervades all 
nature. It is not alone around us, but it is 
within us ; and if we shall attempt to ex- 
plain it, I should say that it has an analogy 
to that principle which we call life. It 
might be, for ought I know, the principle 
which underlies all the thought that we 
have of life itself. I cannot say when I raise 
this arm and attempt to give it that power 
which will cause it to fall heavily upon my 
neighbor, that it is not electricity. 1 think 
there is more probability that electricity has 
much more to do with all our movements 
and with all our actions than we are aware of. 
I do not think that it cannot be applied as a 
motive power for the movement of machin- 
ery. I have alluded to the production of 
steam, and the difficulty of its application to 
the steam engine. It was because I trav- 
ersed the Sound in the first steamboat that 
ran from Providence to New York. We got 
on board of the boat at eleven o'clock, and 
we landed at ten o'clock in the evening of 
the next day, and thought we had done 
wonders. A more frightened multitude I 
never saw in my life, and never expect to 
see again, than I did when we approached 
Hell Gate. It seemed as though the captain 
and pilot were as much frightened at the ap- 
proach to Hell Gate as the multitude aboard 
the boat, and the boat was very full. Yet 
we came into New York safely, and we re- 
joiced in the great exploit of coming from 
Providence to New York by steam. I stood 
also in Baltimore, watching the movement 
of this great power of electricity upon the 
wire that was stretched from Washington to 



Baltimore — the first wire that ever conveyed 
an intelligent message from one point to 
another. I stood there when the message 
came, and heard it read, and heard the com- 
munication that went back in answer to it. 
In a few moments came back the second 
answering message intelligently. There 
people were talking with each other at a 
distance of some forty miles. When I re- 
call these remembrances, these things that 
occurred in "days that are past, I cannot 
help believing that electricity will ultimately 
be used as a motive power — used as we now 
use steam ! Mr. President, you will excuse 
me for these remarks. I suppose they are 
not very well constructed, as I am suffering, 
like many others, from the infirmities of age, 
for, if I am permitted to live until the 26th 
day of November next, I shall see my eighty- 
seventh birthday ! 

Dr. Whitney's remarks were received with 
applause. 



Fare Collecting-. — II. 



[In our May issue we published the 
method of fare collecting adopted on the At- 
lantic Ave. line, Brooklyn, and its depend- 
encies. The following from the President 
and Purchasing Agent of the Knoxville 
(Tenn.) S. B. B. Co., is offered as the sec- 
ond of the series. — Eds.] 

We do not employ conductors, having fare 
boxes in our cars. But we have a check on 
our drivers in the form of daily reports, more 
properly trip reports, which I designed for 
our own use three years ago, and which we 
have been using with much satisfaction ever 
since. It is unpatented and I give any one 
the liberty to use it. I send you the report 



Personal. 



J. F. Cottbtney, of Bradley & Courtney, is 
in San Francisco. 

Me. F. F. Low, President of the Sutter 
Street B. B. Co., of San Francisco, is in 
Europe. 

Chas. E. BEEEY,"of Cambridge, Mass. has 
been awarded a gold medal at New Orleans, 
foi* his patent hames. 

J. D. Oxnee, Vice Pbesedent, of the 
Houston & West sts. & Pavonia Ferry By. 
Co. for many years, has resigned. 

Bichaed Vose, 13 Barclay st. , New York, 
has lately invented several new styles of 
Graduated Springs — for which application 
for Patents has been made. 

Me. Jas. G. Holmes, President of the 
Citizens' Street Bailway Co., Pittsburgh, 
was in New York on the 18th ult. Also Mr. 
Sharp of the Detroit City. 

Me. Egebton, Supt. of the Albany St. 
By. Co. , stated recently in our office that he 
kept his track stiff and to gauge without 
knees, by putting granite paving blocks 
flatwise against the stringers each side as 
bearers for the paving blocks. Some of his 
track gets heavy loads from the stone-cars 
carrying material for the new State House, 
yet it keeps its place perfectly. 

Me. Lewis, of Lorimer Street, Brooklyn, 
has recently received large orders for his 
wood mattings from John Stevenson & Co., 
from the Second Avenue R. B., and from 
Western Street Railways. Mr. Lewis says 
he makes no more of the folding-wood mats 
unless they are specially ordered, as his ex- 
perience shows them to be practically much 
inferior to his newer devices. 



13 

R 
H 

< 

o 

Cm 


rp 

£ 




Knoxville Street Railway. 


Trip No. 


Saturday, April 25, 1885. 


1 
2 

3 


3 
13 


20 


15 


17 


9 


• 25 16 


18 


18 


20 


7 


15 


12 8 




10 


12 


5 


9 


26 


24 7 




Totals. 


26 


30 


40 


33 


50 


61 31 


18 


Car No. . . 
Car Startc 


5. Total No. Passengers carried. . . .309. 
d. . . .10:07. Car Stopped Running. . . .9:30. 
k Jno. F. Johnson, Driver. 



of car No. 5 for April 25. Any person can I 
see at a glance how it is to be used. It 
operates both as a check on the driver and 
receiver ; it gives the number of passengers 
carried at any trip during the day. The 
blanks are torn off at the perforated line. 
Forty (40) minutes are required to run a 
trip, the line being two miles long. Al- 
though I do not claim it to be by any means 
a perfect check on the driver, yet it is a very 
efficient one. I have also some special 
books of my design for receiving tickets, 
sales tickets and cash fares, record of pas- 
sengers and driver's record. 

T. L. Beaman. 



A New Street Railway Supply House. 

The firm of Pugh & Bussell has just es- 
tablished itself for the purpose of dealing 
exclusively in street railway supplies for 
home and export trade, a business for which 
there has for some time been a need. Mr. 
Pugh has had the advantage of a practical 
experience in the manufacture of cars, hav 
ing served an apprenticeship of some years 
in the Stephenson Car Works, and Mr. Bus- 
sel has acquired a thorough knowledge of 
business, having filled an important posi 
tion for several years past in the office of 
Maitland, Phelps & Co. 



June, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



165 



The Broadway, N. Y., Surface Line. 



The Supreme Court, General Term, has 
confirmed the report of the Commissioners 
in favor of Jacob Sharp's Broadway surface 
(horse car) railroad from Fourteenth Street 
to the Battery. Judges Daniels and Brady 
concurred. Judge Davis dissented. Judge 
Daniels says among other things : 

" The fact that the company was not able 
to obtain the consent of the owners of one- 
half in value of property on Broadway is not 
a controlling circumstance. That a majori- 
ty of the persons owning property were op- 
posed does not appear to be the fact. A 
majority are favorable to the construction of 
a railroad, but differ as to the description of 
road. 

' 'Railroad tracks will not interfere with the 
speedy transit of fire engines. In case of 
parades the cars might be excluded from the 
street for the time and the business of the 
road suspended. 

"Five per cent of the gross earnings, be- 
sides $40,000 a year, is a sufficient payment 
to the city. 

" The company should be required to keep 
the street in repair between the tracks and 
and two feet on either side, to remove the 
snow from the same parts of the streets and 
avenues immediately after it falls, and not 
pile it up, but cart at away ; and if it failed 
to do these things it should forfeit its fran- 
chise. It should be obligated in the same 
manner, without contingency or uncertainty, 
to carry its passengers for five cents over 
the entire distance from the Battery to Cen- 
tral Park. 

Judge Brady balances the benefits and 
injuries and concludes that the benefits will 
be the greater. Judge Davis says : 

"No scheme is devised by which these 
benefits and injuries can be equalized; and it 
is therefore a duty to see to it that at least the 
general benefits to the whole city are such 
as to justify the infliction of injury upon a 
portion of the public for the good of the 
whole. In this case I do not think that can 
be done. I am firmly convinced that in the 
throng of traffic below the City Hall the road 
will not only be detrimental to property, but 
a serious public nuisance. Broadway, be- 
tween the points of the contemplated rail- 
road, is the central strtet of a narrow island, 
and is rapidly being absorbed by that kind 
of business which most demands facility for 
transporting merchandise and property 
rather than persons. Its chief traffic must 
hereafter be with the country instead of the 
city, or, in other words, a wholesale and not 
a retail trade. It is now almost the sole 
longitudinal street in the lower part of the 
city of which surface roads are not in pos- 
session ; and, being so, it ought, in my 
judgment, to be kept free for the use most 
largely beneficial to all classes of our people. 

But if Broadway is to be given up to the 
use of a surface railway the public have a 
right to demand that a franchise so valuable 
shall not be granted except upon terms and 
conditions justly compensatory to the city. 
There should be an opportunity for compe- 
tition. It is well known that all compensa- 
tion was debarred by the action of the Board 



of Aldermen, when it was manifest that 
other corporations were seeking to enter the 
field as competitors. I am not willing to 
sanction the success of any sale and pur- 
chase of a great public franchise, accom- 
plished by the arbitrary exclusion of all other 
bidders. My brethren think it right, as I 
do, to impose additional conditions upon the 
confirmation of the report. The same 
principle justifies me in imposing the con- 
dition that the petitioner shall enjoy the 
franchise only by becoming the highest bid- 
der upon a fair competition sale to be made 
under the direction of the Mayor of the city 
or its other authorities." 



The Prevention of Tramway Accidents 
in England. 

From an English exchange we learn that 
Major-General Hutchinson, of the Board of 
Trade, attended an adjourned inquest held 
at Rochdale, England, respecting the death 
of a child killed by a tram-engine. Mr. 
Worth was present on behalf of the Roch- 
dale and Bury Steam Tram Company. At 
a previous inquiry the coroner had sug- 
gested that a network be placed in front of 
each tram- engine, supported in any suitable 
manner, which would have the effect, he 
thought, of knocking the legs of any child 
or other person from under them who hap- 
pened to be in the way. The persons so 
treated would then fall into the network and 
so escape injury. A model of the arrange- 
ment was shown by the engineer of the 
company as well as one constructed on the 
American cow-clearer plan, both of which 
were carefully inspected by the jury. Major- 
General Hutchinson said he had taken great 
interest in the suggestions of the coroner 
for the prevention of fatal accidents, but he 
was of the opinion that the plans exhibited 
were hardly practicable ones, as the width 
of the engines would be increased thereby, 
and the projection on each side would pro- 
bably be more dangerous than the present 
engine sides. It must be remembered also 
that the Board of Trade restricted the width 
of the engines to between 5ft. 6in. and 6ft. 
Besides this there would be considerable 
loss of time in moving the nets from one 
end of the engines to the other at the com- 
pletion of each journey, or if nets were pro- 
vided at each end then access in and out 
would be barred as the doors could not be 
opened. He thought the most practicable 
plan was that on the cow-clearer principle. 
The jury ultimately agreed to a verdict of 
accidental death, and recommended the 
Tram Company to bring the suggestions, 
made by the coroner and Major-General 
Hutchinson, before the Tram Companies' 
Institute, in order, if possible, to adopt some 
arrangement for general use of tramways 
for the prevention of street accidents. 



Me. A. Ayees, of 625 Tenth avenue, New 
York, has patented a new automatic switch 
for one-horse cars, which appears to meet a 
want. It is so arranged that the car may 
be deflected either to the right or left, or 
continued on in a straight line, without get- 
ting the horse outside of the track. One of 
these switches may be seen in use on the 
corner of Court street and Atlantic avenue, 
Brooklyn. It is much liked by the road. 



A New Car-Starter. 

Me. John T. Schapfeb of Rochester, 
N. Y., has invented a car-starter of novel 
principle, which is thus mentioned by a 
local paper: — "A test of the John T. 
Schaffer ' vacuum and ah' chamber ' patent 
for relieving horses from sudden strain on 
starting cars and relieving draft timbers 
from severe shocks, was made on car 102 of 
the Rochester City and Brighton Street 
Car company's line running along the State 
street and Mt. Hope avenue route recently. 
The device comprises an air cylinder with 
contained piston, and valves at each end of 
the cylinder. When the piston rod is drawn 
forward through the chamber the valve in 
front opens and allows the air between that 
end of the chamber and the piston head to 
escape gradually, at the same time the valve 
at the rear end closes, forming a vacuum 
between that end of the chamber and the 
piston head. The cylinder has a five inch 
bore and the piston head travels eight 
inches from end to end. The cylinder is 
fastened to the draft timber under the for- 
ward part of the car. The forward end of 
the piston rod is hook shaped and to this 
the whiffletrees are attached, so that in start- 
ing a car the horse draws on the piston rod, 
the air chamber in front of the piston head 
forms a cushion. Attached to the cylinder 
are appliances permitting side and up and 
down movements." A company is to be 
formed to introduce the patent. 



Recent American Patents. 



The following list of patents relating to 

the street railway interests, granted by the 

U. S. Patent Office during the past month, 

is specially reported by Franklin H. Hough, 

Solicitor of American and Foreign Patents, 

925 F Street, N. W., Washington, D. C: 

314,995 — Cables or ropes used to propel 
vehicles, coverings for — C. Bullock, N. Y. 

315,258— Car-starter— C. F. Dodge, Poca- 
hontas, 111. 

315,178— Ticket-clip— W. Souter, Leeds, 
Mass. 

315,325 — Cable railway grip— J. H. Parkin- 
son, assignor to himself and J. D. Ker- 
baugh, Bodie, Cal. 

315,355 — Passenger recorder — A. Torrey, 
Detroit, Mich., & D. J. Casey, Cylon,Wis. 

315,704— Car-starter— B. F. Bergh, N. Y. 

315,62p— Car-starter— A. L. Higley, Troy, 
N. Y. 

315,988— Street-car— G. M. Brill, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

315,737 — Fare-receiver — W. A. Connolly, 
Boston, Mass. 

315,963 — Fare register and recorder — J. H. 
Rose, Norwalk, Conn. 

315,491 — Moving street cars on curves — N. 
A. Fisher, Sacramento, Cal. 

315,992— Cable railway— H. Root, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

316,417— Car-starter— R. M. Thompson, 
East Rockport, Ohio. 

316,831 — Car safety attachment, cable — H. 
J. Rohrback, Chicago, 111. 

316,730— Car-starter— J. S. Briggs, Kanka- 
kee, HI. 



166 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[June, 1885. 



A Proposed Street Railway Insurance 
Company. 

[The following is the text of an impor- 
tant bill to incorporate a Street Railway 
Insurance Co. The bill has passed both 
Houses and is [still (June 3) awaiting the 
Governor's signature. ] 

AN ACT TO INCOEPOBATE THE AMERICAN STRET 
RAILWAY MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANY. 

Section 1. The following persons named 
in this section and their successors, namely; 
William White, Charles J. Harrah, James 
W. Foshay, Calvin A. Richards, William H. 
Hazzard, D. F. Longstreet, William Rich- 
ardson, Alexander H. Davis, Charles Clem- 
inshaw, Samuel Little, G. Hilton Scribner, 
Thomas Lowry, Henry M. Watson, John 
B. Parsons and William J. Richardson are 
hereby constituted a body corporate by 
the corporate name of the American Street 
Railway Mutual Insurance Company, and 
shall possess the usual powers and be sub- 
ject to the usual duties of fire insurance cor- 
porations in the state of New York; and its 
principal place of business shall be at the 
city of New York, in the county and state 
of New York. 

§ 2. The corporation hereby created 
shall have power to insure against loss and 
damage by fire, buildings, shops, depots, 
cars, machinery, fixtures, furniture, equip- 
ment, live stock and property of all kinds 
and description owned, leased or used by 
surface street railway companies in the 
United States and Canada, and the said 
corporation may issue its policies to such 
companies, and such companies are author- 
ized to receive the same, agreeing to pay 
all loss or damage that may be sustained by 
fire upon any such property by the holders 
of such policies, not exceeding the sum 
named in the policy. The premiums upon 
all policies issued shall be paid in cash. 

§ 3. The above-named persons shall be 
the first directors of said corporation. 
Their respective terms of office shall be de- 
termined by lot, so that five shall hold 
office for one year, five for two years, and 
five for three years, respectively, from the 
first Tuesday in June, eighteen hundred 
and eighty-five. After the expiration of 
such terms of office, respectively, the suc- 
ceeding terms shall be for three years from 
such expiration. Directors to fill vacancies 
occurring by the expiration of the term of 
office shall be chosen at the general meeting 
of the corporation, which shall be held on 
the first Tuesday of June in each year, and 
continued by adjournment or otherwise 
until such vacancies are filled. Directors to 
fill vacancies occurring before the expiration 
of the term of office shall be chosen by the 
board of directors to hold office for the 
unexpired portion of the term, and direc- 
tors shall continue to hold their respective 
offices after the expiration of their terms 
until their successors shall have been duly 
chosen and qualified. Directors shall be 
officers of surface street railway companies. 

§ 4. The president, vice president, sec- 
retary and treasurer, and all other officers 



shall be chosen by the board of directors, 
and shall hold office during the pleasure of 
the board. Their duties and compensation 
shall be such as shall be fixed by the board. 

§ 5 Before the treasurer shall enter 
upon the duties of his office, he shall exe- 
cute and deliver to the directors a bond, 
with sufficient sureties to be approved by 
such directors, conditioned for the faithful 
performance of his duties as such treasurer. 

§ 6. This corporation may purchase or 
rent such real estate as may be requisite for 
the convenient transaction of its business, 
and may otherwise invest its funds in such 
manner and in such securities as fire insur- 
ance companies are authorized to invest in, 
by chapter four hundred and sixty-six of 
the laws of eighteen hundred and fifty -three, 
entitled ' 'An act to provide for the incorpo- 
ration of fire insurance companies," and the 
acts amendatory thereof and supplementary 
thereto. All investments of the funds of 
the corporation shall be in the corporate 
name, and only upon the approval of the 
board of directors. 

§ 7. Every surface street railway com- 
pany insured by this corporation shall be a 
member thereof. At each general meeting 
of this corporation, a full statement of its 
affairs shall be submitted, verified by the 
oaths of the president and secretary and 
treasurer. 

§ 8. The board of directors of this cor- 
poration shall have power to make such by- 
laws, not inconsistent with this act and the 
constitution and laws of the state of New 
York, as may be deemed necessary for the 
holding of meetings of the corporation and 
its board of directors, the government of 
its officers and the conduct of its affairs, 
and the same, when neccessary, to alter and 
amend, and to adopt a corporate seal, and 
to change and alter the same at their pleas- 
ure. 

§ 9. Policies may be issued by this cor- 
poration when the superintendent of the 
insurance department shall have ascertained 
and certified that the capital hereinafter 
required of this corporation has been paid 
in, and is possessed by it in money or in 
such stocks and bonds and mortgages as are 
requiped by the said eighth section of chap- 
ter four hundred and sixty-six of the laws 
of eighteen hundred and fifty-three, and 
the acts amendatory thereof and supple- 
mentary thereto. 

§ 10. When the just claims for losses 
and expenses unpaid against this company 
shall exceed the funds in the hands of the 
treasurer, over and above the cash capital 
hereinafter mentioned and the unearned 
premiums on outstanding policies, its direc- 
tors may assess such sums as may be neces- 
sary to pay all claims and keep such capital 
intact, upon the members holding policies, 
in proportion to the premiums paid by each : 
such assessments not to exceed the amount 
of the note hereinafter mentioned and to be 
paid within thirty days after notice thereof 
shall have been received by any such mem- 
ber. To secure the prompt payment of 
such assessments, the directors shall receive 
from each member a note for not more than 
twice the amount of the current annual 
premium paid by such member. Such note 



shall constitute all the liability of the mem- 
ber and may be enforced to the extent of 
the amount with interest from the date of 
any and every assessment made thereon, 
and remaining unpaid thirty days after 
notice thereof shall have been received by 
any such member. 

§ 11. The directors may from time to 
time at a general or special meeting provide 
in what manner and to what extent mem- 
bers shall participate in the profits of the 
company. 

§ 12. The corporation, as an additional 
security to its members, over and above 
their cash premiums, and the notes herein- 
before mentioned, shall unite a cash capital, 
which shall be at least five hundred thous- 
and dollars, and may be increased from 
time to time to an amount not exceeding 
two million dollars to be divided into shares 
of one hundred dollars each to such mem- 
bers of this corporation as shall subscribe 
and pay for the same; and such members, 
being surface street railway companies, are 
hereby authorized to subscribe and pay for 
said shares to such amount as its directors 
may determine, which shares shall be trans- 
ferable on the books of the company but to 
members only, subject to such regulations 
as the directors shall from time to time pre- 
scribe. Only holders of cash capital paid 
in shall be entitled to vote, and such hold- 
ers shall be entitled at all meetings of said 
company to one vote for each share of said 
stock held by them, respectively, such votes 
to be given by an offices, or proxy duly 
authorized. The directors may allow such 
rate of interest on its capital and such par- 
ticipation in profits as they may from time 
to time determine, in accordance with the 
laws of the state regulating the payments of 
dividends by corporations, and such cash' 
capital shall be liable as the capital stock of 
the corporation in payment of its debts; 
provided, however, that if said capital 
should become impaired to the extent of 
twenty per cent of the amount fully paid in, 
it shall be the duty of the superintendent 
of the insurance department to issue a 
requisition on the stockholders for the pay- 
ment of the deficiency ; and all proceedings 
thereunder shall be the same as are now 
fixed and determined by law for the pay- 
ment of deficiencies by requisition of the 
said superintendent on joint-stock fire insur- 
ance companies of this state. 

§ 13. "Within ten days after notice of a 
loss has been received, a committee of not 
less than three directors shall determine the 
liability of the corporation on said loss, and 
if such determination shall not be satisfac- 
tory, or in case any difference of opinion 
shall arise as to the rights of parties under 
any policy, the subject thereof shall be 
referred to three disinterested men as 
referees, the directors and the insured each 
choosing one of the three referees, and the 
two so choosen selecting a third, and the 
decision of a majority of said referees shall 
be final and binding upon the parties, and 
any amount determined to be due by the 
corporation shall be paid within thirty days 
after such decision has been certified by 
the referees, or a majority of them, to the 
corporation. 



June, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



1G7 



§. 14. Any member of the corporation 
may withdraw therefrom by giving a written 
notice of such withdrawal to either of the 
officers at the office of the company, and 
upon such member paying all assessments 
theretofore or thereafter made upon it for 
losses and expenses which have been in- 
curred before the receipt of such notice, 
any note or notes given by such member to 
secure the payment of assessments in the 
manner hereinbefore provided shall be 
relinquished and given up, and membership 
shall thereupon cease; and upon such cessa- 
tion of membership, the member shall be 
entitled to the usual short rate return pre- 
mium, and shall be exempt from all further 
liabilities and forfeit all further benefits 
from said corporation, except such liabili- 
ties and benefits as may arise from con- 
tinued ownership of any of the capital 
stock thereof. 

§ 15. Nothing in this act contained 
shall be construed to relieve or exempt said 
corporation from malting statements and 
reports to the insurance department; or 
as releasing from the payment of such taxes 
and fees as are now or hereafter may be 
required from fire insurance companies 
organized under the general insurance laws 
of this state. 

§ 16. All acts and parts of acts incon- 
sistent with the passage of this act are 
hereby repealed. 

§ 17. This act shall take effect immedi- 
ately 

<—-» 

Information on Street Railway Construc- 
tion and Management. 

Mr. T. M. Smedes, Superintendent for 
the Vicksburg (Miss.) Wharfboat and Ele- 
vator Co., sends us his subscription (for 
which he has our thanks) audsays: "If 
convenient, please have circular sent me in 
which I can find the name of some good 
work on construction and operation of street 
railways." 

Probably ' ' Tramivays, their Construction 
and Working," hy J. Emerson Dowsun and 
Alfred Dowson, A. A. S. C. E., will give Mr. 
Smedes the information he wants. We can 
furnish the book to any one who wishes it, 
at the regular publishers' price, $1.50. 



The Winnipeg Street Railway Company 
run sleighs all winter heated with a small 
coal stove in the forward eud. The sleighs 
are ventilated same as the box cars in sum- 
mer and they have no complaints of gas or 
foul ail'. They say that American manufac- 
turers cannot place the cost of sleighs low 
enough to enable them to place orders in 
this countrv. 



When you see a man 

In a car, 
Sprawling all his limbs, 

Near and far, 
Taking twice the room 

That lie ought, 
And for other's rights 

Caring naught, 
You may Judge his mind's 

In a fog- 
That he's drunk— or else, 

He's a hog. 

—[Wilminyton Star. 



Improvements in Jersey City. 

A correspondent sends us the following 
clipping from a local paper : — 

In his recent annual message Mayor Col- 
lins alluded to the Lafayette extension of 
the J. C. <fe B. Railroad in rather sharp 
terms. He said: 

"Additional horse car facilities were 
promised Lafayette, and your honorable 
body passed an ordinance permitting the 
use of certain streets for that purpose. I 
think that you should insist upon the im- 
mediate construction and operation of the 
new line, otherwise repeal the franchise." 

President Thurston, in a letter to the 
Journal, reviewed this paragraph. Mr. 
Thurston called attention to the fact that 
since he has had charge of the road no ex- 
pense or effort has been spared to make it 
effective, and said that if Mayor Collins had 



Improvements on N. Y. City Roads. 



In the best street cars as now built in New 
York, the brakes are all inside, that is be- 
tween the wheels instead of outside. This 
disposition prevents in a great measure the 
pitching forward of passengers when the car 
is stopped. Another improvement is for a 
signal to the conductor ; convenient hand- 
pulls at the back of the seats operate on a 
rope which connects with a rnston moving 
in a small air chamber provided with a 
whistle at its free end. By a pull at the 
rope the whistle is blown and the conductor 
is advised of the fact that he is wanted. 



The Lockie Hoi se Shoe Pad. 

This [pad* is of stout sole leather, covering 
the entire bottom of the foot, and inserted 
between hoof and shoe. It has a stiffening 




THE LOCKIE HOESE PAD. 



investigated he would not have so harshly 
reflected upon the management. Mr. 
Thurston showed that the ordinance per- 
mitting the Lafeyette extension was passed 
so late last fall that no work could be done 
until this spring. The rails are procured, 
the cars are being built, the track is being 
laid, etc. It is hoped, Mr. Thurston said, 
that the extension will be open by July 1. 
If the Mayor had read his Journal with his 
usual care, he would have seen that Mr. 
Thurston was pushing things, and would 
have been spared the necessity of taking 
back his hasty criticism of the railroad man- 
agement. With his usual manly frankness 
he has written thus to Mr. Thurston: 

Mayor's Office. ) 

Jersey City, May 7, 1885 ) 
C. B. Thurston, Esq. : 

Dear Sir — The censure of your letter in 
to-night's Journal is just. In my resume 
of the year, I thought of the Lafayette ex- 
tension and wondered why it was not built, 
especially as I saw so much being done 
along the car tracks generally, and I jotted 
down the passage referred to mainly as a 
memorandum, fully intending to see you 
about it before sending in the message. I 
not only forgot to do that but forgot the 
passage itself. Please excuse something to 
a very busy man. Your explanation is sat- 
isfactory. I will leave out the paragraph 
from the message, as it will be published in 
pamphlet form. Yours truly, 

Gilbert Collins. 



piece riveted on at the back, as may be seen 
by the cut. It is fastened to the shoe by 
rivets at the heel. Between the leather and 
the frog is a sponge to keep out the dirt, 
and act as a cushion, besides giving the frog 
a certain portion of the weight to bear. 
The pad also acts as a prevention of injuries 
from picking up nails or stepping on broken 
glass. 

* Lockie Hor e Shoe Pad Co., 181 Klnzle Street, 
Chicago, Ills. 



The Origin of the Word Tramway. 

Mr. Augustine W. Wright, of the North 
Chicago Street Railway Co., appears to be 
an accomplished philologist as well as a 
progressive engineer. In a paper before 
the Western Society of Engineers he follows 
up the discussion of the origin of the word 
tramway, which was started in the Street 
Railway Department of our Journal of 
Railway Appliances. Mr. Wright does not 
at all believe in the Outram derivation, and 
he apparently proves that "tram" being the 
northern word for "a small carriage, on four 
wheels, distinguished from a sledge," that 
is the proper derivation. 



The restrictions of the city council of 
Harrisburg, Pa. , will deprive the citizens of 
that city of additional accomodations and 
improvements which the City Passenger Co. 
had intended making. 



168 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[June, 1885. 





WM/$v 


f;-,-^P^flf^^ 


^^m 



MONTHLY, $1,00 PER YEAR. 

E. P. Harris General Manager. 

P. G. Monroe General Western Manager. 

Eobbrt Grimshaw, M. E Editor-ln-Chlef. 

G. B. Heckel Associate Editor. 

American Railway Publishing Co. 

32 LIBERTY ST., NEW YORK. 

12 LAKESIDE BUILDING, CHICAGO. 

S. L. K. Monroe, Sec'y and Treas. 



BRANCH OFFICES: 



Eastern District, 8 Exchange Place, Boston, Mass. 
H. M. Swetland, Manager. 

South-Eastern District, 419 Walnut St., Phila- 
delphia, Pa. G. B. Heckel, Manager. 

Southern District, 68 Alabama St., Atlanta, G a. 
E. V. Cavell, Manager. 

South-Western District, 204 Temple Building, 
St. Louis, Mo. 

The Luminous Car Again. 

No radiant pearl, which crested Fortune wears, 
No gem, that twinkling hangs from Beauty's ears, 
Not the bright stars, which night's blue arch adorn, 
Nor rising suns that gild the vernal morn, 
Shine with such lustre as the car that goes 
Down Fulton's muddy street, and ever glows. 

[Darwin's Loves of the Plants, {.amended.)] 

It seems that our V. & E. C. , at once the 
Methuselah and the Thomas Alvah Edison 
of railroadism, has not produced (or at 
least published) anything new during the 
past month. The luminous burners and 
the luminous car have doubtless absorbed 
the attention of its giant intellect, in per- 
fecting the mechanical, chemical and opti- 
cal details, and working up to public 
appreciation and to par the stocks of the 
Great American Refulgent Car Co. , and the 
Helvetio-Pearl Street Fluorescent Harness 
Association, Limited. 

So in default of novelties from the oft 
fire-swept district where the clang of the 
Franklin Press rivals the rattle and the roar 
of the Elevated Railway — we shall have 
to take up anew the consideration of the 
luminous harness and the luminous car ; its 
Beauties and its Benefits, and the Bulging 
Brains of its Binocular, Benign, and Bene- 
ficent, but not yet Besainted Business 
Boomer. 

Eirst, as the apt quotation which heads 
these appreciative lines most clearly indi- 
cates — the luminous car, (especially in com- 
bination with the luminous harness) is " a 
thing of beauty," if not " a joy forever. " 
If it is true that the luminous car is a good 
thing, it is at once an example of "the 
true, the good, and the beautiful," and as 
such deserves commendation and encour- 
agement. 

Second, it affords the poet and the jour- 
nalist several new similes and metaphors, or 
at least, a new simile or a new metaphor 
for several time-worn though heart-loved 
and excellently rhyming subjects. 

A girl, filled with the glamour of the skat- 
ing rink, elopes with a caoutchouc-legged 
"professor" of the skatorial art. The 
Eagle can then thus head its announce- 
ment of the fact : — 

And like a passing [car] she fled 
In light array. 



A politician or a faction " gets left," at a 
ward primary. The opposition part says 
of him — 

'Tls the last car of summer 
Left blooming alone. 

Of Miss Honora de Flaherty the poetic 
novelist may say — 

Her blue eyes sought the west afar 
For lovers love the latest car. 

The express train comes in bearing the 
President, or Mrs. Langtry ; a thousand 
people await its arrival ; and the Chicago 
Times may aptly cite — 

But when the [car] In all [Its] state 
Illumed the eastern skies, &c, &c, 

The Rev. Mr. Ballmatch, in alluding to 
the depravity of the theater, the heroism 
of the six hundred, the refined influence 
of the Louisville mule, the devotion of 
Florence Nightingale, and the not-apt-to- 
get-left-itude of some street railway men 
of whom we wot, as all combining to 
make a variety in the this-ness, and an un- 
certainty in the then-ness, of existence, 
may inrpressibly voice these lines : — 

Life like a [car] of many colored glass 
Stains the white radiance of eternity. 

Oh, the luminous car ought to be a bon- 
anza for professionals, short of ideas. 

Third, there's millions in it. Col. Eschol 
Sellers would have had it, as one of the 
principal features of his celebrated railroad, 
that the line he advocated had none but 
luminous cars, of a special and copyrighted 
color, calculated to inspire the timid with 
confidence, deter the train-wrecker from 
wrong, sooth the ever wakeful babe in arms, 
thrill the hymeneal neophytes with soft ex- 
tatism,* and convert the evil drummer from 
schemes of scalped tickets and borrowed 
mileage books. 

Our very pleasant social relations with our 
genial and accomplished confrere over in 
Pearl Street, as well as the necessity for 
observing the proper convenances t prevent 
us from giving details the publication of 
which might appear as a violation of confi- 
dence whispered through the incense-like 
clouds of a burnt offering of Latakia ; but 
this we can say, without any breach of 
trust, or unwarrantable prematurity of ex- 
pression, or particularity of personal des- 
ignation, — that there is yet to come the 
announcement of still another refinement 
in cars — the return of evenings with the 
maestri and mornings with the virtuosi — 
the culmination of critical culture in car 
construction. 

This, dear readers, — this acme and ne 
plus ultra \ of Art in Transit, as distin- 
guished from Transitory Art, is the Musical 
Car! 

Think of it ! ! 

Wait for it ! ! ! 

We hope to have full particulars in our 
next. 

* AH rights reserved. 

t The compositor omitted the first of these words 
from an article of ours In our last issue (subject for- 
gotten) and the second was one Intended for our 
leader on the Refinement of the Louisville Mule ; but 
we lost the slip on which it was written, and have 
had no previous chance to work it in. This seems a 
good place for it. 

t This Is Latin ; a language much used by Lawyers 
to conceal their ignorance and by Congressmen to 
show off how much they know. 



Track Laying. 



We have just been watching the laying of 
steel center bearing rails on a track over 
which we ride almost daily ; and we have to 
say that we consider that there is yet a good 
deal to learn in that branch of street railway 
work. 

First, as regards the stringers themselves. 
The knees are far too light and permit the 
stringers to rock laterally. Fewer knee 
braces of longer reach would do the work 
much better, and keep the track in gauge. 
A well-gauged track saves wear and tear of 
rails and of wheel flanges. Setting the 
stringers on tarred seats on the cross beams 
would probably considerably lengthen the 
life of both stringers and cross-pieces by do- 
ing away with soaking places into which 
water both enters and remains by capillary 
attraction. 

The timbers wordd last much longer if 
properly treated with some insoluble anti- 
septic solution, put in at one end under 
pressure until it showed at the other end. 
If the plant for such treatment were rightly 
designed and constructed, and a suitable 
material chosen, this antiseptic treatment 
would pay, in the increased life of timber. 

The joint pieces are of the old "channel" 
sections, thus : l^aHnd ; and hence have 
very little natural stiffness. We think that 
the new double channel or |^bib^ sec- 
tions would considerably stiffen the joints ; 
and they certainly need it. 

The spikes are of a character to mash 
their way through the fibres, breaking and 
crippling them and crowding them out of 
the way in such a way as to give them little 
hold on the spikes. If the holes were clean- 
ly bored, or if spikes were made with clean 
cutting chisel parts, or were got up in the 
same way as wire nails, the spikes would do 
more to hold the nails down to the stringer, 
against the pryiug-up action which takes 
place at the back end of a rail every time 
that the load bears down the "far end" 
(the term "back end" and "far end" being 
named from the direction in which the car 
or other load is going). 

We think that if the holes in the rail 
flanges were punched somewhat obliquely ; 
that is, pointing towards each other and the 
center of the rail, so that the spikes would 
have somewhat of a clinching effect, there 
would be more holding-down power. As 
the spikes are now laid, they only keep the 
rail from being crowded sidewise off the top 
of the stringer. 

There is too mnch rail-end-wearing and 
spike loosening done by the prying up of 
the rails at one end, owing to the depression 
due to load at the other end. If we give 
the spikes a better grip, and the joint pieces 
more vertical stiffness, and then unite the 
chairs and the rails by rivets permitting 
endwise motion due to expansion and con- 
traction and preventing the rail ends from 
lifting away from the chairs, we ought to 
have improved the joint. The rivets can be 
put through the holes in the chair, before 
the latter is laid on the stringer ; and the 
second heading could easily be accomplished 
when the rails were in place over the chairs. 



June, 1885.] 



THE STEEET EAXLWAY JOUENAL. 



169 



The riveting up would of course have to be 
done before either rail was spiked to the 
stringer, and the surface of the latter would 
be too soft to rivet against. The holes in 
the chair to be round ; those in the rail- 
flange oblong, with proper countersink ; or 
the chair could have oblong holes with ob- 
long countersiuk, so that the " first head " 




One-Horse Street Cars. 



of the rivet could readily travel therein as 
the rail end moved with expansion and con- 
traction. 

While for many reasons the "cobble- 
stone" is an excellent pavement for the 
space between the rails, yet, as ordinarily 
laid, the best laid of that ordiuai'y cobble 
foot-way soon looks like a relief map of the 
moon. The stones being of unequal size, the 
small ones sink deeper into the bed than the 
large ones ; hence, those which offer most 
resistance to foothold and traction and give 
the roughest riding to ordinary vehicles. 

It is necessary to bed the largest stones 
next the stringers to give the stringer and 
rail lateral stiffness ; but the rest of the 
cobbles are generally put in higgledy-pig- 
gledy, without reference to their size and 
shape. 

If, now, the cobbles were sorted more, 
laying the very largest in a row next the 
the stringers, and the next largest in a 
lengthwise row next . that, and so on, with 
the smallest in the center, the road being- 
made with excessive crown, the small stones 
in the center line would sink more than 
those in the side rows, but they would sink 
with greater uniformity, so as to bring the 
road to a lower curve than at first, but a 
more nearly smooth surface than is now 
found. A better foot-way would decrease 
the amount of lameness, give the horses 
better foothold in starting, give cleaner 
tracks, and cost less in maintenance. Inci- 
dently, public opinion would be favorably 
affected. 

•*—¥■ 

Snow Plows For Street Railroads. 

Mr. G. G. Gibson, Superintendent of the 
Cass Avenue and Fair Ground Railway, 
St. Louis, Mo., says : "I wish you would 
ask through the columns of your Journal 
if any horse railroad company had a snow 
plow that did its work well and satisfac- 
torily last winter. If there is one, I want 
to see it. Some people think it is bad taste 
to talk of such things now, but I believe 
' in times of peace, prepare for war.' " 



We have received from the Fulton Foun- 
dry, 202 Merwin St., Cleveland, O., a neat 
leather bound catalogue of the street rail- 
way specialties manufactured there. It is 
dated March, 1885. 



Olive's Tables and Diagrams. 



The greatest strains which a street car 
has to meet, seem to be those incident to 
rounding sharp curves at street corners. 

My best wagon, unloaded, weighs three- 
fourths of a ton, without a box. With one- 
fourth ton of stone rack and four tons of 
stone it weighs five tons. This is a heavy 
load but it is not the limit on good level road. 
It takes less power to move the load on a 
circle of twenty -five feet radius than it does 
to move it on a straight line. Some of my 
horses, dumb brutes as they are, know 
enough to swing from side to side of the 
road on a steep climb, to permit a serpen- 
tine wheel track, where it can stand as evi- 
dence that their driver was drunk. Said 
wagon has loose wheels and radial axles. A 
"bob-tail" should be as well fixed for round- 
ing curves ; it can be provided with means 
for rounding a sharp curve, with less trac- 
tion resistance than needed for the straight 
line. When this happens there will be no 
need of letting the empty car weigh half 
what it will when full loaded. 

One horse should trot along, with a full 
load of passengers, on a level track, with re- 
sistance, for one ton of car, twelve and one- 
half pounds, and for one and one-half ton of 
passengers, at five pounds per ton, or twen- 
ty pounds in all. If the car weighs two tons 
with the same live load the resistance will be 
(2xl2|) + (liX5)=32i lbs. With an "easy" 
street grade of one in twenty to mount, 
gravity gets hold of the "bob's tail" and 
makes the horse put out effort enough to 
overcome 20+(A C inr x 2,000)== 120 lbs. in the 
light car and 32j+(A e F VX2,000)= 132J lbs. 
in the heavy one. The twelve and one-half 
pounds may not seem much of a difference, 
but they are at the right end of the calcula- 
tion, "the last feather." Such climbs do 
not admit of rapid motion. The resistances 
cited are for the slowest conceivable speed. 
Gravity is well known as being every- 
where all the time, and yet many good sin- 
ners act as though they do not understand 
its unremitting, undeviating influence. It 
always knows what its about ; any one dis- 
believing can test it, by working up the 
grade described at different speeds. If he 
does not find it takes twice as much effort 
per unit of distance to ascend forty feet of 
the grade as it does to ascend twenty feet, 
in a given time, we would be very glad to 
get his data. Of course axle friction does 
not necessarily increase with the speed. 

There is no use trying to make a light 
street car of wood ; it will take hard and 
tough eye beam sections for the skeleton ; 
paper board cover ; the best buckled glass 
windows and Lincrusta Walton inside finish, 
on Acme steel wheels, to bring the dead 
weight and traction resistance down to half 

what it is now. 

Ed. B. Meatyard. 



Subterranean Cable Railway at Brus- 
sels. — The plan proposed by Prof. Aug. Gil- 
Ion, of the University of Liege, is to unite 
by a double track cable railway the Putterie 
quarter and the Place Royale ; and later to 
be extended to the Porte Namur ; the con- 
I ditions are the same as at Constantinople. 



Tables and Notices for Curving Tramway 
Rails and for Making and Laying-in Rail- 
way Crossings. Published by W. T. Olive, 
C.E., 90 Landsdown Road, Didsbury, 
England. 

These tables are intended for the use of 
Tramway and Railway Engineers, Crossing 
Makers and Platelayers. 

Table No. 1 gives in condensed form re- 
sults of calculations required for the curv- 
ing of tramway rails to any radius by 
template or otherwise. The advantage of 
this table becomes more apparent when it is 
considered that the tendency is to have very 
heavy section rails, suitable for steam traffic, 
and that all the bending for street corners, 
etc., should be done by template on the 
rails before they are sent out on to the 
ground. 

Tables Nos. 2 & 3 enable railway cross- 
ings to be made and laid in at the correct 
distances from switches, without the labor 
of calculation — typical cuts being furnished 
to which the various crossings and leads re- 
quired in ordinary practice are referred. 
The gauge dealt with is 4' 8J," but the 
different formulae are so detailed as to make 
them apply to any required gauge by a 
single calculation. 

They have been carefully compiled with a 
view to ready reference, are tastefully got 
up and should prove useful to railway and 
tramway men. 

They will be sent post-paid at one dollar 
each, by the American Railway Pub. Co., 
(proprietors of this journal) 32 Liberty St., 
N.Y. City. 

•*->-*■ 

Melting Steel in an Ordinary Cupola. 



It will interest all who have been consid- 
ering the relative merits of steel and of iron 
rails, to know that one great obstacle to the 
utilization of old steel rails has been success- 
fully removed. This should raise the price 
of old steel rails. 

Mr. R. E. Masters, of the Columbus (Ga.) 
Iron Works, cuts the rails into one foot 
lengths and melts with one pound of fuel for 
five pounds of steel, making fine castings. 

Heretofore, the Sweet cementation pro- 
cess has used up some old steel rail scrap ; 
some has been worked up into wire, and 
some (not nearly enough, into nail, and a 
trifle has found its way into cast car wheels; 
but now, frogs, crossings, chairs, draw- 
heads, buffer plates, sockets, corner pieces, 
and a hundred other kinds of pieces can be 
cast from old steel rail scrap. 

++-*■ 

Lighter Cars Wanted. 



Eds. Street Railway Journal : 

I wish to get some one-horse cars for a 
line with heavy grades and light uniform 
travel. Our present cars weigh about 3,500 
pounds and are too heavy. Cannot they be 
made to weigh from 1,500 to 2,000 pounds ? 

Supt. 
[We think that Mr. E. B. Meatyard's com- 
munication headed "One-Horse StreetCars," 
in this issue, covers the ground fairly wed.] 



170 



THE STLEET KAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[June, 1885. 



Notes and Items. 

Canton (O.) has a new street railway. 

There is a new street railway in Madison, 
Miss. 

There is a new street railroad in Kalama- 
zoo, Mich. 
' Nevada (Mo.) is talking of liaviug a new 
street railway. 

The Johnstown (Pa.) Street Railway 
is to be extended. 

A new street railway is contemplated iu 
Hutchinson, Kan. 

St. Louis (Mo.) is to have a new street 
railway — the Northern Central. 

Moline (Ills.) has a new street railroad — 
the Fifteenth Street River RE. 

The Dallas Street Railroad Co. (Tex.) 
are building a two mile extension. 

The Duluth Street Railway Co. (Minn.) 
will add four new c;irs this spring. 

The Sandusky (O.) Street Railway is 
building a new line, two miles long. 

The Sedalia (Mo.) Street Railway Co. 
will extend their track this summer. 

A street railway is to be built between 
South Bend and Mishawaka, Indiana. 

The Des Moines Street Railroad Co. 
will build a one-mile extension this year. 

The Birmingham Street Railway Co. 
(Ala. ) will buy some new cars this spring. 

The Minneapolis (Minn. ) Street Ry. Co. 
will build a four-mile extension this season. 

The Stoneham Street Railroad Co. will 
water their track this season with water cars. 

The Burlington (la. ) Street Railroad 
Co. are laying one and one half miles of new 
track. 

The Belt Street Car Line is a new com- 
pany running cars on the streets of Dallas, 
Texas. 

Beaver Falls, Pa., is to haye a street 
railway. Track is building and orders given 
for five cars: 

The Street Rail way Co. of Grand Rapids, 
(Mich.) will expend $3,000 in improvements 
this season. 

The Newport and Dayton (O.) Street 
Railway Co. have just completed a $5,000 
brick stable. 

The Emporia City Railway Co. (Kan.) 
put on an extra car and build a mile exten- 
sion this season. 

The Lexington (Ky.) City Railway Co. 
expects to build one and one-half miles of 
track, this year. 

The San Antonio Street Railway Co. 
will extend their track and add several new 
cars this summer. 

Fort Worth, Texas, has a new street 
railway. It is operated by the Rosedale 
Street Railway Co. 

The Central City Horse Railway Co., 
Peoria, (Ills.) will make an extension of one 
mile this summer. 

The Jackson Street Railway (Tenn.) is 
chartered but not built. Work will be com- 
menced on it this fall. 



The Lawrence Transportation Co. 
(Kan.) will build three-quarters mile exten- 
sion line this season. 

Burlington (la.) has two new lines of 
street railway, the Union Street Railway 
Co. and the Belt Line. 

The Chattanooga Street Railroad Co. 
(Tenn. ) will extend their road one and one- 
half miles this year. 

The Chester (Pa.) Street Railway Co. 
talks of building two miles of additional 
track during the season. 

The Calvary, Greenpoint and Brook- 
lyn line will, if all goes well, begin opera- 
tions on Decoration Day. 

The Transverse Passenger Railway Co. , 
of Pittsburg, (Pa.) are changing their cars 
from single to double ends. 

The Hamilton Street Railway Co. (O.) 
will extend their track one-half mile this 
season and add two new cars. 

The Pine Street, Jacksonville, (Fla.) 
street railway put on rive new cars and built 
an extension of three miles. 

The Market Square and Asylum St. Ry. 
is the name of a new company operating on 
the streets of Knoxville Tenn. 

The Sioux City (la. ) Street Railway Co. 
will add three new cars to their equipment 
and lay one mile of new track. 

Andrews & Clooney are making the iron 
work and W. P. Craig is laying the new 
Lorimer Street (Brooklyn) road. 

The Hannibal Street Railway Co. (Mo.) 
are replacing sixteen pound T rails with 
thirty-six pound center bearing. 

The Boone and Boonsboro Street Rail- 
way Co. (la.) will put in two more switches 
and add another car this spring. 

A new street railway has just begun oper- 
ations in Tokio, Japan. The "Japs" are 
delighted and patronize it liberally. 

The Springfield Street Ry. Co., St. 
Louis, (Mo. ) contemplate building one-half 
mile double track and one mile of single 
track. 

The Broadway (N. Y.) Surface Rail- 
road Co. , it is understood on good authori- 
ty, has placed the contract for building its 
track. 

The Dubuque (la. ) Street Railroad Co. 
has bought the material to add two miles to 
its tracks. The work will be done this 
season. 

At Los Angeles, Cal., the three street 
railwavs have adopted the Horman register, 
also the Corrigan Consolidated roads of Kan- 
sas City. 

The Quebec Street Railway Co. (Can.) 
have ordered a new car and will extend 
their tracks this season if they obtain the 
right of way. 

The Third Avenue Railway Co. (N. Y. 
city) have just finished twenty new open 
cars and propose to thoroughly overhaul 
all their Harlem cars. 

Mr. John E. Brown, for fifteen years 
superintendent of the Troy and Lansing- 
burgh (N. Y.) Street Railway, died, April 
27th, of heart disease. 



The Lewis and Fowler Mfg. Co., Brook- 
lyn, has secured the sole right to manufac- 
ture and sell the Van Tassell brake handle. 

The Oswego (N. Y. ) Street Railway Co. 
(new) will build two miles of track and 
about four cars for officers — see our Direc- 
tory. 

The Louisville Passenger Railway Co. , 
H. H. Littell, Gen. Supt., has placed an 
order with the Brownell & Wigler Car Co. 
for sixteen ears. 

The Courtland and Homer Horse Rail- 
road Co., Troy, (N. Y.) will complete their 
track by building about two and one-half 
miles this summer. 

The Iowa City and Des Moines River 
Motor Street Railway Company is a new 
corporation operating on the streets of 
Boonsboro, Iowa. 

The Houston (Tex. ) Street R. R. Co. are 
building a new stable and will increase their 
motive power (mules). They will also build 
a one-half mile extension. 

The Harlem Bridge, Morrisania and 
Fordham Ry. new cars are equipped with 
the Wales Fare Box. This company is start- 
ing a new line to Port Morris. 

The Ft. Worth Street Railway Co. 
(Texas) will build a large brick stable and 
car sheds during the present summer, and 
expects to extend its tracks one mile. 

The street railway for a city in China, re- 
ferred to in a former number of the Street 
Railway Journal, has not yet material- 
ized, but the plan is by no means aban- 
doned. 

The Wichita (Kan.) City Railway Co. 
are building three and one-half miles of 
new track; it will be completed the 15th 
inst. , and will make the total length of their 
line six miles. 

The Randall Gear will be placed on 
new cars of the Baltimore City and Central 
City (Baltimore) Railroad Companys' ; also 
on thirty new cars of the Rooper Passenger 
Ry. Co., Philadelphia. 

Manchester, Eng. , is the centre of some 
one hundred and fifty miles of the best laid 
tram roads in that country, over forty miles 
of which have been laid by Mr. William T. 
Olive, C. E. , of that city. 

The Lewis and Fowler Register is used 
on the Dry Dock, East Broadway (N. Y.) 
and Battery ; Forty-second street Manhat- 
tanville and St. Nicholas avenue ; and the 
Jersey City and Bergen railroads. 

The Fourth Avenue line has just ordered 
fifteen new cars of the John Stephenson Co. 
They are intended to be run through to Har- 
lem and are to be of his best Al, three-ply, 
double-and-twist-warranted-to-wash kind. 

The Bemis Car Box Co. and Baltimore 
Car Wheel Co. , which have been for some 
time in litigation over plans, it is understood 
have adjusted their difficulties by some sort 
of consolidation of the interests involved. 

Mr. Wellington Adams of St. Louis has 
recently been in New York in behalf of a 
new electric motor for street cars, which in- 
volves novel principles and which he avers 
has been tested with the utmost satisfaction. 



June, 1885.] 



THE STREET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



171 



The Chicago City Ey. are just finishing 
seventy new cars for their line. 

The new road in So. Chicago (Ills. ) is the 
Chicago Horse & Dummy R.R. 

The London (Can. ) Street Railway have 
recently added two new cars to their equip- 
ment. 

Aurora, His. is to have one mile of new 
track — an extension of the Aurora City 
Railway Co. 

The Lexington (Ky.) City Re. Co. will 
build one and one half miles of new track 
this season. 

The Savannah (Ga.) Coast Line will 
build about one-third of a mile of new 
track this summer. 

The Elizabeth & Newabk (N.J.) will add 
several new cars this summer, and are put- 
ting in new switches. 

The Consolidated St. R.R. Co. of Co- 
lumbus, 0. , will build and add some new 
cars to their rolling stock. 

The Norfolk (Va.) City R.R. Co. have 
just completed a half mile extension, and 
added two cars to their rolling stock. 

The Charles River Road, Boston, are 
building a new line to Somerville, which 
will shorten the distance about a mile, 

The Boon and Boonsboro (la.) Street 
Railway Co. will build 2l miles new track, 
and add two new switches and two cars. 

Woodsocket, R. I. , a town of about twenty 
thousand inhabitants, has no street railways, 
and it would seem to be a good point for 
one. 

The Globe Stbeet Railway Co., Fall 
River, (Mass.) have added two cars, and 
contemplate building a two mde extension 
this season. 

The new Broadway surface road, now 
building, are putting in the Douglass Patent 
Automatic Switch manufactured by H. M. 
White & Co. of this city. 

The Peoples' Ry. Co. of Baltimore, Md. 
have just finished a two story brick and 
stone car house 100 x 110 feet ; and building 
a new stable for 225 horses. 

The City Railroad Co. Mobile, (Ala.) 
wiU add one mile to their country track and 
connect their street tracks with the river 
front. They will add three freight cars to 
their equipment. 

The Wichita Citj Railway Co. is build- 
ing 3i miles of new track, which is to be 
finished by June 15th prox. This will make 
six miles of track, and the equipment will 
be increased to eight cars. 

Lawrence (Kan.) Transportation Co. 
claim to have the best track in the country. 
It is laid with 38 pound Johnson rails. The 
President says they run their horses twenty 
miles a day and they do well. 

Kansas City, (Mo.) has three new street 
radway companies: The Kansas City and 
Westport; The Kansas City and Rosedale, 
and a cable road, double track, about one 
and three-fourths of a mile long. 

The Mt. Adams & Eden Park Inclined 
R.R. Co. of Cincinnati, O., are building 
and will have in operation July 15th one 



and one half miles of cable road. It is 
built under patents of H. M. Lane, M.E. 

The Milwaukee (Wis.) City Ry. Co. 
will extend their track four blocks, to the 
Base Ball Park. They are relaying most of 
their fifteen miles double track with 45 
pound steel rails and cobble stone paving. 

The Brownell & Wright Car Company, 
St. Louis, haye just closed with the Louis- 
ville City Railway, Louisville, Ky. , for the 
equipment of their new line, the contract 
calling for cars finer in finish than any now 
in use. 

Los Angeles, (Cal. ) has three new stroet 
railways, viz: — The Main Street and Agri- 
cultural Park Railway; the Central Railroad, 
and the Boyle Heights Bailroad. The City 
Railroad Co., of that city intend to extend 
their line three miles. 

The Harlem Bridge, Morrisaina and 
Fordham Railway Co. of this city, have 
just completed a double track on east 138th 
street, from No. 3rd ave. to Long Island 
Sound, and are now purchasing the equip- 
ment to operate the new line. 

The Brownell & Wright Car Company, 
St. Louis, have now in course of comple- 
tion cars for Canton, Ohio ; Little Rock, 
Ark. ; Galesburg, Rl. ; Oshkosh, Wis. , and 
Louisville, Ky. , besides those for four dif- 
ferent companies in St. Louis. 

Work was commenced May 1, on the 
Aushnet Street Railway; also on the Lorri- 
mer street and Greenpoint Ferry Radroad. 
Mi-. Wniiam P. Craig, the contractor, writes 
us he expects to have both roads completed 
and running by June fifteenth. 

'Ihe Nashville and Edgefield Street 
Railway Co. are thinking of replacing their 
sixteen pouud iron rails with sixteen or 
twenty pound steel rails. They own a su- 
burban park, base ball ground, etc., which 
they make attractive to the public. 

The South Brooklyn Central City 
Railroad Co. will change their line from 
Hamdton to South Ferry via Atlantic Ave- 
nue, and by transfer, take passengers for 
one fare to Hamilton, Wall Street, Fulton 
and Catherine Ferries, or to the bridge. 

The Wales Mfg. Co., Syracuse, N. Y. 
has recently filled orders for their new fare 
boxes, for Metropolitan R. R. Co., Wash- 
ington, D. O, Lombard & South Street 
R. R. Co., Plfila., and the Harlem Bridge, 
Morrisania & Fordham St. Railway Co. , of 
New York. 

The Bourbon County Street Railroad 
Co., Fort Scott, (Kan.) is for sale, on ac- 
count of the poor health of the owner. He 
will build an extension of two rniles this 
season if he does not find a purchaser at 
once. It is a good opening for a live horse 
railroad man. 

The Street Railway from Waterford to 
Cohoes (N. Y.) has been leased to and is 
operated by the Troy and Lansingburgh 
R.R. Co. The latter company has com- 
pleted a new stable and will replace their 
old iron with steel rails on about two 
miles of their road. 

M. M. White & Company, New York, 
among recent orders have made White 
Automatic Switches for the Atlantic Ave- 



nue, Brooklyn, Brooklyn City, Second 
Avenue, New York and Union, of Provi- 
dence. The firm has some interesting work 
in progress in New York. 

The Brooklyn City Railroad Co. has con- 
tracted with Mr. Joseph Campbell for new 
stables and other conveniences, to be erected 
at the corner of Halsey street and Broadway. 
They are to be completed by Sept. 1st, and 
will be among the most complete and com- 
fortable buildings of that class in the coun- 
try. 

The Winnipeg Street Railway Co., 
Manitoba (Can.) is the only street railway 
in Manitoba or the North Western Territo- 
ries. They are building a double track on 
Main street, also block paving it. The 
street is 132 feet wide and the tracks are 
twenty feet apart, with the sewer between 
the tracks. 

The Central Railroad Co., of San 
Francisco (Cal.) contemplate making a 
cable road of their two-horse line, three 
mdes. They are running parallell with and 
in opposition to four cable roads. The 
cable roads all pay. While the company 
using horses make as good time they are 
losing money. 

The Citizens' St. Ry. Co. recently or- 
ganized in Rochester, New York, have 
elected the following officers : Pres. Wm. 
H. Jones ; Sec. and Treas. J. E. Pierpont. 
S. A. Green, for two years past superintend- 
ent of the Rochester City & Brighton road, 
was the originator of the scheme and will 
probably be the superintendent. 

The Brownell & Wright Car Company, 
St. Louis, have recently shipped to the 
Minneapolis Street Railway of Minneapolis, 
Minn., some of the most elegantly finished 
street cars now in sex-vice. The interior fin- 
ish of these cars was mahogany and other 
choice woods, relieved by beveled plate 
glass mirrors. The effect was rich and ele- 
gant. 

The Beaver Valley Street Railway 
Co. is a new company, chartered Sept. 22d, 
1884. They broke ground May 5th and 
wdl complete their road, three and one- 
tenth miles in length, and equipment this 
season. M. L. Knight is superintendent of 
construction of buildings, and J. C. Whit- 
tle, superintendent of construction of the 
road. 

The Brownell <fc Wright Car Company, 
St. Louis, have just completed an equip- 
ment of summer cars for the Olive Street 
line, St. Louis, one of the most important 
in the citv. They are also budding the cars 
or the new line to Forest Park, as well as 
those for the new cable line now in process 
of construction ; also some summer cars for 
the Bellefontaine Road. 

The Woodland Ave. & West Side St. 
R.R. Co. of Cleveland, O, have recently 
completed a slated roofed frame barn for 
one hundred horses ; and added three open 
cars to their rolling stock. The cars are 
twenty-four foot length, manufactured by 
J. M. Jones' sons, West Troy, N.Y. Among 
other improvements, the company will build 
a one mile track extension and relay two 
miles of traek in June. 



172 



THE STEEET RAILWAY JOURNAL. 



[June, 1885. 



The Jebsey City and Bebgen (N. J.) 
R. E. Co. will during this summer lay about 
450 tons of steel rail, which they have on 
hand. About one third of this quantity will 
be used in new construction, and the rest in 
repairs. It is expected to erect new stable, 
car house, etc., at GreenvLle, N. J., with 
stalls for 200 horses, during the summer. 
The company's equipment will then be in- 
creased. 

The Montgomery (Ala. ) Stbeet Bail- 
way Company is in receipt of eight new cars, 
four coaches and four open cars, which will 
be put to work at once. The fare will be 
five cents to any part of the city. The track 
is laid and ready for business, from the 
Union Depot to the Cemetery gate — a dis- 
tance of one mile. The route is up Com- 
merce street on Dexter Avenue, thence to 
Madison street, and thence east to the cem- 
etery. 

"The John Stephenson Company, Lim- 
ited," have at the New Orleans Exposition 
a tram car (close) excelling, it is claimed, all 
former street cars, for which the jury haye 
made the following awards : tram car (close), 
medal of first class ; tram car conductor's 
telephone, medal of first class ; tram car, 
with ventilating ceiling, medal of first class ; 
tram car window sash with metal and rub- 
ber stiles, medal of first class ; tram car ad- 
justable brake handle, honorable mention. 

The 42d Stbeet, St. Nicholas and Man- 
hattanville line has displaced its one-horse 
cars from the Grand Central Depot to 72d 
Street, and put on two-horse cars of the 
best make. They are patronized beyond 
the expectations of the directors. They ex- 
pect to run through to Manhattan (the 
"ville" is no longer "good form") in about 
two weeks. Immediately after this event 
the company will extend the line from 129th 
Street, Manhattan, via St. Nicholas Avenue 
and 11th Street to the Astoria Ferry, and 
the recently discarded one-horse cars will 
be put on that section of the line. 

The Sixth Ave. B.B., of New York City, 
is pronounced by people who are qualified 
to judge, to be a model of excellent manage- 
ment. Its car service is frequent and 
regular, its cars are filled with all the new 
devices which enhance the comfort and con- 
venience of passengers, and its conductors 
and drivers are obliging and well disciplined. 
The President, Mr. Curtis, is a vigorous and 
trenchant business man, but he is also cour- 
teous, approachable, and popular. Mr. E. 
E. Moore, late of the Belt Line, brings to 
his new position, as Superintendent, (suc- 
ceeding Mr. Bidgood) the railway experience 
and training of a life time. ' ' Wait, " he 
says, "'till the 'Star Eyed Goddess of Re- 
form ' has a chance to get a good hold of her 
new broom and the Sixth ave. shall be the 
best street railway in the world." 

The Chicago (111. ) Hoese & Dummy B. B. 
Co. , incorporated in 1883, have commenced 
track laying and have the track down on 
Adams Street from Fifth Avenue to the 
river on the east side and from Clinton to 
Des plains Street on the west side. On Des 
plains Street the track is laid from Adams 
to Harrison Street and they began track 



laying on Harrison Street, May 25. The 
line of road is on Adams Street from Clark 
to Des plains south, on Des plaines to Har- 
rison west, on Harrison to Western Avenue 
south, on Western Avenue to Twelveth 
Street west, on Twelveth Street to Crawford 
Avenue, (City limits). The road is equiped 
with the Johnston Bail, standard guage. 
The officers so far elected are: D. L. Huff, 
Pres., E. B. Bliss, Sec, A. C. Calkins, Tres. 
Total length of track is about five miles. 
It is said that the stockholders are among 
Chicago's most prominent capitalists and 
that there is no stock for sale. The equip- 
ments, aside from ties] and rails, have not 
yet been contracted for though bids are 
being received at this writing. The cars 
are to be of the latest style and the whole 
road equiped according to the latest im- 
provements in street railway building. 

Broadway Surface Bailway, N. Y. C. — 
After years and years of fighting, Mr. Jacob 
Sharp is at last getting his surface road on 
Broadway. Quoting from the Morning 
Journal of May 25 : "Only the down track 
is being laid, and it is expected that it will 
be down before the end of two weeks. Then 
the up track will be laid and a connection 
established from the Battery to Central 
Park. The Broadway t